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Host factor

Christopher Browne, Anette Loeffler, Hannah Holt, Yu-Mei Chang, David H Lloyd, Amanda Nevel
Porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae adversely affects pig welfare and is associated with major economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Transmission is predominantly by direct contact but the role of indirect transmission remains poorly understood. This study examined survival of six M. hyopneumoniae isolates dried onto five different surfaces encountered in pig units, and exposed to temperatures of 4°C, 25°C and 37°C for up to 12 days. Survival of the organisms was determined by recovering the organism from the surface material and culturing in Friis broth...
October 19, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Mariaconcetta Varano, Marco Gaspari, Angela Quirino, Giovanni Cuda, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà
Ochrobactrum anthropi is a gram-negative rod belonging to the Brucellaceae family, able to colonize a variety of environments, and actually reported as a human opportunistic pathogen. Despite its low virulence, the bacterium causes a growing number of hospital-acquired infections mainly, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the global proteome changes occurring in O. anthropi in response to different growth temperatures, in order to achieve a major understanding of the mechanisms by which the bacterium adapts to different habitats and to identify some potential virulence factors...
October 18, 2016: Proteomics
Luisa F Castiblanco, George W Sundin
Bacterial biofilms are multicellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix mainly composed of exopolysaccharides (EPSs), protein, and nucleic acids, which determines the architecture of the biofilm. Erwinia amylovora Ea1189 forms a biofilm inside the xylem of its host, that results in vessel plugging and water transport impairment. Production of the EPSs amylovoran and levan are critical for the formation of a mature biofilm. Additionally, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) was reported to positively regulate amylovoran biosynthesis and biofilm formation in E...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Joana C Silva, Emmanuel Cornillot, Carrie McCracken, Sahar Usmani-Brown, Ankit Dwivedi, Olukemi O Ifeonu, Jonathan Crabtree, Hanzel T Gotia, Azan Z Virji, Christelle Reynes, Jacques Colinge, Vidya Kumar, Lauren Lawres, Joseph E Pazzi, Jozelyn V Pablo, Chris Hung, Jana Brancato, Priti Kumari, Joshua Orvis, Kyle Tretina, Marcus Chibucos, Sandy Ott, Lisa Sadzewicz, Naomi Sengamalay, Amol C Shetty, Qi Su, Luke Tallon, Claire M Fraser, Roger Frutos, Douglas M Molina, Peter J Krause, Choukri Ben Mamoun
Babesia microti, a tick-transmitted, intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite circulating mainly among small mammals, is the primary cause of human babesiosis. While most cases are transmitted by Ixodes ticks, the disease may also be transmitted through blood transfusion and perinatally. A comprehensive analysis of genome composition, genetic diversity, and gene expression profiling of seven B. microti isolates revealed that genetic variation in isolates from the Northeast United States is almost exclusively associated with genes encoding the surface proteome and secretome of the parasite...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dana Ahnood, Savitha Madhusudhan, Marie D Tsaloumas, Nadia K Waheed, Pearse A Keane, Alastair K Denniston
Punctate Inner Choroidopathy (PIC), an idiopathic inflammatory multifocal chorioretinopathy that predominantly affects young myopic women, appears to be relatively rare, but there is limited data to support accurate estimates of prevalence, and it is likely that the condition is under-diagnosed. The etiological relationship between PIC and other conditions within the 'white dot syndromes' group remains uncertain. We, like others, would suggest that PIC and multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis (MCP) represent a single disease process that is modified by host factors (including host immunoregulation) to cause the range of clinical phenotypes seen...
October 14, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
Christina R Tyler, Matthew T Labrecque, Elizabeth R Solomon, Xun Guo, Andrea M Allan
Exposure to arsenic, a common environmental toxin found in drinking water, leads to a host of neurological pathologies. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to a low level of arsenic (50ppb) alters epigenetic processes that underlie deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis leading to aberrant behavior. It is unclear if arsenic impacts the programming and regulation of embryonic neurogenesis during development when exposure occurs. The master negative regulator of neural-lineage, REST/NRSF, controls the precise timing of fate specification and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs)...
October 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Jian Huang, Lei Zhao, Ping Yang, Zhen Chen, Ni Tang, Xiong Z Ruan, Yaxi Chen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatocyte-specific DNA virus whose gene expression and replication are closely associated with hepatic metabolic processes. Thus, a potential anti-viral strategy is to target the host metabolic factors necessary for HBV gene expression and replication. Recent studies revealed that fatty acid translocase CD36 is involved in the replication, assembly, storage, and secretion of certain viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the relationship between CD36 and the HBV life cycle remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
Christian Spoerry, Pontus Hessle, Melanie J Lewis, Lois Paton, Jenny M Woof, Ulrich von Pawel-Rammingen
Recently we have discovered an IgG degrading enzyme of the endemic pig pathogen S. suis designated IgdE that is highly specific for porcine IgG. This protease is the founding member of a novel cysteine protease family assigned C113 in the MEROPS peptidase database. Bioinformatical analyses revealed putative members of the IgdE protease family in eight other Streptococcus species. The genes of the putative IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. porcinus, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus were cloned for production of recombinant protein into expression vectors...
2016: PloS One
Lan He, Priscilla T Y Law, Siaw Shi Boon, Chuqing Zhang, Wendy C S Ho, Lawrence Banks, C K Wong, Juliana C N Chan, Paul K S Chan
Epidemiological evidence supports that infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) can interact with host and environmental risk factors to contribute to the development of cervical, oropharyngeal, and other anogenital cancers. In this study, we established a mouse epithelial cancer cell line, designated as Chinese University Papillomavirus-1 (CUP-1), from C57BL/KsJ mice through persistent expression of HPV-16 E7 oncogene. After continuous culturing of up to 200 days with over 60 passages, we showed that CUP-1 became an immortalized and transformed epithelial cell line with continuous E7 expression and persistent reduction of retinoblastoma protein (a known target of E7)...
2016: PloS One
Christopher E Jones, Áine McKnight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review will discuss recent advances in the development of anti-HIV therapies inspired by studies of the mechanisms of host restriction factor-mediated resistance to HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Manipulating the interplay between host cell restriction factors and viral accessory factors that overcome them can potentially be therapeutically useful. Preliminarily successful therapies - some of which are entering clinical trials - either inhibit the ability of virus to evade restriction factor-mediated immunity, or promote intracellular levels of restriction factors...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Shuai-Yin Chen, Rong-Guang Zhang, Guang-Cai Duan
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The majority of the H. pylori-infected population remains asymptomatic, and only 1% of individuals may progress to gastric cancer. The clinical outcomes caused by H. pylori infection are considered to be associated with bacterial virulence, genetic polymorphism of hosts as well as environmental factors. Most H. pylori strains possess a cytotoxin-associated gene (cag) pathogenicity island (cagPAI), encoding a 120-140 kDa CagA protein, which is the most important bacterial oncoprotein...
October 4, 2016: Oncology Reports
Anahita Javaheri, Tobias Kruse, Kristof Moonens, Raquel Mejías-Luque, Ayla Debraekeleer, Carmen I Asche, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Behnam Kalali, Nina C Bach, Stephan A Sieber, Darryl J Hill, Verena Königer, Christof R Hauck, Roman Moskalenko, Rainer Haas, Dirk H Busch, Esther Klaile, Hortense Slevogt, Alexej Schmidt, Steffen Backert, Han Remaut, Bernhard B Singer, Markus Gerhard
Helicobacter pylori specifically colonizes the human gastric epithelium and is the major causative agent for ulcer disease and gastric cancer development. Here, we identify members of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family as receptors of H. pylori and show that HopQ is the surface-exposed adhesin that specifically binds human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6. HopQ-CEACAM binding is glycan-independent and targeted to the N-domain. H. pylori binding induces CEACAM1-mediated signalling, and the HopQ-CEACAM1 interaction enables translocation of the virulence factor CagA into host cells and enhances the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8...
October 17, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Verena Königer, Lea Holsten, Ute Harrison, Benjamin Busch, Eva Loell, Qing Zhao, Daniel A Bonsor, Alexandra Roth, Arnaud Kengmo-Tchoupa, Stella I Smith, Susanna Mueller, Eric J Sundberg, Wolfgang Zimmermann, Wolfgang Fischer, Christof R Hauck, Rainer Haas
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) strains that carry the cag type IV secretion system (cag-T4SS) to inject the cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA) into host cells are associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. CagA translocation by Hp is mediated by β1 integrin interaction of the cag-T4SS. However, other cellular receptors or bacterial outer membrane adhesins essential for this process are unknown. Here, we identify the HopQ protein as a genuine Hp adhesin, exploiting defined members of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule family (CEACAMs) as host cell receptors...
October 17, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Harald Marx, Catherine E Minogue, Dhileepkumar Jayaraman, Alicia L Richards, Nicholas W Kwiecien, Alireza F Sihapirani, Shanmugam Rajasekar, Junko Maeda, Kevin Garcia, Angel R Del Valle-Echevarria, Jeremy D Volkening, Michael S Westphall, Sushmita Roy, Michael R Sussman, Jean-Michel Ané, Joshua J Coon
Legumes are essential components of agricultural systems because they enrich the soil in nitrogen and require little environmentally deleterious fertilizers. A complex symbiotic association between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia culminates in the development of root nodules, where rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer it to their plant host. Here we describe a quantitative proteomic atlas of the model legume Medicago truncatula and its rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, which includes more than 23,000 proteins, 20,000 phosphorylation sites, and 700 lysine acetylation sites...
October 17, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Wei-Shan Hung, Pin Ling, Ju-Chien Cheng, Shy-Shin Chang, Ching-Ping Tseng
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a pivotal role in the host response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we elucidated whether the endocytic adaptor protein Disabled-2 (Dab2), which is abundantly expressed in macrophages, plays a role in LPS-stimulated TLR4 signaling and trafficking. Molecular analysis and transcriptome profiling of RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells expressing short-hairpin RNA of Dab2 revealed that Dab2 regulated the TLR4/TRIF pathway upon LPS stimulation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Petya Berger, Michael Knödler, Konrad U Förstner, Michael Berger, Christian Bertling, Cynthia M Sharma, Jörg Vogel, Helge Karch, Ulrich Dobrindt, Alexander Mellmann
Escherichia coli O104:H4 (E. coli O104:H4), which caused a massive outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2011, carries an aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) encoding virulence plasmid, pAA. The importance of pAA in host-pathogen interaction and disease severity has been demonstrated, however, not much is known about its transcriptional organization and gene regulation. Here, we analyzed the pAA primary transcriptome using differential RNA sequencing, which allows for the high-throughput mapping of transcription start site (TSS) and non-coding RNA candidates...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kan Xing Wu, Patchara Phuektes, Pankaj Kumar, Germaine Yen Lin Goh, Dimitri Moreau, Vincent Tak Kwong Chow, Frederic Bard, Justin Jang Hann Chu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic enterovirus without antivirals or vaccine, and its host-pathogen interactions remain poorly understood. Here we use a human genome-wide RNAi screen to identify 256 host factors involved in EV71 replication in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Enrichment analyses reveal overrepresentation in processes like mitotic cell cycle and transcriptional regulation. We have carried out orthogonal experiments to characterize the roles of selected factors involved in cell cycle regulation and endoplasmatic reticulum-associated degradation...
October 17, 2016: Nature Communications
Maria Letizia Di Martino, Maurizio Falconi, Gioacchino Micheli, Bianca Colonna, Gianni Prosseda
Shigella is a highly adapted human pathogen, mainly found in the developing world and causing a severe enteric syndrome. The highly sophisticated infectious strategy of Shigella banks on the capacity to invade the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause its inflammatory destruction. The cellular pathogenesis and clinical presentation of shigellosis are the sum of the complex action of a large number of bacterial virulence factors mainly located on a large virulence plasmid (pINV). The expression of pINV genes is controlled by multiple environmental stimuli through a regulatory cascade involving proteins and sRNAs encoded by both the pINV and the chromosome...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Vincent Doublet, Robert J Paxton, Cynthia M McDonnell, Emeric Dubois, Sabine Nidelet, Robin F A Moritz, Cédric Alaux, Yves Le Conte
Regulation of gene expression in the brain plays an important role in behavioral plasticity and decision making in response to external stimuli. However, both can be severely affected by environmental factors, such as parasites and pathogens. In honey bees, the emergence and re-emergence of pathogens and potential for pathogen co-infection and interaction have been suggested as major components that significantly impaired social behavior and survival. To understand how the honey bee is affected and responds to interacting pathogens, we co-infected workers with two prevalent pathogens of different nature, the positive single strand RNA virus Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and the Microsporidia Nosema ceranae, and explored gene expression changes in brains upon single infections and co-infections...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Nicholas R Dunham, Scott Reed, Dale Rollins, Ronald J Kendall
Debilitating ocular diseases are often reported in avian species. By and large, helminth parasites have been overlooked in avian diseases and regarded as inconsequential. The decline of Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas has prompted an investigation of the factors influencing their disappearance. Infection by the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) has been documented in many avian species; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. Heavy eyeworm infection has been documented in Northern bobwhites throughout this ecoregion, leading to eye pathology in this host species...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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