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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528440/the-human-cmv-ie1-protein-an-offender-of-pml-nuclear-bodies
#1
Myriam Scherer, Eva-Maria Schilling, Thomas Stamminger
PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are SUMOylation-dependent, highly complex protein assemblies that accumulate in the interchromosomal territories of the cell nucleus. Research of the last two decades revealed that many viruses have evolved effector proteins that modify PML-NBs. This correlates with antagonization of individual PML-NB components which act as host cell restriction factors. The multifunctional immediate-early protein IE1 of human cytomegalovirus directly interacts with the PML protein resulting in a disruption of the dot-like structure of PML-NBs...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528438/herpes-simplex-virus-membrane-fusion
#2
Darin J Weed, Anthony V Nicola
Herpes simplex virus mediates multiple distinct fusion events during infection. HSV entry is initiated by fusion of the viral envelope with either the limiting membrane of a host cell endocytic compartment or the plasma membrane. In the infected cell during viral assembly, immature, enveloped HSV particles in the perinuclear space fuse with the outer nuclear membrane in a process termed de-envelopment. A cell infected with some strains of HSV with defined mutations spread to neighboring cells by a fusion event called syncytium formation...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528307/extracellular-atp-is-a-key-modulator-of-alveolar-bone-loss-in-periodontitis
#3
REVIEW
Itzhak Binderman, Nasir Gadban, Avinoam Yaffe
Periodontal diseases are initiated by pathogenic bacterial biofilm activity that induces a host inflammatory cells immune response, degradation of dento gingival fibrous tissue and its detachment from root cementum. It is well accepted, that osteoclastic alveolar bone loss is governed exclusively through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that once degradation of collagen fibers by MMPs occurs, a drop of cellular strains cause immediate release of ATP from marginal gingival fibroblasts, cell deformation and influx of Ca+2...
May 13, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527984/personalized-prognostic-risk-score-for-long-term-survival-for-children-with-acute-leukemia-after-allogeneic-transplant
#4
Menachem Bitan, Kwang Woo Ahn, Heather R Millard, Michael A Pulsipher, Hisham Abdel-Azim, Jeffery J Auletta, Valerie Brown, Ka Wah Chan, Miguel Angel Diaz, Andrew Dietz, Marta González Vincent, Gregory Guilcher, Gregory A Hale, Robert J Hayashi, Amy Keating, Parinda Mehta, Kasiani Myers, Kristin Page, Tim Prestidge, Nirali N Shah, Angela R Smith, Ann Woolfrey, Elizabeth Thiel, Stella M Davies, Mary Eapen
We studied leukemia-free (LFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with acute myeloid (AML; n=790) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n=1096), transplanted between 2000 and 2010, who survived for at least 1 year in remission after related or unrelated donor transplantation. Analysis of patient-, disease- and transplantation characteristics and acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) were performed to identify factors with adverse effects on LFS and OS. These data were used to develop risk scores for survival...
May 17, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527797/mir-26b-promoter-analysis-reveals-regulatory-mechanisms-by-lipid-related-transcription-factors-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#5
Hui Wang, Jun Luo, Qiuya He, Dawei Yao, Jiao Wu, Juan J Loor
MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate protein abundance and control diverse aspects of cellular processes and biological functions associated with lipid metabolism. MiR-26b and its host gene CTDSP1 regulate triacylglycerol synthesis by synergistically suppressing the insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1); however, the direct regulators of miR-26b expression remain unknown. In the present study, we characterized the activity of a novel putative promoter region in miR-26b. Results revealed that promoter activity and miR-26b expression are dynamically regulated by different transcription factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), and liver X receptor α (LXRα)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527761/bead-based-flow-cytometry-for-semi-quantitative-analysis-of-complex-membrane-vesicle-populations-released-by-bacteria-and-host-cells
#6
Charlotte Volgers, Birke J Benedikter, Gert E Grauls, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
During infection, the release of nano-sized membrane vesicle is a process which is common both for bacteria and host cells. Host cell-derived membrane vesicles can be involved in innate and adaptive immunity whereas bacterial membrane vesicles can contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. To study the contribution of both membrane vesicle populations during infection is highly complicated as most vesicles fall within a similar size range of 30-300nm. Specialized techniques for purification are required and often no single technique complies on its own...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527401/prognostic-factors-on-graft-versus-host-disease-free-and-relapse-free-survival-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-adults-with-acute-leukemia
#7
Jie Tan, Ya Wang, Si-Jian Yu, Yong-Yong Ma, Hu-Yi Lei, Qi-Fa Liu
The cure of acute leukemia by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is closely linked to major complications leading to adverse outcomes, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), disease relapse and death. This study retrospectively investigated a consecutive series of 312 adult patients with acute leukemia receiving allo-HSCT by using a novel concept of GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS), and further evaluated the impact of clinical factors on GRFS. Results indicated that the 1- and 2-year GRFS were 54...
May 12, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527285/-genetic-diversity-of-extraintestinal-escherichia-coli-strains-producers-of-beta-lactamases-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-associated-with-healthcare
#8
Yasmin Varela, Beatriz Millán, María Araque
INTRODUCTION: There are few reports from Venezuela describing the genetic basis that sustains the pathogenic potential and phylogenetics of Escherichia coli extraintestinal strains isolated in health care units. OBJECTIVE: To establish the genetic diversity of extraintestinal E. coli strains producers of betalactamases TEM, SHV and CTX-M associated with healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a collection of 12 strains of extraintestinal E...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526861/shedding-of-host-autophagic-proteins-from-the-parasitophorous-vacuolar-membrane-of-plasmodium-berghei
#9
Carolina Agop-Nersesian, Mariana De Niz, Livia Niklaus, Monica Prado, Nina Eickel, Volker T Heussler
The hepatic stage of the malaria parasite Plasmodium is accompanied by an autophagy-mediated host response directly targeting the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) harbouring the parasite. Removal of the PVM-associated autophagic proteins such as ubiquitin, p62, and LC3 correlates with parasite survival. Yet, it is unclear how Plasmodium avoids the deleterious effects of selective autophagy. Here we show that parasites trap host autophagic factors in the tubovesicular network (TVN), an expansion of the PVM into the host cytoplasm...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526795/exploring-a-possible-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-feed-efficiency-in-pigs
#10
Ursula M McCormack, Tânia Curião, Stefan G Buzoianu, Maria L Prieto, Tomas Ryan, Patrick Varley, Fiona Crispie, Elizabeth Magowan, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Donagh Berry, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Feed efficiency (FE) is critical in pig production for both economic and environmental reasons. As the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in energy harvest, it is likely to influence FE. Our aim was therefore to characterize the intestinal microbiota of pigs ranked as low, medium and high residual feed intake (RFI; a metric for FE), where genetic, nutritional and management effects were minimized, in order to explore a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE. Eighty one pigs were ranked on RFI between weaning and day 126 post-weaning, and 32 were selected as the extremes in RFI (12 low, 10 medium, 10 high)...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526785/effects-of-arginine-on-growth-virulence-gene-expression-and-stress-tolerance-by-streptococcus-mutans
#11
Brinta Chakraborty, Robert A Burne
Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of oral biofilms and a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries. The bacteria associated with dental caries have a potent ability to produce organic acids from dietary carbohydrates and to grow and metabolize in acidic conditions. In contrast, many commensal bacteria produce ammonia through the arginine deiminase system (ADS), which moderates the pH of oral biofilms. Arginine metabolism by the ADS is a significant deterrent to the initiation and progression of dental caries...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526606/identification-of-emsox2-a-member-of-the-sox-family-of-transcription-factors-as-a-potential-regulator-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-germinative-cells
#12
Zhe Cheng, Fan Liu, Mengya Dai, Jianjian Wu, Xiu Li, Xinrui Guo, Huimin Tian, Zhijie Heng, Ying Lu, Xiaoli Chai, Yanhai Wang
Larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most lethal helminthic infections in humans. The germinative cells, a population of stem cell-like cells, are considered to drive the continuous growth of the metacestodes within the host. The mechanisms and relative molecules controlling the behavior of germinative cells are poorly understood. Sox transcription factors play important roles in maintenance and regulation of stem/progenitor cells. We here describe the identification of a Sox family member in E...
May 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526442/comparative-study-of-interleukin-17c-il-17c-and-il-17d-in-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea-reveals-their-similar-but-differential-functional-activity
#13
Yang Ding, Jingqun Ao, Xinhua Chen
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) family members are key players in regulating the immune response in mammals. Here, we identified the IL-17C and IL-17D homologs from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), named LcIL-17C and LcIL-17D, respectively. The deduced LcIL-17C and LcIL-17D proteins possessed the typical IL-17 domain and shared a conserved arrangement of eight cysteine residues. Both LcIL-17C and LcIL-17Dc genes were constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, although at different levels. After challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, the expression of LcIL-17C and LcIL-17D was significantly increased in gills, head kidney, and spleen...
May 16, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525619/epidemiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-invasive-mould-infections-a-multicenter-retrospective-analysis-in-five-asian-countries
#14
R Porpon, Y C Chen, A Chakrabarti, R Y Li, R M Shivaprakash, J Yu, H C Kung, S Watcharananan, A L Tan, S E Saffari, B H Tan
Formal, large-scale, multicenter studies of invasive mould infection (IMI) in Asia are rare. This 1-year, retrospective study was designed to assess the incidence and clinical determinants of IMI in centers in five countries (Thailand, Taiwan, Singapore, China, India). Patients treated in a single year (2012) were identified through discharge diagnoses, microbiology, and histopathology logs, and entered based on published definitions of IMI. A total of 155 cases were included (median age 54 years; 47.7% male)...
May 19, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525314/malaria-parasite-limp-protein-regulates-sporozoite-gliding-motility-and-infectivity-in-mosquito-and-mammalian-hosts
#15
Jorge M Santos, Saskia Egarter, Vanessa Zuzarte-Luís, Hirdesh Kumar, Catherine A Moreau, Jessica Kehrer, Andreia Pinto, Mário da Costa, Blandine Franke-Fayard, Chris J Janse, Friedrich Frischknecht, Gunnar R Mair
Gliding motility allows malaria parasites to migrate and invade tissues and cells in different hosts. It requires parasite surface proteins to provide attachment to host cells and extracellular matrices. Here, we identify the Plasmodium protein LIMP (the name refers to a gliding phenotype in the sporozoite arising from epitope tagging of the endogenous protein) as a key regulator for adhesion during gliding motility in the rodent malaria model P. berghei. Transcribed in gametocytes, LIMP is translated in the ookinete from maternal mRNA, and later in the sporozoite...
May 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524864/mistranslation-can-enhance-fitness-through-purging-of-deleterious-mutations
#16
Sinisa Bratulic, Macarena Toll-Riera, Andreas Wagner
Phenotypic mutations are amino acid changes caused by mistranslation. How phenotypic mutations affect the adaptive evolution of new protein functions is unknown. Here we evolve the antibiotic resistance protein TEM-1 towards resistance on the antibiotic cefotaxime in an Escherichia coli strain with a high mistranslation rate. TEM-1 populations evolved in such strains endow host cells with a general growth advantage, not only on cefotaxime but also on several other antibiotics that ancestral TEM-1 had been unable to deactivate...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524827/impact-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-loci-and-haplotypes-on-intestinal-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-after-human-leukocyte-antigen-matched-sibling-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation
#17
Fa-Hong Yan, Mei Wang, Jian-Feng Yao, Er-Lie Jiang, Ming-Zhe Han
BACKGROUND: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a common and severe complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Some studies have found that the presence of certain specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci could affect the occurrence of aGVHD. Meanwhile, the impact of HLA haplotypes on aGVHD has been rarely studied. This study aimed to investigate the effects of HLA loci and haplotypes on intestinal aGVHD. METHODS: Totally, 345 consecutive patients undergoing first HLA-matched sibling peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from February 2004 to June 2013 at Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, were enrolled in this study...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524748/an-unwanted-guest-neisseria-meningitides-carriage-risk-for-invasive-disease-and-the-impact-of-vaccination-with-insights-from-italy-incidence
#18
Elena Gianchecchi, Giulia Piccini, Alessandro Torelli, Rino Rappuoli, Emanuele Montomoli
Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) represents a potentially life-threatening condition caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The disease is characterized by a case fatality rate of 5-10% whereas serious clinical sequelae can develop in survivors within 12-24 hours from the first symptoms. However, IMD infection only occurs rarely, in fact, most of the interactions established between N. meningitidis and the host are harmless, and an estimated 10% of the population asymptomatically carries the bacterium in the nasopharynx...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524159/hallmarks-of-response-to-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#19
Alexandria P Cogdill, Miles C Andrews, Jennifer A Wargo
Unprecedented advances have been made in the treatment of cancer through the use of immune checkpoint blockade, with approval of several checkpoint blockade regimens spanning multiple cancer types. However, responses to this form of therapy are not universal, and insights are clearly needed to identify optimal biomarkers of response and to combat mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. A working knowledge of the hallmarks of cancer yields insight into responses to immune checkpoint blockade, although the focus of this is rather tumour-centric and additional factors are pertinent, including host immunity and environmental influences...
May 18, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524019/in-vitro-ability-of-mastitis-causing-pathogens-to-form-biofilms
#20
Sarah Schönborn, Nicole Wente, Jan-Hendrik Paduch, Volker Krömker
This Research Communication describes the study of in vitro biofilm formation of mastitis causing pathogens. Biofilms are communities of bacteria that are attached to a surface and to each other and are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor that may result in recurrent or persistent udder infections and treatment failure through increased resistance to antibiotics and protection against host defences. In the present study 252 bacterial isolates from milk samples from bovine udder quarters with intramammary infections were examined with Congo Red agar (CRA) method and tube method (TM) for their ability to form biofilms...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
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