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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245049/effects-of-priming-with-cytokines-on-intracellular-survival-and-replication-of-rhodococcus-equi-in-equine-macrophages
#1
Londa J Berghaus, Steeve Giguère, Angela I Bordin, Noah D Cohen
Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed people. The ability of R. equi to survive and replicate in macrophages is the basis of its pathogenicity. Limited knowledge about the role of cytokines in host defense against R. equi comes from studies in mice and the role of cytokines in intracellular survival of R. equi in equine macrophages is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of priming with interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α at various concentrations on intracellular survival of virulent R...
December 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244864/resistant-and-susceptible-responses-in-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-to-bacterial-stem-blight-caused-by-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-syringae
#2
Lev G Nemchinov, Jonathan Shao, Maya N Lee, Olga A Postnikova, Deborah A Samac
Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L). Little is known about host-pathogen interactions and host defense mechanisms. Here, individual resistant and susceptible plants were selected from cultivars Maverick and ZG9830 and used for transcript profiling at 24 and 72 hours after inoculation (hai) with the isolate PssALF3. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in resistant and susceptible genotypes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244863/a-parapoxviral-virion-protein-targets-the-retinoblastoma-protein-to-inhibit-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#3
Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sushil Khatiwada, Sabal Chaulagain, Gustavo Delhon, Daniel L Rock
Poxviruses have evolved multiple strategies to subvert signaling by Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB), a crucial regulator of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe an orf virus (ORFV) virion-associated protein, ORFV119, which inhibits NF-κB signaling very early in infection (≤ 30 min post infection). ORFV119 NF-κB inhibitory activity was found unimpaired upon translation inhibition, suggesting that virion ORFV119 alone is responsible for early interference in signaling. A C-terminal LxCxE motif in ORFV119 enabled the protein to interact with the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) a multifunctional protein best known for its tumor suppressor activity...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243387/investigation-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-magnesium-transporters-reveals-important-role-of-vacuolar-magnesium-transporter-in-regulating-fungal-virulence-factors
#4
Chen-Hao Suo, Lan-Jing Ma, Hai-Long Li, Jian-Fang Sun, Chao Li, Ming-Hui Lin, Tian-Shu Sun, Wei Du, Yan-Jian Li, Xin-Di Gao, Yang Meng, Si-Xiang Sai, Chen Ding
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that metals are critical factors for the regulation of fungal virulence in hosts. In this study, we systemically investigated the function of C. neoformans magnesium transporters in controlling the intracellular Mg balance and virulence-associated factors. We identified three Mg transporters in C. neoformans: Mgt1, Mgt2, and Mgt3. While we could not detect a Mg2+ -related growth phenotype in mgt1 and mgt3 knockout strains, a GAL7p-Mgt2 strain showed significant Mg-dependent growth defects in the presence of glucose...
December 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243124/gut-microbiome-a-new-player-in-gastrointestinal-disease
#5
Gregor Gorkiewicz, Alexander Moschen
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a diverse and host-specific gut microbial community. Whereas host-microbe interactions are based on homeostasis and mutualism, the microbiome also contributes to disease development. In this review, we summarize recent findings connecting the GI microbiome with GI disease. Starting with a description of biochemical factors shaping microbial compositions in each gut segment along the longitudinal axis, improved histological techniques enabling high resolution visualization of the spatial microbiome structure are highlighted...
December 14, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242830/interaction-of-antibiotics-with-innate-host-defense-factors-against-salmonella-enterica-serotype-newport
#6
George Sakoulas, Monika Kumaraswamy, Armin Kousha, Victor Nizet
This study examines the pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials that are used to treat Salmonella with each other and with key components of the innate immune system. Antimicrobial synergy was assessed using time-kill and checkerboard assays. Antimicrobial interactions with innate immunity were studied by employing cathelicidin LL-37, whole-blood, and neutrophil killing assays. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were found to be synergistic in vitro against Salmonella enterica serotype Newport. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin each demonstrated synergy with the human cathelicidin defense peptide LL-37 in killing Salmonella...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242771/sentinels-at-the-frontline-the-role-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Madeleine D Hu, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: Intestinal mucosal immunity is tightly regulated to ensure effective host defense against invasive microorganisms while limiting the potential for aberrant damage. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an imbalance between effector and regulatory T cell populations results in an uncontrolled inflammatory response to commensal bacteria. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are perfectly positioned within the intestinal epithelium to provide the first line of mucosal defense against luminal microbes or rapidly respond to epithelial injury...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242385/differential-regulation-of-zfp30-expression-in-murine-airway-epithelia-through-altered-binding-of-zfp148-to-rs51434084
#8
Lucas T Laudermilk, Joseph M Thomas, Samir N Kelada
Neutrophil chemotaxis to the airways is a key aspect of host response to microbes and a feature of multiple pulmonary diseases including asthma. Tight regulation of this recruitment is critical to prevent unwanted host tissue damage and inflammation. Using a mouse (Mus musculus) model of asthma applied to the Collaborative Cross (CC), we previously identified a lung gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) for Zinc finger protein 30 (Zfp30) that was also a QTL for neutrophil recruitment and the hallmark neutrophil chemokine CXCL1...
December 14, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242257/atopobium-and-fusobacterium-as-novel-candidates-for-sarcoidosis-associated-microbiota
#9
Alexandra Zimmermann, Henrik Knecht, Robert Häsler, Gernot Zissel, Karoline I Gaede, Sylvia Hofmann, Almut Nebel, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Stefan Schreiber, Annegret Fischer
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease that mainly affects the lung. A role of microbial factors in disease pathogenesis is assumed, but has not been investigated systematically in a large cohort.This cross-sectional study compared the lung microbiota of 71 patients with sarcoidosis, 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (non-infectious controls) and 10 healthy controls (HCs). Next-generation sequencing of 16S DNA was used on bronchoalveolar lavage samples to characterise the microbial composition, which was analysed for diversity and indicator species...
December 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242191/the-inducible-microrna-203-in-fish-represses-the-inflammatory-responses-to-gram-negative%C3%A2-bacteria-by-targeting-il-1-receptor-associated-kinase-4
#10
Tianjun Xu, Qing Chu, Junxia Cui, Xueyan Zhao
Innate immune responses are the first defense against pathogenic invaders. Activation and termination of these immune responses are regulated by several mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in the regulation of a spectrum of both physiological and pathological conditions, including immune responses. Although immune regulatory miRNAs networks in higher vertebrates have been well described, regulation of these responses in fish species is poorly understood in fish species...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241533/a-small-molecule-oligosaccharyltransferase-inhibitor-with-pan-flaviviral-activity
#11
Andreas S Puschnik, Caleb D Marceau, Yaw Shin Ooi, Karim Majzoub, Natalie Rinis, Joseph N Contessa, Jan E Carette
The mosquito-borne flaviviruses include important human pathogens such as dengue, Zika, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses, which pose a serious threat for global health. Recent genetic screens identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane multiprotein complexes, including the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex, as critical flavivirus host factors. Here, we show that a chemical modulator of the OST complex termed NGI-1 has promising antiviral activity against flavivirus infections. We demonstrate that NGI-1 blocks viral RNA replication and that antiviral activity does not depend on inhibition of the N-glycosylation function of the OST...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241453/bile-acid-is-a-significant-host-factor-shaping-the-gut-microbiome-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#12
Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Sha Lei, Yunjing Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Tianlu Chen, Chun Qu, Cynthia Rajani, Bing Dong, Defa Li, Wei Jia
BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria are known to regulate bile acid (BA) homeostasis via intestinal biotransformation of BAs and stimulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 through intestinal nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). On the other hand, BAs directly regulate the gut microbiota with their strong antimicrobial activities. It remains unclear, however, how mammalian BAs cross-talk with gut microbiome and shape microbial composition in a dynamic and interactive way. RESULTS: We quantitatively profiled small molecule metabolites derived from host-microbial co-metabolism in mice, demonstrating that BAs were the most significant factor correlated with microbial alterations among all types of endogenous metabolites...
December 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241030/expression-profiles-of-genes-involved-in-tlrs-and-nlrs-signaling-pathways-of-water-buffaloes-infected-with-fasciola-gigantica
#13
Fu-Kai Zhang, Jun-Ling Hou, Ai-Jiang Guo, Ai-Ling Tian, Zhao-An Sheng, Wen-Bin Zheng, Wei-Yi Huang, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Infection of ruminants and humans with Fasciola gigantica is attracting increasing attention due to its economic impact and public health significance. However, little is known of innate immune responses during F. gigantica infection. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) signaling pathways in buffaloes infected with 500F. gigantica metacercariae. Serum, liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from infected and control buffaloes at 3, 10, 28, and 70days post infection (dpi)...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240998/orthogonality-and-burdens-of-heterologous-and-gate-gene-circuits-in-e-coli
#14
Qijun Liu, Jörg Schumacher, Xinyi Wan, Chunbo Lou, Baojun Wang
Synthetic biology approaches commonly introduce heterologous gene networks into a host to predictably program cells, with the expectation of the synthetic network being orthogonal to the host background. However, introduced circuits may interfere with the host's physiology, either indirectly by posing a metabolic burden and/or through unintended direct interactions between parts of the circuit with those of the host, affecting functionality. Here we used RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis to quantify the interactions between a representative heterologous AND gate circuit and the host Escherichia coli under various conditions including circuit designs and plasmid copy numbers...
December 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240936/grit-illness-related-distress-and-psychosocial-outcomes-in-college-students-with-a-chronic-medical-condition-a-path-analysis
#15
Christina M Sharkey, Dana M Bakula, Amanda N Baraldi, Megan N Perez, Kristina I Suorsa, John M Chaney, Larry L Mullins
Objective: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with chronic medical conditions are at increased risk for a host of negative psychosocial outcomes, including depressive and anxious symptoms. Although studies have shown that illness appraisals (e.g., illness intrusiveness [II] and illness uncertainty [IU]) demonstrate consistent associations with such outcomes, few studies have examined positive factors that may relate to better psychosocial outcomes and appraisals. The present study evaluated grit (i...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240272/amino-acid-deprivation-and-central-carbon-metabolism-regulate-the-production-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-and-tubes-by-francisella
#16
Vinaya Sampath, William D McCaig, David G Thanassi
Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. F. novicida, a model tularemia strain, produces spherical outer membrane vesicles (OMV), as well as novel tubular vesicles and extensions of the cell surface. These OMV and tubes (OMV/T) are produced in a regulated manner and contain known virulence factors. Mechanisms by which bacterial vesicles are produced and regulated are not well understood. We performed a genetic screen in F. novicida to decipher the molecular basis for regulated OMV/T formation, and identified both hypo- and hyper-vesiculating mutants...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238698/detection-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-dna-in-serum-samples-of-healthy-blood-donors
#17
Elisa Mazzoni, John C Rotondo, Luisa Marracino, Rita Selvatici, Ilaria Bononi, Elena Torreggiani, Antoine Touzé, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been detected in 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). In the host, the MCPyV reservoir remains elusive. MCPyV DNA sequences were revealed in blood donor buffy coats. In this study, MCPyV DNA sequences were investigated in the sera (n = 190) of healthy blood donors. Two MCPyV DNA sequences, coding for the viral oncoprotein large T antigen (LT), were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and DNA sequencing. Circulating MCPyV sequences were detected in sera with a prevalence of 2...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238666/preoperative-counseling-and-expectation-management-for-inflatable-penile-prosthesis-implantation
#18
REVIEW
Gopal L Narang, Bradley D Figler, Robert M Coward
The inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) is the gold standard surgical treatment for medical refractory erectile dysfunction (ED). While the modern IPP has enjoyed high satisfaction rates as a product of its continued innovation, reliability, and performance, patient dissatisfaction can still occur. IPP implantation restores physiologic function with cosmetic and psychological consequences, both of which place inherent emphasis on preoperative counseling and expectation management. This review aims to highlight the complex nature of such counseling and provide practitioners with a roadmap to navigate the landscape...
November 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238510/epidemiology-transmission-diagnosis-and-outcome-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Seyed Hamid Moosavy, Parivash Davoodian, Mirza Ali Nazarnezhad, Abdolazim Nejatizaheh, Ebrahim Eftekhar, Hamidreza Mahboobi
Hepatitis C infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disorders worldwide. Nearly three percent (3%) of the world population has an HCV infection. Prevalence of HCV infection was higher in some groups such as injected drug users (IDUs) and HIV positive populations. Acute hepatitis has proven asymptomatic in most cases, and delay of diagnosis might lead to late onset of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Some host characteristics such as age, gender, body mass index, and viral properties are associated with HCV outcome hepatitis...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238418/the-effect-of-scaling-and-root-planning-on-salivary-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-1%C3%AE-concentrations-in-patients-with-chronic-periodontitis
#20
Masoome Eivazi, Negar Falahi, Nastaran Eivazi, Mohammad Ali Eivazi, Asad Vaisi Raygani, Fatemeh Rezaei
Objective: Periodontitis is one of the main diseases in the oral cavity that causes tooth loss. The host immune response and inflammatory factors have important role in periodontal tissue. The current study was done with the objective to determine the effect of scaling and root planning on the salivary concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1-alpha (IL-1α). Methods: In this quasi-experimental clinical trial, 29 patients with chronic periodontitis and 29 healthy subjects without periodontitis were studied...
2017: Open Dentistry Journal
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