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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429249/are-there-moral-differences-between-maternal-spindle-transfer-and-pronuclear-transfer
#1
César Palacios-González
This paper examines whether there are moral differences between the mitochondrial replacement techniques that have been recently developed in order to help women afflicted by mitochondrial DNA diseases to have genetically related children absent such conditions: maternal spindle transfer (MST) and pronuclear transfer (PNT). Firstly, it examines whether there is a moral difference between MST and PNT in terms of the divide between somatic interventions and germline interventions. Secondly, it considers whether PNT and MST are morally distinct under a therapy/creation optic...
April 20, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428426/transgenerational-transmission-of-environmental-information-in-c-elegans
#2
Adam Klosin, Eduard Casas, Cristina Hidalgo-Carcedo, Tanya Vavouri, Ben Lehner
The environment experienced by an animal can sometimes influence gene expression for one or a few subsequent generations. Here, we report the observation that a temperature-induced change in expression from a Caenorhabditis elegans heterochromatic gene array can endure for at least 14 generations. Inheritance is primarily in cis with the locus, occurs through both oocytes and sperm, and is associated with altered trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) before the onset of zygotic transcription. Expression profiling reveals that temperature-induced expression from endogenous repressed repeats can also be inherited for multiple generations...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425915/competition-between-histone-and-transcription-factor-binding-regulates-the-onset-of-transcription-in-zebrafish-embryos
#3
Shai R Joseph, Máté Pálfy, Lennart Hilbert, Mukesh Kumar, Jens Karschau, Vasily Zaburdaev, Andrej Shevchenko, Nadine L Vastenhouw
Upon fertilization, the genome of animal embryos remains transcriptionally inactive until the maternal-to-zygotic transition. At this time, the embryo takes control of its development and transcription begins. How the onset of zygotic transcription is regulated remains unclear. Here, we show that a dynamic competition for DNA binding between nucleosome-forming histones and transcription factors regulates zebrafish genome activation. Taking a quantitative approach, we found that the concentration of non-DNA bound core histones sets the time for the onset of transcription...
April 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424461/a-lack-of-coordination-between-sister-chromatids-segregation-and-cytokinesis-in-the-oocytes-of-b6-y-tir-xy-sex-reversed-female-mice
#4
Jia-Qiao Zhu, Seang Lin Tan, Teruko Taketo
The B6.Y(TIR) (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defective in their cytoplasm, resulting in a failure in the second meiotic division after activation or fertilization in vitro. However, the mechanism of meiotic failure or the cause of infertility remained to be clarified. In the present study, we obtained mature oocytes from XY females by superovulation and confirmed that these oocytes also fail in zygotic development...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423889/polymorphism-of-bola-drb3-gene-and-its-association-with-embryo-development-after-in-vitro-fertilization-in-slovak-spotted-x-holstein-fresian-crossbred-cattle
#5
Dominika Kułaj, Joanna Pokorska, Alexander Makarevič, Lucia Olexikova, Joanna Makulska, Peter Chrenek
Objective: The aim of the present research was to verify hypothesis about the association between polymorphism of Bola-DRB3 gene and embryo cleavage after in vitro fertilization in Slovak Spotted x Holstein-Fresian crossbred cattle. Methods: Bovine oocytes recovered from bovine ovaries at slaughtering were matured in E199 medium with 10% FCS and 1IU FSH and LH and fertilized in vitro with sperm of Holstein-Fresian bull during 20h. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in ISM1 culture medium for three days, afterwards the embryos were evaluated and selected into two groups: 1) cleavage (2-, 4-, 6- or 8- cell stage) and 2) undeveloped embryos (no cell cleavage)...
March 25, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423565/identification-and-characterization-of-l1-specific-endo-sirnas-essential-for-early-embryonic-development-in-pig
#6
Heng Zhang, Jilong Liu, Yurong Tai, Xiaolei Zhang, Jiaming Zhang, Shichao Liu, Jiawei Lv, Zhonghua Liu, Qingran Kong
Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) play important roles in RNA interference (RNAi). In addition to microRNA (miRNA) and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA), one key member of sncRNAs group is endogenous small interfering RNA (endo-siRNA). Some studies do show the role of endo-siRNAs in Dicer and/or Ago mutants, however, the biological functions of specific endo-siRNAs remains mostly unanswered. In the study, we have performed a comparative analysis of endo-siRNAs present in porcine sperms, oocytes and zygotes, identified by deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422964/effect-of-women-s-age-on-embryo-morphology-cleavage-rate-and-competence-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#7
Marie Louise Grøndahl, Sofie Lindgren Christiansen, Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel, Inge Errebo Agerholm, Josephine Gabriela Lemmen, Peter Lundstrøm, Jeanette Bogstad, Morten Raaschou-Jensen, Steen Ladelund
This multicenter cohort study on embryo assessment and outcome data from 11,744 IVF/ICSI cycles with 104,830 oocytes and 42,074 embryos, presents the effect of women's age on oocyte, zygote, embryo morphology and cleavage parameters, as well as cycle outcome measures corrected for confounding factors as center, partner's age and referral diagnosis. Cycle outcome data confirmed the well-known effect of women's age. Oocyte nuclear maturation and proportion of 2 pro-nuclear (2PN) zygotes were not affected by age, while a significant increase in 3PN zygotes was observed in both IVF and ICSI (p<0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410126/fertilization-failure-and-gamete-health-is-there-a-link
#8
Snehil Budhwar, Vertika Singh, Priyanka Verma, Kiran Singh
Fertilization is a hallmark event of sexual reproduction marked by the fusion of male and female gamete to form zygote. It is a highly complex, yet a robust process that is intricately regulated by various signalling molecules. A healthy fertilization is determined by the quality of zygote which is contingent on the health of egg and sperm. The relationship between infertility and gametic health can be reciprocal. On one hand gametogenesis has to be dynamic and unremitting to sustain the reproductive health, while on the other hand it has to be error free for proper embryonic development...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409310/asymmetries-and-symmetries-in-the-mouse-oocyte-and-zygote
#9
Agathe Chaigne, Marie-Emilie Terret, Marie-Hélène Verlhac
Mammalian oocytes grow periodically after puberty thanks to the dialogue with their niche in the follicle. This communication between somatic and germ cells promotes the accumulation, inside the oocyte, of maternal RNAs, proteins and other molecules that will sustain the two gamete divisions and early embryo development up to its implantation. In order to preserve their stock of maternal products, oocytes from all species divide twice minimizing the volume of their daughter cells to their own benefit. For this, they undergo asymmetric divisions in size where one main objective is to locate the division spindle with its chromosomes off-centred...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409309/asymmetric-and-unequal-cell-divisions-in-ascidian-embryos
#10
Takefumi Negishi, Hiroki Nishida
Asymmetric cell division during embryogenesis contributes to cell diversity by generating daughter cells that adopt distinct developmental fates. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge of three examples of asymmetric cell division occurring in ascidian early embryos: (1) Three successive cell divisions that are asymmetric in terms of cell fate and unequal in cell size in the germline lineage at the embryo posterior pole. A subcellular structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), and maternal PEM mRNAs localized within it control both the positioning of the cell division planes and segregation of the germ cell fates...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409302/asymmetric-cell-division-in-the-one-cell-c-elegans-embryo-multiple-steps-to-generate-cell-size-asymmetry
#11
Anne Pacquelet
The first division of the one-cell C. elegans embryo has been a fundamental model in deciphering the mechanisms underlying asymmetric cell division. Polarization of the one-cell zygote is induced by a signal from the sperm centrosome and results in the asymmetric distribution of PAR proteins. Multiple mechanisms then maintain PAR polarity until the end of the first division. Once asymmetrically localized, PAR proteins control several essential aspects of asymmetric division, including the position of the mitotic spindle along the polarity axis...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408706/embryo-culture-in-presence-of-oviductal-fluid-induces-dna-methylation-changes-in-bovine-blastocysts
#12
Antonio Daniel Barrera, Elina Vanesa García, Meriem Hamdi, Maria-Jesús Sánchez Calabuig, Angela Patricia Lopez-Cardona, Noelia Fonseca Balvís, Dimitrios Rizos, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan
During the transit through the oviduct, the early embryo initiates an extensive DNA methylation reprogramming of its genome. Given that these epigenetic modifications are susceptible to environmental factors, components present in the oviductal milieu could affect the DNA methylation marks of the developing embryo. The aim of this study was to examine if culture of bovine embryos with oviductal fluid (OF) can induce DNA methylation changes at specific genomic regions in the resulting blastocysts. In vitro produced zygotes were cultured in medium with 3 mg/mL bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 1...
April 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407860/effects-of-mg132-on-the-in%C3%A2-vitro-development-and-epigenetic-modification-of-debao-porcine-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#13
Kaiyuan Shen, Xiangping Li, Xiaoli Dai, Ping Wang, Sheng Li, Zhaocheng Xiong, Peifang Chen, Qingyou Liu, Deshun Shi
The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, on the in vitro development, zygotic genome activation (ZGA) and epigenetic modification of Debao porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Treatment of oocytes with 1 μM MG132 from 30 h to 42 h of maturation and SCNT embryos with 5 μM MG132 for 2 h after fusion resulted in higher blastocyst yield (36.5%) of SCNT embryos compared with the control group (11.0%). The ZGA of SCNT embryos at 2- and 4-cell stages was also enhanced by MG132 treatment through altering the RNA pol II status and increasing the expression of eIF3A and TFIIA...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404632/transcriptional-integration-of-paternal-and-maternal-factors-in-the-arabidopsis-zygote
#14
Minako Ueda, Ernst Aichinger, Wen Gong, Edwin Groot, Inge Verstraeten, Lam Dai Vu, Ive De Smet, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Masaaki Umeda, Thomas Laux
In many plants, the asymmetric division of the zygote sets up the apical-basal axis of the embryo. Unlike animals, plant zygotes are transcriptionally active, implying that plants have evolved specific mechanisms to control transcriptional activation of patterning genes in the zygote. In Arabidopsis, two pathways have been found to regulate zygote asymmetry: YODA (YDA) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which is potentiated by sperm-delivered mRNA of the SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) membrane protein, and up-regulation of the patterning gene WOX8 by the WRKY2 transcription factor...
March 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400443/plastin-increases-cortical-connectivity-to-facilitate-robust-polarization-and-timely-cytokinesis
#15
Wei Yung Ding, Hui Ting Ong, Yusuke Hara, Jantana Wongsantichon, Yusuke Toyama, Robert C Robinson, François Nédélec, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
The cell cortex is essential to maintain animal cell shape, and contractile forces generated within it by nonmuscle myosin II (NMY-2) drive cellular morphogenetic processes such as cytokinesis. The role of actin cross-linking proteins in cortical dynamics is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved actin bundling/cross-linking protein plastin is instrumental for the generation of potent cortical actomyosin contractility in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote. PLST-1 was enriched in contractile structures and was required for effective coalescence of NMY-2 filaments into large contractile foci and for long-range coordinated contractility in the cortex...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396487/culture-time-of-vitrified-warmed-zygotes-before-microinjection-affects-the-production-efficiency-of-crispr-cas9-mediated-knock-in-mice
#16
Yoshiko Nakagawa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Norihisa Nishimichi, Yasuyuki Yokosaki, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata, Takashi Yamamoto
Robust reproductive engineering techniques are required for the efficient and rapid production of genetically modified mice. We have reported the efficient production of genome-edited mice using reproductive engineering techniques, such as ultra-superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and vitrification/warming of zygotes. We usually use vitrified/warmed fertilized oocytes created by IVF for microinjection because of work efficiency and flexible scheduling. Here, we investigated whether the culture time of zygotes before microinjection influences the efficiency of producing knock-in mice...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394093/genome-editing-technologies-to-improve-research-reproduction-and-production-in-pigs
#17
REVIEW
Kevin D Wells, Randall S Prather
The ability to directly manipulate the pig genome through genetic engineering has been available to the research community for over three decades. This technology has progressed from the random insertion of foreign DNA, via a variety of techniques (pronuclear microinjection, sperm mediated gene transfer, and integration of mobile genetic elements), to manipulation of endogenous genes, via homologous recombination in somatic cells followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Over the last few years, designer nucleases facilitated the development of techniques that provide efficient ways to introduce foreign DNA or to modify endogenous genes in eggs, zygotes, or somatic cells...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393933/epcam-intracellular-domain-promotes-porcine-cell-reprogramming-by-upregulation-of-pluripotent-gene-expression-via-beta-catenin-signaling
#18
Tong Yu, Yangyang Ma, Huayan Wang
Previous study showed that expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was significantly upregulated in porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs). However, the regulatory mechanism and the downstream target genes of EpCAM were not well investigated. In this study, we found that EpCAM was undetectable in fibroblasts, but highly expressed in piPSCs. Promoter of EpCAM was upregulated by zygotic activated factors LIN28, and ESRRB, but repressed by maternal factors OCT4 and SOX2. Knocking down EpCAM by shRNA significantly reduced the pluripotent gene expression...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390470/supplementation-of-culture-medium-with-l-carnitine-improves-the-development-and-cryotolerance-of-in-vitro-produced-porcine-embryos
#19
J L Lowe, L K Bartolac, R Bathgate, C G Grupen
Porcine oocytes and embryos contain substantial amounts of lipid, with little known regarding its metabolic role during development. This study investigated the role of lipid metabolism and the interaction between carbohydrate and lipid substrates in porcine embryos. Following in vitro fertilisation, presumptive zygotes were transferred to culture medium supplemented with L-carnitine, a co-factor required for the metabolism of fatty acids. In porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), which contains pyruvate and lactate, 3mM L-carnitine was the only dose that improved cleavage rates compared with the control...
April 10, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388407/chromatin-architecture-emerges-during-zygotic-genome-activation-independent-of-transcription
#20
Clemens B Hug, Alexis G Grimaldi, Kai Kruse, Juan M Vaquerizas
Chromatin architecture is fundamental in regulating gene expression. To investigate when spatial genome organization is first established during development, we examined chromatin conformation during Drosophila embryogenesis and observed the emergence of chromatin architecture within a tight time window that coincides with the onset of transcription activation in the zygote. Prior to zygotic genome activation, the genome is mostly unstructured. Early expressed genes serve as nucleation sites for topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries...
April 6, 2017: Cell
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