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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045902/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-expression-licenses-type-2-helper-t-cells-to-function-in-a-t-cell-receptor-independent-fashion
#1
Carlos M Minutti, Sebastian Drube, Natalie Blair, Christian Schwartz, Jame C McCrae, Andrew N McKenzie, Thomas Kamradt, Michal Mokry, Paul J Coffer, Maria Sibilia, Alice J Sijts, Padraic G Fallon, Rick M Maizels, Dietmar M Zaiss
Gastro-intestinal helminth infections trigger the release of interleukin-33 (IL-33), which induces type-2 helper T cells (Th2 cells) at the site of infection to produce IL-13, thereby contributing to host resistance in a T cell receptor (TCR)-independent manner. Here, we show that, as a prerequisite for IL-33-induced IL-13 secretion, Th2 cells required the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and of its ligand, amphiregulin, for the formation of a signaling complex between T1/ST2 (the IL-33R) and EGFR...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045886/poly-amidoamine-pamam-dendrimers-as-a-pharmaceutical-excipient-are-we-there-yet
#2
REVIEW
Daniel P Otto, Melgardt M de Villiers
Drug solubility could affect the therapeutic use of a drug because the biological activity of a drug is only possible if some fraction of a dissolved drug can permeate and overcome biological membranes to reach its site of action. The solubility-permeation interplay is therefore, probably the most important factor in determining a successful therapeutic outcome of any drug because more than 40% of marketed drugs and more than 70% of pipeline drugs show poor water solubility. Several solubilization techniques are used and include, balancing of pH-pKa properties, employment of cosolvents and the solubilization by host-guest carriers...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045829/escaping-host-factor-pi4kb-inhibition-enterovirus-genomic-rna-replication-in-the-absence-of-replication-organelles
#3
Charlotte E Melia, Hilde M van der Schaar, Heyrhyoung Lyoo, Ronald W A L Limpens, Qian Feng, Maryam Wahedi, Gijs J Overheul, Ronald P van Rij, Eric J Snijder, Abraham J Koster, Montserrat Bárcena, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
Enteroviruses reorganize cellular endomembranes into replication organelles (ROs) for genome replication. Although enterovirus replication depends on phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIIβ (PI4KB), its role, and that of its product, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), is only partially understood. Exploiting a mutant coxsackievirus resistant to PI4KB inhibition, we show that PI4KB activity has distinct functions both in proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein and in RO biogenesis. The escape mutation rectifies a proteolytic processing defect imposed by PI4KB inhibition, pointing to a possible escape mechanism...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045737/comparative-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-of-culex-restuans-diptera-culicidae-females-from-different-parents
#4
Ephantus J Muturi, Jose L Ramirez, Alejandro P Rooney, Chang-Hyun Kim, Brenda Beerntsen
The potential for gut microbiota to impede or enhance pathogen transmission is well-documented but the factors that shape this microbiota in mosquito vectors are poorly understood. We characterized and compared the gut microbiota of adult females of Culex restuans (Theobald; Diptera: Culicidae) from different parents. Cx. restuans larvae from nine field-collected egg rafts were reared on a common diet and gut microbiota of newly emerged adult females characterized by MiSeq sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045404/transcriptomic-responses-of-biomphalaria-pfeifferi-to-schistosoma-mansoni-investigation-of-a-neglected-african-snail-that-supports-more-s-mansoni-transmission-than-any-other-snail-species
#5
Sarah K Buddenborg, Lijing Bu, Si-Ming Zhang, Faye D Schilkey, Gerald M Mkoji, Eric S Loker
BACKGROUND: Biomphalaria pfeifferi is highly compatible with the widespread human-infecting blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and transmits more cases of this parasite to people than any other snail species. For these reasons, B. pfeifferi is the world's most important vector snail for S. mansoni, yet we know relatively little at the molecular level regarding the interactions between B. pfeifferi and S. mansoni from early-stage sporocyst transformation to the development of cercariae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sought to capture a portrait of the response of B...
October 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044899/a-ph-dependent-mechanically-interlocked-switch-organometallic-2-rotaxane-vs-organic-3-rotaxane
#6
Philipp Johannes Altmann, Alexander Pöthig
We present the first [2]rotaxane featuring an organometallic host. In contrast to the known organic scaffolds, this assembly shows a high post-synthetic modifiability: The reactivity of the Ag8-pillarplex host is fully retained as is exemplified by the first transmetallation in a rotaxane framework to the respective Au8-analogue. Additionally, an acidic transformation to a purely organic [3]rotaxane is demonstrated which is reversible upon addition of an adequate base - rendering the assembly a pH-dependent switch...
October 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044873/unbiased-random-mutagenesis-contributes-to-a-better-understanding-of-the-virulent-behaviour-of-paenibacillus-larvae
#7
Tine Descamps, Lina De Smet, Paul De Vos, Dirk C de Graaf
AIMS: American foulbrood, caused by the gram-positive bacteria Paenibacillus larvae, is one of the most severe bacterial diseases of the European honey bee. The bacterium has been known for long, but only the last decade the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause disease in its host are starting to unravel. In this study the knowledge of this virulent behavior is expanded and several possible virulence factors are suggested. METHODS AND RESULTS: Identification of possible virulence factors has been done by random mutagenesis to ensure an unbiased approach...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044155/enterococci-mediate-the-oviposition-preference-of-drosophila-melanogaster-through-sucrose-catabolism
#8
Wei Liu, Ke Zhang, Yujuan Li, Wanzhen Su, Kunkun Hu, Shan Jin
Sucrose, one of the main products of photosynthesis in plants, functions as a universal biomarker for nutritional content and maturity of different fruits across diverse ecological niches. Drosophila melanogaster congregates to lay eggs in rotting fruits, yet the factors that influence these decisions remains uncovered. Here, we report that lactic acid bacteria Enterococci are critical modulators to attract Drosophila to lay eggs on decaying food. Drosophila-associated Enterococci predominantly catabolize sucrose for growing their population in fly food, and thus generate a unique ecological niche with depleted sucrose, but enriched bacteria...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043875/consolidation-therapy-with-decitabine-and-intermediate-dose-cytarabine-followed-by-hla-mismatched-peripheral-blood-stem-cells-infusion-for-older-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-first-remission
#9
Wei-Yang Li, Ying Wang, Su-Ning Chen, Hui-Ying Qiu, Zheng-Zheng Fu, De-Pei Wu, Ai-Ning Sun
This retrospective study tested the feasibility of decitabine (DAC) plus intermediate-dose cytarabine (ID-AraC) followed by HLA-mismatched granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral donor blood stem cells (GPBSCs) infusion as consolidation treatment for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR). A total of 23 patients received this regimen for 3 cycles (D-GPBSCs group), and the outcome was compared with that of 19 patients treated with repeated cycles of ID-AraC chemotherapy (chemo group)...
October 18, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043347/zinc-ing-it-out-zinc-homeostasis-mechanisms-and-their-impact-on-the-pathogenesis-of-human-pathogen-group-a-streptococcus
#10
REVIEW
Nishanth Makthal, Muthiah Kumaraswami
Group A Streptococccus (GAS) is a major human pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Zinc is an essential trace element required for GAS growth, however, zinc can be toxic at excess concentrations. The bacterial strategies to maintain zinc sufficiency without incurring zinc toxicity play a crucial role in host-GAS interactions and have a significant impact on GAS pathogenesis. The host deploys nutritional immune mechanisms to retard GAS growth by causing either zinc deprivation or zinc poisoning...
October 18, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043040/marine-protected-area-restricts-demographic-connectivity-dissimilarity-in-a-marine-environment-can-function-as-a-biological-barrier
#11
Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Honda, Wilfredo H Uy, Darwin I Baslot, Tom G Genovia, Yohei Nakamura, Lawrence Patrick C Bernardo, Hiroyuki Kurokochi, Allyn Duvin S Pantallano, Chunlan Lian, Kazuo Nadaoka, Masahiro Nakaoka
The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) can often lead to environmental differences between MPAs and fishing zones. To determine the effects on marine dispersal of environmental dissimilarity between an MPA and fishing zone, we examined the abundance and recruitment patterns of two anemonefishes (Amphiprion frenatus and A. perideraion) that inhabit sea anemones in different management zones (i.e., an MPA and two fishing zones) by performing a field survey and a genetic parentage analysis. We found lower levels of abundance per anemone in the MPA compared to the fishing zones for both species (n = 1,525 anemones, p = ...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042578/%C3%AE-defensin-1-expression-in-hcv-infected-liver-liver-cancer-an-important-role-in-protecting-hcv-progression-and-liver-cancer-development
#12
Yue-Ming Ling, Jin-Yu Chen, Libin Guo, Chen-Yi Wang, Wen-Ting Tan, Qing Wen, Shu-Dong Zhang, Guo-Hong Deng, Yao Lin, Hang Fai Kwok
β-defensin family plays a role in host defense against viral infection, however its role in HCV infection is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that β-defensin 1 was significantly reduced in HCV-infected liver specimens. Treatment with interferon and ribavirin upregulated β-defensin-1, but not other β-defensin tested, with the extent and duration of upregulation associated with treatment response. We investigated β-defensin family expression in liver cancer in publicly available datasets and found that among all the β-defensins tested, only β-defensin 1 was significantly downregulated, suggesting β-defensin 1 plays a crucial role in liver cancer development...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042499/activation-of-the-listeria-monocytogenes-virulence-program-by-a-reducing-environment
#13
Jonathan L Portman, Samuel B Dubensky, Bret N Peterson, Aaron T Whiteley, Daniel A Portnoy
Upon entry into the host cell cytosol, the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes coordinates the expression of numerous essential virulence factors by allosteric binding of glutathione (GSH) to the Crp-Fnr family transcriptional regulator PrfA. Here, we report that robust virulence gene expression can be recapitulated by growing bacteria in a synthetic medium containing GSH or other chemical reducing agents. Bacteria grown under these conditions were 45-fold more virulent in an acute murine infection model and conferred greater immunity to a subsequent lethal challenge than bacteria grown in conventional media...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042494/insights-from-the-genome-sequence-of-mycobacterium-lepraemurium-massive-gene-decay-and-reductive-evolution
#14
Andrej Benjak, Tanvi P Honap, Charlotte Avanzi, Enrique Becerril-Villanueva, Iris Estrada-García, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa, Anne C Stone, Stewart T Cole
Mycobacterium lepraemurium is the causative agent of murine leprosy, a chronic, granulomatous disease similar to human leprosy. Due to the similar clinical manifestations of human and murine leprosy and the difficulty of growing both bacilli axenically, Mycobacterium leprae and M. lepraemurium were once thought to be closely related, although it was later suggested that M. lepraemurium might be related to Mycobacterium avium In this study, the complete genome of M. lepraemurium was sequenced using a combination of PacBio and Illumina sequencing...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042204/antibody-response-to-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-and-natural-exposure-in-individuals-with-fanconi-anemia
#15
Parinda A Mehta, Sharon Sauter, Xue Zhang, Stella M Davies, Suzanne I Wells, Kasiani C Myers, Gitika Panicker, Elizabeth R Unger, Melinda Butsch Kovacic
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder associated with predisposition to head and neck and gynecological squamous cell cancers. In the general population, these cancers are commonly linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Antibodies to natural HPV infection and HPV vaccination were evaluated in 63 individuals with FA while considering host immune factors. Approximately 30% of reportedly unvaccinated participants were seropositive (HPV6-38%, HPV11-25%, HPV16-26%, and HPV18-26%). Seropositivity was significantly associated with having had sex regardless of age (p=...
October 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040738/nf90-nf45-is-a-selective-rna-chaperone-that-rearranges-viral-and-cellular-riboswitches-biochemical-analysis-of-a-virus-host-factor-activity
#16
Tobias Schmidt, Susann Friedrich, Ralph Peter Golbik, Sven-Erik Behrens
The heterodimer NF90-NF45 is an RNA-binding protein complex that modulates the expression of various cellular mRNAs on the post-transcriptional level. Furthermore, it acts as a host factor that supports the replication of several RNA viruses. The molecular mechanisms underlying these activities have yet to be elucidated. Recently, we showed that the RNA-binding capabilities and binding specificity of NF90 considerably improves when it forms a complex with NF45. Here, we demonstrate that NF90 has a substrate-selective RNA chaperone activity (RCA) involving RNA annealing and strand displacement activities...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040629/elongation-factor-1%C3%AE-accurately-reconstructs-relationships-amongst-psyllid-families-hemiptera-psylloidea-with-possible-diagnostic-implications
#17
Francesco Martoni, Simon R Bulman, Andrew Pitman, Karen F Armstrong
The superfamily Psylloidea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) lacks a robust multigene phylogeny. This impedes our understanding of the evolution of this group of insects and, consequently, an accurate identification of individuals, of their plant host associations, and their roles as vectors of economically important plant pathogens. The conserved nuclear gene elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) has been valuable as a higher-level phylogenetic marker in insects and it has also been widely used to investigate the evolution of intron/exon structure...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040501/tissue-damage-induced-midgut-stem-cell-proliferation-and-microbial-dysbiosis-in-spodoptera-litura
#18
Neeti Pandey, Raman Rajagopal
In the past decade, gut microbiota has come to the fore in search for the cause of disregulation in intestinal homeostasis. Here, we report a possible link between gut microbial dynamics and stress inducing factors using the leaf worm moth Spodoptera litura as a model organism. Investigation reveals that S. litura exhibits dysbiosis i.e. alteration in the gut microbiota composition that might induce or suppress inflammation upon exposure to dextran sulfate, sodium salt, a tissue damaging agent (DSS, 40kD). It primarily corresponds to an expansion of the bacterial phylotypes Enterobacter sp...
October 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040466/outer-inflammatory-protein-a-oipa-of-helicobacter-pylori-is-regulated-by-host-cell-contact-and-mediates-caga-translocation-and-interleukin-8-response-only-in-the-presence-of-a-functional-cag-pathogenicity-island-type-iv-secretion-system
#19
Danielle N Horridge, Allison A Begley, June Kim, Neeraja Aravindan, Kexin Fan, Mark H Forsyth
OipA is a phase variable virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. Mutations in oipA to turn the gene phase on in a cag pathogenicity island (PAI) negative strain of H. pylori (J68), or phase off in a cag PAI positive strain (26695) demonstrated that phase on oipA alleles in both strains had both increased oipA mRNA and AGS cell adherence compared to isogenic oipA phase off mutants. An oipA phase off mutant of H. pylori 26695 demonstrated decreased IL-8 secretion by AGS cells and failure to translocate the cag PAI effector, CagA...
October 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040327/epizootic-to-enzootic-transition-of-a-fungal-disease-in-tropical-andean-frogs-are-surviving-species-still-susceptible
#20
Alessandro Catenazzi, Andrea Swei, Jacob Finkle, Emily Foreyt, Lauren Wyman, Vance T Vredenburg
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to catastrophic amphibian declines throughout the world. Amphibians differ in their vulnerability to chytridiomycosis; some species experience epizootics followed by collapse while others exhibit stable host/pathogen dynamics where most amphibian hosts survive in the presence of Bd (e.g., in the enzootic state). Little is known about the factors that drive the transition between the two disease states within a community, or whether populations of species that survived the initial epizootic are stable, yet this information is essential for conservation and theory...
2017: PloS One
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