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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941410/the-contribution-of-human-non-human-animal-chimeras-to-stem-cell-research
#1
REVIEW
Sonya Levine, Laura Grabel
Chimeric animals are made up of cells from two separate zygotes. Human/non-human animal chimeras have been used for a number of research purposes, including human disease modeling. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC) research has relied upon the chimera approach to examine the developmental potential of stem cells, to determine the efficacy of cell replacement therapies, and to establish a means of producing human organs. Based on ethical issues, this work has faced pushback from various sources including funding agencies...
September 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941008/non-canonical-bases-in-the-genome-the-regulatory-information-layer-in-dna
#2
Thomas Carell, Matthias Q Kurz, Markus Müller, Martin Rossa, Fabio Spada
The sequence of the four canonical bases dA, dC, dG and dT forming two defined Watson-Crick base pairs (dT:dA, dG:dC), held together by H-bonding, establish the sequence information in the DNA double strand. The faithful replication of the sequence information during cell division, the transcription of the DNA information into RNA and the final translation of the sequence information into proteins is the basis for life on earth. Multicellular organisms developed the concept of specialized cells that perform specific functions...
September 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939692/long-and-small-noncoding-rnas-during-oocyte-to-embryo-transition-in-mammals
#3
REVIEW
Petr Svoboda
Oocyte-to-embryo transition is a process during which an oocyte ovulates, is fertilized, and becomes a developing embryo. It involves the first major genome reprogramming event in life of an organism where gene expression, which gave rise to a differentiated oocyte, is remodeled in order to establish totipotency in blastomeres of an early embryo. This remodeling involves replacement of maternal RNAs with zygotic RNAs through maternal RNA degradation and zygotic genome activation. This review is focused on expression and function of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and small RNAs during oocyte-to-embryo transition in mammals...
September 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938096/-gamete-on-for-m-6-a-ythdf2-exerts-essential-functions-in-female-fertility
#4
Boxuan Simen Zhao, Chuan He
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Ivanova et al. (2017) report key functions of the m(6)A reader YTHDF2 in the regulation of mammalian development during oocyte maturation and early zygotic development.
September 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936664/analysis-of-proteins-enriched-in-rice-gamete
#5
Takashi Okamoto
In angiosperms, female gamete differentiation, fertilization, and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries. Despite their importance in plant reproduction and development, how the egg cell is specialized, fuses with the sperm cell, and converts into an active zygote for early embryogenesis remains unclear. Proteins enriched in each cell type are thought to reflect the biological function of the cells, since the composition of cellular proteins generally differs depending on cell type...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936662/manual-isolation-of-living-cells-from-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-female-gametophyte-by-micromanipulation
#6
Maria Englhart, Lucija Šoljić, Stefanie Sprunck
The few-celled female gametophyte, or embryo sac, of flowering plants is not easily accessible as it is buried within the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. Nevertheless, it has become an attractive model system to study the molecular mechanisms underlying patterning and cell type specification, as well as fertilization of the two female gametes, the egg and the central cell. While female gametes, zygotes, and early embryos can be manually isolated from the embryo sacs in maize, wheat, tobacco, and rice by micromanipulation, this approach had been considered impossible for the much smaller embryo sac of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930998/in-vitro-ovule-cultivation-for-live-cell-imaging-of-zygote-polarization-and-embryo-patterning-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Daisuke Kurihara, Yusuke Kimata, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
In most flowering plants, the zygote and embryo are hidden deep in the mother tissue, and thus it has long been a mystery of how they develop dynamically; for example, how the zygote polarizes to establish the body axis and how the embryo specifies various cell fates during organ formation. This manuscript describes an in vitro ovule culture method to perform live-cell imaging of developing zygotes and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. The optimized cultivation medium allows zygotes or early embryos to grow into fertile plants...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930672/histone-h3-methylated-at-arginine-17-is-essential-for-reprogramming-the-paternal-genome-in-zygotes
#8
Yuki Hatanaka, Takeshi Tsusaka, Natsumi Shimizu, Kohtaro Morita, Takehiro Suzuki, Shinichi Machida, Manabu Satoh, Arata Honda, Michiko Hirose, Satoshi Kamimura, Narumi Ogonuki, Toshinobu Nakamura, Kimiko Inoue, Yoshihiko Hosoi, Naoshi Dohmae, Toru Nakano, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Kazuya Matsumoto, Yoichi Shinkai, Atsuo Ogura
At fertilization, the paternal genome undergoes extensive reprogramming through protamine-histone exchange and active DNA demethylation, but only a few maternal factors have been defined in these processes. We identified maternal Mettl23 as a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT), which most likely catalyzes the asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3R17 (H3R17me2a), as indicated by in vitro assays and treatment with TBBD, an H3R17 PRMT inhibitor. Maternal histone H3.3, which is essential for paternal nucleosomal assembly, is unable to be incorporated into the male pronucleus when it lacks R17me2a...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928283/vegetally-localised-vrtn-functions-as-a-novel-repressor-to-modulate-bmp2b-transcription-during-dorsoventral-patterning-in-zebrafish
#9
Ming Shao, Min Wang, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Yi-Wen Ge, Yan-Jun Zhang, De-Li Shi
The vegetal pole cytoplasm represents a crucial source of maternal dorsal determinants for patterning the dorsoventral axis of the early embryo. Removal of the vegetal yolk in the zebrafish fertilised egg before the completion of the first cleavage results in embryonic ventralisation, but removal of this part at the two-cell stage leads to embryonic dorsalisation. How this is achieved remains unknown. Here, we report a novel mode of maternal regulation of BMP signalling during dorsoventral patterning in zebrafish...
September 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925002/verrucous-epidermal-nevus-a-misleading-diagnosis-for-28-years
#10
Jorge Ocampo-Garza, Nilton Gioia Di Chiacchio, Eckart Haneke, Nilton Di Chiacchio, Leandro Fonseca Noriega
Epidermal nevi (EN) are hamartomas of the skin that result from mosaic post-zygotic mutations. There are several variants of EN, the verrucous epidermal nevus (VEN) being the most common. EN can be further subdivided into epidermolytic and nonepidermolytic, important since in contrast with nonepidermolytic EN, epidermolytic EN occurs sporadically (not heritable), and it is not associated with extracutaneous abnormalities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 19, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923286/abnormally-fertilized-oocytes-can-result-in-healthy-live-births-improved-genetic-technologies-for-preimplantation-genetic-testing-can-be-used-to-rescue-viable-embryos-in-in-vitro-fertilization-cycles
#11
Antonio Capalbo, Nathan Treff, Danilo Cimadomo, Xin Tao, Susanna Ferrero, Alberto Vaiarelli, Silvia Colamaria, Roberta Maggiulli, Giovanna Orlando, Catello Scarica, Richard Scott, Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Laura Rienzi
OBJECTIVE: To test whether abnormally fertilized oocyte (AFO)-derived blastocysts are diploid and can be rescued for clinical use. DESIGN: Longitudinal-cohort study from January 2015 to September 2016 involving IVF cycles with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A). Ploidy assessment was incorporated whenever a blastocyst from a monopronuclear (1PN) or tripronuclear zygote (2PN + 1 smaller PN; 2.1 PN) was obtained. SETTING: Private IVF clinics and genetics laboratories...
September 15, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916718/potential-sperm-contributions-to-the-murine-zygote-predicted-by-in-silico-analysis
#12
Panagiotis Ntostis, Deborah Carter, David Iles, J D Huntriss, Maria Tzetis, David Miller
Paternal contributions to the zygote are thought to extend beyond delivery of the genome and paternal RNAs have been linked to epigenetic transgenerational inheritance in different species. In addition, sperm-egg fusion activates several downstream processes that contribute to zygote formation, including PLC zeta-mediated egg activation and maternal RNA clearance. Since a third of the preimplantation developmental period in the mouse occurs prior to the first cleavage stage, there is ample time for paternal RNAs or their encoded proteins potentially to interact and participate in early zygotic activities...
September 15, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916717/nlrps-the-subcortical-maternal-complex-and-genomic-imprinting
#13
David Monk, Marta Sanchez-Delgado, Rosemary Fisher
Before activation of the embryonic genome, the oocyte provides many of the RNAs and proteins required for the epigenetic reprogramming and the transition to a totipotent state. Targeted disruption of a subset of oocyte-derived transcripts in mice results in early embryonic lethality and cleavage stage embryonic arrest as highlighted by the members of the Subcortical Maternal Complex (SCMC). Maternal-effect recessive mutations of NLRP7, KHDC3L and NLRP5 in humans are associated with variable reproductive outcomes, biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHM) and widespread multi-locus imprinting disturbances...
September 15, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915981/transcutaneous-electrical-acupoint-stimulation-improves-the-outcomes-of-in-vitro-fertilization-a-prospective-randomized-and-controlled-study
#14
Fan Qu, Fang-Fang Wang, Yan Wu, Jue Zhou, Nicola Robinson, Paul J Hardiman, Jie-Xue Pan, Yi-Jing He, Yu-Hang Zhu, Han-Zhi Wang, Xiao-Qun Ye, Ke-Lin He, Long Cui, Hong-Li Zhao, Ying-Hui Ye
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) can improve the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF). DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, and controlled study. SETTING: IVF center in a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred and eighty-one infertile patients with bilateral tubal blockage who were referred for IVF. Patients were randomized into four groups. INTERVENTION: TEAS was administered for 30min, respectively, at 24h before TVOR and two hours before ET...
September 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913567/two-cell-embryos-are-more-sensitive-than-blastocysts-to-ampk-dependent-suppression-of-anabolism-and-stemness-by-commonly-used-fertility-drugs-a-diet-supplement-and-stress
#15
Alan Bolnick, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Brian Kilburn, Yufen Xie, Mindie Howard, Paul Andresen, Alexandra M Shamir, Jing Dai, Elizabeth E Puscheck, Eric Secor, Daniel A Rappolee
PURPOSE: This study tests whether metformin or diet supplement BR-DIM-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated effects on development are more pronounced in blastocysts or 2-cell mouse embryos. METHODS: Culture mouse zygotes to two-cell embryos and test effects after 0.5-1 h AMPK agonists' (e.g., Met, BR-DIM) exposure on AMPK-dependent ACCser79P phosphorylation and/or Oct4 by immunofluorescence. Culture morulae to blastocysts and test for increased ACCser79P, decreased Oct4 and for AMPK dependence by coculture with AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912016/arabidopsis-thaliana-mirnas-promote-embryo-pattern-formation-beginning-in-the-zygote
#16
Alma Armenta-Medina, Daniel Lepe-Soltero, Daoquan Xiang, Raju Datla, Cei Abreu-Goodger, C Stewart Gillmor
miRNAs are essential regulators of cell identity, yet their role in early embryo development in plants remains largely unexplored. To determine the earliest stage at which miRNAs act to promote pattern formation in embryogenesis, we examined a series of mutant alleles in the Arabidopsis thaliana miRNA biogenesis enzymes DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1), SERRATE (SE), and HYPONASTIC LEAVES 1 (HYL1). Cellular and patterning defects were observed in dcl1, se and hyl1 embryos from the zygote through the globular stage of embryogenesis...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911800/evolution-of-the-sex-ratio-and-effective-number-under-gynodioecy-and-androdioecy
#17
Marcy K Uyenoyama, Naoki Takebayashi
We address the evolution of effective number of individuals under androdioecy and gynodioecy. We analyze dynamic models of autosomal modifiers of weak effect on sex expression. In our zygote control models, the sex expressed by a zygote depends on its own genotype, while in our maternal control models, it depends on the genotype of its maternal parent. Our analysis unifies full multi-dimensional local stability analysis with the Li-Price equation, which for all its heuristic appeal, describes evolutionary change over a single generation...
September 11, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899032/mating-response-and-construction-of-heterothallic-strains-of-the-fission-yeast-schizosaccharomyces-octosporus
#18
Taisuke Seike, Hironori Niki
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces octosporus is one of four species in the genus Schizosaccharomyces. Recently released genome sequence data provide useful information for comparative studies. However, Sz. octosporus has not yet been genetically characterized because there have been no heterothallic strains of this species. Here we report the construction of stable heterothallic strains of Sz. octosporus for genetic crosses. First, we continuously observed the mating process of a homothallic strain, yFS286, and determined the mating frequency of Sz...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898655/plant-embryogenesis
#19
Sacco C de Vries, Dolf Weijers
Land plants are called 'embryophytes' and thus, their collective name is defined by their ability to form embryos. Indeed, embryogenesis is a widespread phenomenon in plants, and much of our diet is composed of embryos (just think of grains, beans or nuts; Figure 1). However, in addition to embryos as a source of nutrition, they are also a fascinating study object. Some of the most fundamental decisions on fate and identity, as well as patterning and morphogenesis, are taken during the first days of plant life...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893907/compositional-and-expression-analyses-of-the-glideosome-during-the-plasmodium-life-cycle-reveal-an-additional-myosin-light-chain-required-for-maximum-motility
#20
Judith L Green, Richard J Wall, Juha Vahokoski, Noor A Yusuf, Mohd A Mohd Ridzuan, Rebecca R Stanway, Jessica Stock, Ellen Knuepfer, Declan Brady, Stephen R Martin, Steven A Howell, Isa P Pires, Robert W Moon, Justin E Molloy, Inari Kursula, Rita Tewari, Anthony A Holder
Myosin A (MyoA) is a Class XIV myosin implicated in gliding motility and host cell and tissue invasion by malaria parasites. MyoA is part of a membrane-associated protein complex called the glideosome, which is essential for parasite motility and includes the MyoA light chain MTIP, and several glideosome-associated proteins (GAPs). However, most studies of MyoA have focused on single stages of the parasite life cycle. We examined MyoA expression throughout the Plasmodium berghei life cycle in both mammalian and insect hosts...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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