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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150427/delayed-encounter-of-parental-genomes-can-lead-to-aneuploidy-in-saccharomyces%C3%A2-cerevisiae
#1
Alan Michael Tartakoff, David Dulce, Elizabeth Landis
We have investigated an extreme deviation from the norm of genome unification that occurs during mating in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae This deviation is encountered when yeast that carry a mutation of the spindle pole body protein, Kar1, are mated with wildtype cells. In this case, nuclear fusion is delayed and the genotypes of a fraction of zygotic progeny suggest that chromosomes have "transferred" between the parental nuclei in zygotes. This classic yet bizarre occurrence is routinely used to generate aneuploid (disomic) yeast...
November 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147457/oxidative-stress-delays-prometaphase-metaphase-of-the-first-cleavage-in-mouse-zygotes-via-the-mad2l1-mediated-spindle-assembly-checkpoint
#2
Que Wu, Zhiling Li, Yue Huang, Diting Qian, Man Chen, Wanfen Xiao, Bin Wang
In zygotes, DNA damage delays the first cleavage to enable repair. Our previous study found that 0.03 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was the minimum concentration required for induction of oxidative DNA damage in mouse zygotes and that this represented the most similar situation to the clinical phenomenon. In this study, we quantified the cleavage rates of cells in blastocysts at different developmental stages, followed by immunofluorescence to detect activation of γ-H2A histone family member X (a marker of DNA damage) in zygotes to confirm that oxidative DNA damage was induced in H2O2-treated zygotes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144576/molecular-reproduction-development-volume-84-issue-11-november-2017
#3
(no author information available yet)
Ctenophores, also known as comb jellies, are non-bilaterian invertebrates and nearly all are self-fertile hermaphrodites. Mnemiopsis leidyi is a particularly useful model for the study of cellular, tissue, and organ patterning in ctenophores due to their extreme transparency, as seen in these adults. The locomotory ctene rows, highlighted by iridescence, overlie the germ line, from which gametes and embryos are readily available in large numbers. In this issue, Davidson et al. characterize transcript expression and timing of the maternal-to-zygotic transition and accompanying zygotic genome activation during early embryogenesis in this ctenophore...
November 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144233/a-high-resolution-mrna-expression-time-course-of-embryonic-development-in-zebrafish
#4
Richard J White, John E Collins, Ian M Sealy, Neha Wali, Christopher M Dooley, Zsofia Digby, Derek L Stemple, Daniel N Murphy, Konstantinos Billis, Thibaut Hourlier, Anja Füllgrabe, Matthew P Davis, Anton J Enright, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich
We have produced an mRNA expression time course of zebrafish development across 18 time points from 1 cell to 5 days post-fertilisation sampling individual and pools of embryos. Using poly(A) pulldown stranded RNA-seq and a 3' end transcript counting method we characterise temporal expression profiles of 23,642 genes. We identify temporal and functional transcript co-variance that associates 5024 unnamed genes with distinct developmental time points. Specifically, a class of over 100 previously uncharacterised zinc finger domain containing genes, located on the long arm of chromosome 4, is expressed in a sharp peak during zygotic genome activation...
November 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140251/vg1-nodal-heterodimers-are-the-endogenous-inducers-of-mesendoderm
#5
Tessa Grace Montague, Alexander F Schier
Nodal is considered the key inducer of mesendoderm in vertebrate embryos and embryonic stem cells. Other TGF-beta-related signals, such as Vg1/Dvr1/Gdf3, have also been implicated in this process but their roles have been unclear or controversial. Here we report that zebrafish embryos without maternally provided vg1 fail to form endoderm and head and trunk mesoderm, and closely resemble nodal loss-of-function mutants. Although Nodal is processed and secreted without Vg1, it requires Vg1 for its endogenous activity...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140250/gdf3-is-required-for-robust-nodal-signaling-during-germ-layer-formation-and-left-right-patterning
#6
Jose L Pelliccia, Granton A Jindal, Rebecca D Burdine
Vertebrate embryonic patterning depends on signaling from Nodal, a TGFβ superfamily member. There are three Nodal orthologs in zebrafish; southpaw directs left-right asymmetries, while squint and cyclops function earlier to pattern mesendoderm. TGFβ member Vg1 is implicated in mesoderm formation but the role of the zebrafish ortholog, Growth differentiation factor 3 (Gdf3), has not been fully explored. We show that zygotic expression of gdf3 is dispensable for embryonic development, while maternally deposited gdf3 is required for mesendoderm formation and dorsal-ventral patterning...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140249/maternal-gdf3-is-an-obligatory-cofactor-in-nodal-signaling-for-embryonic-axis-formation-in-zebrafish
#7
Brent W Bisgrove, Yi-Chu Su, H Joseph Yost
Zebrafish Gdf3 (Dvr1) is a member of the TGFb superfamily of cell signaling ligands that includes Xenopus Vg1 and mammalian Gdf1/3. Surprisingly, engineered homozygous mutants in zebrafish have no apparent phenotype. Elimination of Gdf3 in oocytes of maternal-zygotic mutants results in embryonic lethality that can be fully rescued with gdf3 RNA, demonstrating that Gdf3 is required only early in development, beyond which mutants are viable and fertile. Gdf3 mutants are refractory to Nodal ligands and Nodal repressor Lefty1...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135047/effects-of-voltage-strength-during-electroporation-on-the-development-and-quality-of-in-vitro-produced-porcine-embryos
#8
K Nishio, F Tanihara, T-V Nguyen, T Kunihara, M Nii, M Hirata, T Takemoto, T Otoi
This study was conducted to determine suitable conditions for an experimental method in which the CRISPR/Cas9 system is introduced into in vitro-produced porcine zygotes by electroporation. In the first experiment, when putative zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) were electroporated by either unipolar or bipolar pulses, keeping the voltage, pulse duration and pulse number fixed at 30 V/mm, 1 msec and five repeats, respectively, the rate of blastocyst formation from zygotes electroporated by bipolar pulses decreased compared to zygotes electroporated by unipolar pulses...
November 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132995/comparative-functional-potency-of-dna-vaccines-encoding-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-blocking-target-antigens-pfs48-45-and-pfs25-administered-alone-or-in-combination-by-in-vivo-electroporation-in-rhesus-macaques
#9
Dibyadyuti Datta, Geetha P Bansal, Brooke Grasperge, Dale S Martin, Mario Philipp, Dietlind Gerloff, Barry Ellefsen, Drew Hannaman, Nirbhay Kumar
Antibodies recognizing conformational epitopes in Pfs48/45, an antigen expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum gametes and zygotes, have firmly established Pfs48/45 as a promising transmission blocking vaccine (TBV) candidate. However, it has been difficult to reproducibly express Pfs48/45 in a variety of recombinant expression systems. The goal of our studies was to evaluate functional immunogenicity of Pfs48/45 using DNA vaccine format in rhesus macaques. An additional goal was to ensure that when used in combination with another malarial antigen, specific immunity to both antigens was not compromised...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132437/hap2-a-novel-gene-in-babesia-bigemina-is-expressed-in-tick-stages-and-specific-antibodies-block-zygote-formation
#10
Minerva Camacho-Nuez, Diego Josimar Hernández-Silva, Elizabeth Jacqueline Castañeda-Ortiz, María Elena Paredes-Martínez, Marisol Karina Rocha-Martínez, María Elizbeth Alvarez-Sánchez, Ricardo Francisco Mercado-Curiel, Gabriela Aguilar-Tipacamu, Juan Mosqueda
BACKGROUND: Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. In their host vector, Babesia spp. undergo sexual reproduction. Therefore, the development of sexual stages and the subsequent formation of the zygote are essential for the parasite to invade the intestinal cells of the vector tick and continue its life-cycle. HAP2/GCS1 is a protein identified in plants, protozoan parasites and other organisms that has an important role during membrane fusion in fertilization processes...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132428/characterization-of-pb51-in-plasmodium-berghei-as-a-malaria-vaccine-candidate-targeting-both-asexual-erythrocytic-proliferation-and-transmission
#11
Jian Wang, Wenqi Zheng, Fei Liu, Yaru Wang, Yiwen He, Li Zheng, Qi Fan, Enjie Luo, Yaming Cao, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: A vaccine that targets multiple developmental stages of malaria parasites would be an effective tool for malaria control and elimination. METHODS: A conserved gene in Plasmodium, the Plasmodium berghei gene (PBANKA_020570) encoding a 51 kDa protein (pb51 gene), was identified through search of the PlasmoDB database using a combination of expression and protein localization criteria. A partial domain of the Pb51 protein was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system (rPb51) and used for immunization in mice...
November 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132036/holding-immature-bovine-oocytes-in-a-commercial-embryo-holding-medium-high-developmental-competence-for-up-to-10%C3%A2-h-at-room-temperature
#12
Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini, Maaike Catteeuw, Ann Van Soom, Geert Opsomer
Bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP) following Ovum Pick Up (OPU) is all too often hampered by a large time gap between the harvest of oocytes of the first and last OPU session of the day. Immediately after retrieval, oocyte maturation is initiated, resulting in oocytes maturing at different time points which necessitates laborious scheduling of the IVP process. In this study, the potential of a commercial embryo holding medium (EHM; Syngro, Bioniche Inc.) to hold immature bovine oocytes was validated. We assessed the effect of holding time and temperature on (1) oocytes' maturation; (2) blastocyst development and quality at day 8 post insemination; and (3) blastocyst yield in small groups of oocytes/zygotes simulating OPU settings...
November 4, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131448/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-x-saccharomyces-uvarum-hybrids-generated-under-different-conditions-share-similar-winemaking-features
#13
Origone Andrea Cecilia, Rodríguez María Eugenia, Oteiza Juan Martín, Querol Amparo, Lopes Christian Ariel
Interspecific hybrids among species in the Saccharomyces genus are frequently detected in anthropic habitats and can also be obtained easily in the laboratory. This occurs because the most important genetic barriers among Saccharomyces species are post-zygotic. Depending on several factors, including the involved strains, the hybridisation mechanism and stabilisation conditions, the hybrids that bear differential genomic constitutions, and hence phenotypic variability, can be obtained. In the present study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum hybrids were constructed using genetically and physiologically different S...
November 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129659/generation-of-conditional-acvrl1-knockout-mice-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-targeting
#14
Ming Xu, Hongzhi Xu, Jian Chen, Chunjui Chen, Feng Xu, Zhiyong Qin
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to generate mutant mice containing the Acvrl1 gene flanked with LoxP sequences to allow conditional deletion ofAcvrl1 by the LoxP/Cre system. Such mice may facilitate the development of brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) models. METHODS: The CRISPR/Cas9 technique was used to edit Acvrl1. Two single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) with recognition sites on intron 3 and 8 and a donor vector that was homologous with the targeted gene and contained two LoxP sequences were designed and constructed...
November 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121011/assisted-reproductive-technologies-to-prevent-human-mitochondrial-disease-transmission
#15
Andy Greenfield, Peter Braude, Frances Flinter, Robin Lovell-Badge, Caroline Ogilvie, Anthony C F Perry
Mitochondria are essential cytoplasmic organelles that generate energy (ATP) by oxidative phosphorylation and mediate key cellular processes such as apoptosis. They are maternally inherited and in humans contain a 16,569-base-pair circular genome (mtDNA) encoding 37 genes required for oxidative phosphorylation. Mutations in mtDNA cause a range of pathologies, commonly affecting energy-demanding tissues such as muscle and brain. Because mitochondrial diseases are incurable, attention has focused on limiting the inheritance of pathogenic mtDNA by mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT)...
November 9, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120257/maternal-effects-of-micrornas-in-early-embryogenesis
#16
Katherine McJunkin
The window of embryonic development after fertilization but prior to the beginning of transcription from the zygotic genome is a period that relies heavily on post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs constitute one of the predominant mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation, yet their biological function and molecular mechanism of action during this developmental window is poorly understood. Our recent findings demonstrate that the maternal contribution of mir-35 family members contributes to zygotic developmental decisions (sex determination) in C...
November 9, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119500/conceptual-challenges-of-the-systemic-approach-in-understanding-cell-differentiation
#17
Andras Paldi
The cells of a multicellular organism are derived from a single zygote and genetically identical. Yet, they are phenotypically very different. This difference is the result of a process commonly called cell differentiation. How the phenotypic diversity emerges during ontogenesis or regeneration is a central and intensely studied but still unresolved issue in biology. Cell biology is facing conceptual challenges that are frequently confused with methodological difficulties. How to define a cell type? What stability or change means in the context of cell differentiation and how to deal with the ubiquitous molecular variations seen in the living cells? What are the driving forces of the change? We propose to reframe the problem of cell differentiation in a systemic way by incorporating different theoretical approaches...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119309/localization-and-transport-of-indole-3-acetic-acid-during-somatic-embryogenesis-in-coffea-canephora
#18
Ruth E Márquez-López, Cleyre Pérez-Hernández, Ángela Ku-González, Rosa María Galaz-Ávalos, Víctor Manuel Loyola-Vargas
Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling zygotic embryo development, but less is known about their role in the development of somatic embryos. The aim of this study was to determine if indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the PIN1 transporter participate in the induction of somatic embryogenesis (SE) and the development of somatic embryos. The results show that IAA levels gradually increase during pre-treatment and accumulate in the chloroplast. During pre-treatment and the globular stage of SE in C...
November 8, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118980/sirt1-dependent-modulation-of-methylation-and-acetylation-of-histone-h3-on-lysine-9-h3k9-in-the-zygotic-pronuclei-improves-porcine-embryo-development
#19
Katerina Adamkova, Young-Joo Yi, Jaroslav Petr, Tereza Zalmanova, Kristyna Hoskova, Pavla Jelinkova, Jiri Moravec, Milena Kralickova, Miriam Sutovsky, Peter Sutovsky, Jan Nevoral
Background: The histone code is an established epigenetic regulator of early embryonic development in mammals. The lysine residue K9 of histone H3 (H3K9) is a prime target of SIRT1, a member of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase family of enzymes targeting both histone and non-histone substrates. At present, little is known about SIRT1-modulation of H3K9 in zygotic pronuclei and its association with the success of preimplantation embryo development. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SIRT1 activity on H3K9 methylation and acetylation in porcine zygotes and the significance of H3K9 modifications for early embryonic development...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116181/leucine-repeat-adaptor-protein-1-interacts-with-dishevelled-to-regulate-gastrulation-cell-movements-in-zebrafish
#20
Xiao-Ning Cheng, Ming Shao, Ji-Tong Li, Yan-Fei Wang, Jing Qi, Zhi-Gang Xu, De-Li Shi
Gastrulation is a fundamental morphogenetic event that requires polarised cell behaviours for coordinated asymmetric cell movements. Wnt/PCP signalling plays a critical role in this process. Dishevelled is an important conserved scaffold protein that relays Wnt/PCP signals from membrane receptors to the modulation of cytoskeleton organisation. However, it remains unclear how its activity is regulated for the activation of downstream effectors. Here, we report that Lurap1 is a Dishevelled-interacting protein that regulates Wnt/PCP signalling in convergence and extension movements during vertebrate gastrulation...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
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