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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813177/how-single-cell-genomics-is-changing-evolutionary-and-developmental-biology
#1
John C Marioni, Detlev Arendt
The recent flood of single-cell data not only boosts our knowledge of cells and cell types, but also provides new insight into development and evolution from a cellular perspective. For example, assaying the genomes of multiple cells during development reveals developmental lineage trees-the kinship lineage-whereas cellular transcriptomes inform us about the regulatory state of cells and their gradual restriction in potency-the Waddington lineage. Beyond that, the comparison of single-cell data across species allows evolutionary changes to be tracked at all stages of development from the zygote, via different kinds of stem cells, to the differentiating cells...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811525/totipotency-segregates-between-the-sister-blastomeres-of-two-cell-stage-mouse-embryos
#2
E Casser, S Israel, A Witten, K Schulte, S Schlatt, V Nordhoff, M Boiani
Following fertilization in mammals, it is generally accepted that totipotent cells are exclusive to the zygote and to each of the two blastomeres originating from the first mitotic division. This model of totipotency was inferred from a minority of cases in which blastomeres produced monozygotic twins in mice. Was this due to experimental limitation or biological constraint? Here we removed experimental obstacles and achieved reliable quantification of the prevalence of dual totipotency among mouse two-cell stage blastomeres...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811333/arabidopsis-lorelei-a-maternally-expressed-imprinted-gene-promotes-early-seed-development
#3
Yanbing Wang, Tatsuya Tsukamoto, Jennifer Ashley Noble, Xunliang Liu, Rebecca Mosher, Ravishankar Palanivelu
n flowering plants the female gametophyte controls pollen tube reception immediately before fertilization and regulates seed development immediately after fertilization, although controlling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that LORELEI (LRE), which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, is critical for pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte before fertilization and initiation of seed development after fertilization. Here, we show that LRE is expressed in the synergid, egg, and central cells of the female gametophyte and in the zygote and proliferating endosperm of the seed...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809155/microbe-profile-candida-albicans-a-shape-changing-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus-of-humans
#4
Neil A R Gow, Bhawna Yadav
(a) Morphotypes of Candida albicans (blue sector, vegetative forms; pink sector, forms related to mating or changes in ploidy). Cell types shown include: budding yeast cells; elongated conjoined yeasts forming pseudohyphae; parallel-sided hyphae; chlamydospores formed from suspensor cells; enlarged goliath cells formed under zinc deprivation (unpublished study, image from Duncan Wilson); intestinal gut form cells (image from Suzanne Noble); mating competence defined by white-grey-opaque cell transitions (images from Guanghua Huang); elongated chemotactic shmoo-mating projections leading to tetraploid zygote formation (images from David Soll and Karla Daniels); trimera formed by unequal chromosome segregation under antifungal exposure (image from Judith Berman)...
August 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808562/floral-scent-and-species-divergence-in-a-pair-of-sexually-deceptive-orchids
#5
Daniel D L Gervasi, Marc-Andre Selosse, Mathieu Sauve, Wittko Francke, Nicolas J Vereecken, Salvatore Cozzolino, Florian P Schiestl
Speciation is typically accompanied by the formation of isolation barriers between lineages. Commonly, reproductive barriers are separated into pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms that can evolve with different speed. In this study, we measured the strength of different reproductive barriers in two closely related, sympatric orchids of the Ophrys insectifera group, namely Ophrys insectifera and Ophrys aymoninii to infer possible mechanisms of speciation. We quantified pre- and post-pollination barriers through observation of pollen flow, by performing artificial inter- and intraspecific crosses and analyzing scent bouquets...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808254/ikk2-regulates-cytokinesis-during-vertebrate-development
#6
Hongyuan Shen, Eun Myoung Shin, Serene Lee, Sinnakaruppan Mathavan, Hiromi Koh, Motomi Osato, Hyungwon Choi, Vinay Tergaonkar, Vladimir Korzh
NFκB signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of development, innate immunity, and inflammation. Ikk2 is one of the two critical kinases that regulate the NFκB signaling pathway. While the role of Ikk2 in immunity, inflammation and oncogenesis has received attention, an understanding of the role of Ikk2 in vertebrate development has been compounded by the embryonic lethality seen in mice lacking Ikk2. We find that despite abnormal angiogenesis in IKK2 zygotic mutants of zebrafish, the maternal activity of Ikk2 supports embryogenesis and maturation of fertile animals and allows to study the role of IKK2 in development...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807725/the-rnf146-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-is-required-for-the-control-of-wnt-signaling-and-body-pattern-formation-in-xenopus
#7
Xuechen Zhu, Rui Xing, Renbo Tan, Rongyang Dai, Qinghua Tao
The RING finger protein Rnf146 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase capable of targeting poly-ADP-ribosylated substrates for proteasomal degradation. Rnf146 has been identified as a critical regulator of Axin1 and thus of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However its physiological significance in vertebrate embryonic development remains to be demonstrated. In this study, we take advantages of early Xenopus embryos to demonstrate that Rnf146 is essential for embryonic pattern formation. Depletion of zygotic Rnf146 using a translation blocking morpholino oligo (MO) results in anteriorized development and increased expression the anterior marker gene Otx2, consistent the notion that Rnf146 is a positive regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through negatively regulating Axin1 expression...
August 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802113/l-carnitine-enhances-oocyte-maturation-and-improves-in%C3%A2-vitro-development-of-embryos-in-dromedary-camels-camelus-dromedaries
#8
Mohamed Fathi, K H El-Shahat
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC) addition during either IVM or IVC on the developmental potential of camel oocytes. In Experiment 1; camel oocytes were matured in the absence (control) or presence of different concentrations of LC (0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 0.75 mg and 1 mg/ml) for 30 h followed by in vitro fertilization and culture up to blastocyst stage. Our results demonstrated that oocytes treated with 0.5 mg/ml LC showed higher (P < 0.05) rates of maturation (74...
August 4, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801637/effect-of-golph3-on-cumulus-granulosa-cell-apoptosis-and-icsi-pregnancy-outcomes
#9
Dianliang Lin, Jing Ran, Suqin Zhu, Song Quan, Baofeng Ye, Aili Yu, Yuefan Kang, Yuan Lin
Previous studies have shown that GOLPH3 mediates cell growth, proliferation and differentiation and inhibits cell apoptosis; however, the role of GOLPH3 in cumulus granulosa cells and the value of GOLPH3 in predicting ICSI pregnancy outcomes remain unknown until now. Our findings showed higher positive expression rate, score of staining intensity, and immunohistochemical score of GOLPH3 in the cumulus granulosa cells of the pregnant women relative to non-pregnant women, and a higher apoptotic rate of cumulus granulosa cells was detected in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801621/efficient-generation-of-conditional-knockout-mice-via-sequential-introduction-of-lox-sites
#10
Takuro Horii, Sumiyo Morita, Mika Kimura, Naomi Terawaki, Mihiro Shibutani, Izuho Hatada
Conditional knockout using Cre/lox is essential for functional analysis of genes. CRISPR/Cas in combination with two sets of guide RNAs and a single-stranded oligonucleotide enables simultaneous insertion of two lox sequences. However, this method induces double-strand breaks at two sites on the same chromosome, which causes an undesirable chromosomal deletion and reduces the flanked lox (flox) rate. To solve this problem, we investigated a method that sequentially introduces each lox sequence at the 1-cell and 2-cell embryonic stages, respectively...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801588/both-nuclear-size-and-dna-amount-contribute-to-midblastula-transition-timing-in-xenopus-laevis
#11
Predrag Jevtić, Daniel L Levy
During early Xenopus laevis embryogenesis both nuclear and cell volumes decrease with the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N/C) volume ratio reaching a maximum at the midblastula transition (MBT). At the MBT, embryonic transcription is upregulated and cell cycles lengthen. Early studies demonstrated a role for the DNA-to-cytoplasmic ratio in the control of MBT timing. By altering nuclear size, we previously showed that the N/C volume ratio also contributes to proper MBT timing. Here we examine the relative contributions of nuclear size and DNA amount to MBT timing by simultaneously altering nuclear size and ploidy in X...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800556/supplementation-of-lycopene-in-maturation-media-improves-bovine-embryo-quality-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
M M R Chowdhury, Byung-Hyun Choi, Imran Khan, Kyeong-Lim Lee, Ayman Mesalam, Seok-Hwan Song, Lianguang Xu, Myeong-Don Joo, Fahmida Afrin, Il-Keun Kong
This study sought to modulate factors that reduce embryo quality in in vitro culture (IVC) systems. Over eight replicates, 3075 oocytes were cultured in in vitro maturation media containing various concentrations of lycopene, followed by in vitro fertilization and culture. The percentages of MII-stage oocytes, the presumptive zygotes that underwent cleavage and developed into blastocysts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher, the intracellular ROS concentrations reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in oocytes/blastocysts, TUNEL assay demonstrates reduced apoptosis and increased total cell number per blastocyst (P < 0...
August 3, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791558/zar1-knockdown-promotes-the-differentiation-of-human-neuroblastoma-cells-by-suppression-of-mycn-expression
#13
Yosuke Watanabe, Yoshiaki Ishizuka, Takayuki Hirano, Eri Nagasaki-Maeoka, Reina Hoshi, Shinsuke Yoshizawa, Shota Uekusa, Hiroyuki Kawashima, Kiminobu Sugito, Kenichi Shinohara, Noboru Fukuda, Hiroki Nagase, Masayoshi Soma, Tsugumichi Koshinaga, Kyoko Fujiwara
Although DNA hypermethylation at non-promoter region of the Zygote arrest 1 (ZAR1) gene has been observed in many types of tumor, including neuroblastoma (NB), the role of this gene in tumor development and/or progression is unclear. One reason is that knowledge about the function of ZAR1 protein is limited. Although it has been reported that ZAR1 plays a crucial role in early embryogenesis and may act as a transcriptional repressor for some transcripts, the detailed mechanism is still elusive. In the present study, we analyzed public data of NB patients and found that higher expression levels of ZAR1 were significantly associated with a shorter survival period...
August 8, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782190/epigenetic-germline-inheritance-in-mammals-looking-to-the-past-to-understand-the-future
#14
REVIEW
Katharina Gapp, Johannes Bohacek
Life experiences can induce epigenetic changes in mammalian germ cells, which can influence the developmental trajectory of the offspring and impact health and disease across generations. While this concept of epigenetic germline inheritance has long been met with skepticism, evidence in support of this route of information transfer is now overwhelming, and some key mechanisms underlying germline transmission of acquired information are emerging. This review focusses specifically on sperm RNAs as causal vectors of inheritance...
August 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781174/apkc-cycles-between-functionally-distinct-par-protein-assemblies-to-drive-cell-polarity
#15
Josana Rodriguez, Florent Peglion, Jack Martin, Lars Hubatsch, Jacob Reich, Nisha Hirani, Alicia G Gubieda, Jon Roffey, Artur Ribeiro Fernandes, Daniel St Johnston, Julie Ahringer, Nathan W Goehring
The conserved polarity effector proteins PAR-3, PAR-6, CDC-42, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) form a core unit of the PAR protein network, which plays a central role in polarizing a broad range of animal cell types. To functionally polarize cells, these proteins must activate aPKC within a spatially defined membrane domain on one side of the cell in response to symmetry-breaking cues. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote as a model, we find that the localization and activation of aPKC involve distinct, specialized aPKC-containing assemblies: a PAR-3-dependent assembly that responds to polarity cues and promotes efficient segregation of aPKC toward the anterior but holds aPKC in an inactive state, and a CDC-42-dependent assembly in which aPKC is active but poorly segregated...
August 2, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780048/parallel-embryonic-transcriptional-programs-evolve-under-distinct-constraints-and-may-enable-morphological-conservation-amidst-adaptation
#16
Assaf Malik, Tsvia Gildor, Noa Sher, Majed Layous, Smadar Ben-Tabou de-Leon
Embryonic development evolves by balancing stringent morphological constraints with genetic and environmental variation. The design principle that allows developmental transcriptional programs to conserve embryonic morphology while adapting to environmental changes is still not fully understood. To address this fundamental challenge, we compare developmental transcriptomes of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, that shared a common ancestor about 40 million years ago and are geographically distant yet show similar morphology...
August 2, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768200/cfp1-regulates-histone-h3k4-trimethylation-and-developmental-potential-in-mouse-oocytes
#17
Chao Yu, Xiaoying Fan, Qian-Qian Sha, Hui-Han Wang, Bo-Tai Li, Xing-Xing Dai, Li Shen, Junping Liu, Lie Wang, Kui Liu, Fuchou Tang, Heng-Yu Fan
Trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine-4 (H3K4me3) is associated with eukaryotic gene promoters and poises their transcriptional activation during development. To examine the in vivo function of H3K4me3 in the absence of DNA replication, we deleted CXXC finger protein 1 (CFP1), the DNA-binding subunit of the SETD1 histone H3K4 methyltransferase, in developing oocytes. We find that CFP1 is required for H3K4me3 accumulation and the deposition of histone variants onto chromatin during oocyte maturation. Decreased H3K4me3 in oocytes caused global downregulation of transcription activity...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767718/zygotic-vinculin-is-not-essential-for-embryonic-development-in-zebrafish
#18
Mitchell K L Han, Gerard N M van der Krogt, Johan de Rooij
The formation of multicellular tissues during development is governed by mechanical forces that drive cell shape and tissue architecture. Protein complexes at sites of adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell neighbors, not only transmit these mechanical forces, but also allow cells to respond to changes in force by inducing biochemical feedback pathways. Such force-induced signaling processes are termed mechanotransduction. Vinculin is a central protein in mechanotransduction that in both integrin-mediated cell-ECM and cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions mediates force-induced cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion strengthening...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765300/pronuclear-transplantation-in-the-mouse-embryo
#19
James McGrath, Davor Solter, Jeff Mann
This protocol describes an example of complete zygote enucleation and transplantation of male and female pronuclei; however, single pronuclei can also be removed and transplanted. In this method, pronuclei are removed without penetrating the plasma membrane of the zygote. Instead, they are withdrawn individually or together into a membrane-bound karyoplast that can then be fused with a recipient enucleated zygote using inactivated Sendai virus or electrofusion. Preincubation of the embryos in the presence of the cytoskeletal inhibitors cytochalasin B and colcemid is critical for the survival of the embryos during this microsurgical procedure...
August 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763725/peroxidized-mineral-oil-increases-the-oxidant-status-of-culture-media-and-inhibits-in%C3%A2-vitro-porcine-embryo-development
#20
C A Martinez, A Nohalez, J J Ceron, C P Rubio, J Roca, C Cuello, H Rodriguez-Martinez, E A Martinez, M A Gil
The use of oils with undetected alterations is a long-recognized problem for in vitro embryo production systems. Since peroxides in oils have been associated with reduced embryo production outcomes, our goals were (1) to evaluate the effects of a batch of mineral oil (MO) that was suspected to be altered on the in vitro production of pig embryos and (2) to determine oil peroxide values throughout culture and the transfer of oxidant agents from oil to culture media. Sunflower oil, which has a completely different chemical composition than MO but a higher oxidative status, and unaltered MO were used as controls...
July 27, 2017: Theriogenology
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