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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777776/distinct-roles-for-the-cell-adhesion-molecule-contactin2-in-the-development-and-function-of-neural-circuits-in-zebrafish
#1
Suman Gurung, Emilia Asante, Devynn Hummel, Ashley Williams, Oren Feldman-Schultz, Mary C Halloran, Vinoth Sittaramane, Anand Chandrasekhar
Contactin2 (Cntn2)/Transient Axonal Glycoprotein 1 (Tag1), a neural cell adhesion molecule, has established roles in neuronal migration and axon fasciculation in chick and mouse. In zebrafish, antisense morpholino-based studies have indicated roles for cntn2 in the migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons, the guidance of the axons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle (nucMLF), and the outgrowth of Rohon-Beard (RB) central axons. To study functions of Cntn2 in later stages of neuronal development, we generated cntn2 mutant zebrafish using CRISPR-Cas9...
May 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777205/oviduct-epithelium-induces-interferon-tau-in-bovine-day-4-embryos-which-generates-an-anti-inflammatory-response-in-immune-cells
#2
Anup K Talukder, Mohammad B Rashid, Mohamed S Yousef, Kazuya Kusama, Takashi Shimizu, Masayuki Shimada, Susan S Suarez, Kazuhiko Imakawa, Akio Miyamoto
Recent studies indicate that communication between the bovine embryo and the mother begins in the oviduct. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of embryos on bovine oviducts for their immune responses using an in vitro model. First, zygotes were cultured with or without bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) for 4 days, when embryos had reached the 16-cell stage. At that time, we detected interferon-tau (IFNT) in embryos co-cultured with BOECs, but not in embryos cultured alone. Next, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated either in media from embryo alone cultures or from co-cultures of embryos with BOECs...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773834/embryonic-pou5f1-is-required-for-expanded-bovine-blastocyst-formation
#3
Bradford W Daigneault, Sandeep Rajput, George W Smith, Pablo J Ross
POU5F1 is a transcription factor and master regulator of cell pluripotency with indispensable roles in early embryo development and cell lineage specification. The role of embryonic POU5F1 in blastocyst formation and cell lineage specification differs between mammalian species but remains completely unknown in cattle. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was utilized for targeted disruption of the POU5F1 gene by direct injection into zygotes. Disruption of the bovine POU5F1 locus prevented blastocyst formation and was associated with embryonic arrest at the morula stage...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773558/genetic-analyses-of-elys-mutations-in-drosophila-show-maternal-effect-lethality-and-interactions-with-nucleoporin-genes
#4
Kazuyuki Hirai, Zhuo Wang, Kohei Miura, Takaaki Hayashi, Takeshi Awasaki, Moe Wada, Yoko Keira, Hiroyuki O Ishikawa, Kyoichi Sawamura
ELYS determines the subcellular localizations of Nucleoporins (Nups) during interphase and mitosis. We made loss-of-function mutations of Elys in Drosophila melanogaster and found that ELYS is dispensable for zygotic viability and male fertility but the maternal supply is necessary for embryonic development. Subsequent to fertilization, mitotic progression of the embryos produced by the mutant females is severely disrupted at the first cleavage division, accompanied by irregular behavior of mitotic centrosomes...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771291/long-noncoding-rnas-exchange-during-zygotic-genome-activation-in-goat
#5
Mingtian Deng, Yongjie Wan, Zifei Liu, Caifang Ren, Guomin Zhang, Jing Pang, Yanli Zhang, Feng Wang
In mammals, their proper development during the early cleavage stages strongly relies on the gene products newly transcribed by zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been characterized as key regulators of the ZGA process in mice and human. However, the ZGA stage has not yet been identified and epigenetic regulations of the ZGA process remain largely unknown in goats. Here, we show that ZGA occurred at the 8-cell stage in goats. During ZGA, tri-methylation of H3K9 was dynamically changed but maintained strong staining in development arrested embryos...
May 15, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769555/cattle-with-a-precise-zygote-mediated-deletion-safely-eliminate-the-major-milk-allergen-beta-lactoglobulin
#6
Jingwei Wei, Stefan Wagner, Paul Maclean, Brigid Brophy, Sally Cole, Grant Smolenski, Dan F Carlson, Scott C Fahrenkrug, David N Wells, Götz Laible
We applied precise  zygote-mediated genome editing to eliminate beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major allergen in cows' milk. To efficiently generate LGB knockout cows, biopsied embryos were screened to transfer only appropriately modified embryos. Transfer of 13 pre-selected embryos into surrogate cows resulted in the birth of three calves, one dying shortly after birth. Deep sequencing results confirmed conversion of the genotype from wild type to the edited nine bp deletion by more than 97% in the two male calves...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768195/reprogramming-of-chromatin-accessibility-in-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-is-dna-replication-independent
#7
Mohamed Nadhir Djekidel, Azusa Inoue, Shogo Matoba, Tsukasa Suzuki, Chunxia Zhang, Falong Lu, Lan Jiang, Yi Zhang
Mammalian oocytes have the ability to reset the transcriptional program of differentiated somatic cells into that of totipotent embryos through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, the mechanisms underlying SCNT-mediated reprogramming are largely unknown. To understand the mechanisms governing chromatin reprogramming during SCNT, we profiled DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in donor cumulus cells and one-cell stage SCNT embryos. To our surprise, the chromatin accessibility landscape of the donor cells is drastically changed to recapitulate that of the in vitro fertilization (IVF)-derived zygotes within 12 hr...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764918/a-feed-forward-relay-integrates-the-regulatory-activities-of-bicoid-and-orthodenticle-via-sequential-binding-to-suboptimal-sites
#8
Rhea R Datta, Jia Ling, Jesse Kurland, Xiaotong Ren, Zhe Xu, Gozde Yucel, Jackie Moore, Leila Shokri, Isabel Baker, Timothy Bishop, Paolo Struffi, Rimma Levina, Martha L Bulyk, Robert J Johnston, Stephen Small
The K50 (lysine at amino acid position 50) homeodomain (HD) protein Orthodenticle (Otd) is critical for anterior patterning and brain and eye development in most metazoans. In Drosophila melanogaster , another K50HD protein, Bicoid (Bcd), has evolved to replace Otd's ancestral function in embryo patterning. Bcd is distributed as a long-range maternal gradient and activates transcription of a large number of target genes, including otd Otd and Bcd bind similar DNA sequences in vitro, but how their transcriptional activities are integrated to pattern anterior regions of the embryo is unknown...
May 15, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762586/subdiffraction-limited-second-harmonic-photoacoustic-microscopy-based-on-nonlinear-thermal-diffusion
#9
Zhenhui Zhang, Yujiao Shi, Sihua Yang, Da Xing
We have developed a second harmonic photoacoustic microscopy (SH-PAM) for subdiffraction-limited imaging based on nonlinear thermal diffusion. When a sine-modulated Gaussian temperature field is introduced by a laser beam, the temperature dependence of the thermal diffusivity induces a nonlinear photoacoustic (PA) effect and thus results in the production of second harmonic PA signals. We demonstrate through both simulation and experiment that the second harmonic PA images can be reconstructed with a lateral resolution exceeding that of conventional optical resolution PA microscopy...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761655/fennel-induces-cytotoxic-effects-against-testicular-germ-cells-in-mice-evidences-for-suppressed-pre-implantation-embryo-development
#10
Aram Minas, Gholamreza Najafi, Ali Shalizar Jalali, Mazdak Razi
Foeniculum vulgare (FVE; fennel) is an aromatic plant belonging to Umbelliferae family, which is widely used in traditional societies because of its different pharmaceutical properties. To uncover the fennel-derived essential oil (FVEO)-induced effects on male reproductive potential, 24 mature male albino mice were divided into, control, 0.37, 0.75, and 1.5 mg kg-1 FVEO-received groups. Following 35 days, the animals were euthanized and the testicular tissue and sperm samples were collected. The histological alterations, tubular differentiation (TDI), spermiogenesis (SPI) indices, apoptosis ratio, and RNA damage of germinal cells were analyzed...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751847/asf1-is-required-to-load-histones-on-the-hira-complex-in-preparation-of-paternal-chromatin-assembly-at-fertilization
#11
Béatrice Horard, Laure Sapey-Triomphe, Emilie Bonnefoy, Benjamin Loppin
BACKGROUND: Anti-Silencing Factor 1 (ASF1) is a conserved H3-H4 histone chaperone involved in both Replication-Coupled and Replication-Independent (RI) nucleosome assembly pathways. At DNA replication forks, ASF1 plays an important role in regulating the supply of H3.1/2 and H4 to the CAF-1 chromatin assembly complex. ASF1 also provides H3.3-H4 dimers to HIRA and DAXX chaperones for RI nucleosome assembly. The early Drosophila embryo is an attractive system to study chromatin assembly in a developmental context...
May 11, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749586/porcine-cell-free-system-to-study-mammalian-sperm-mitophagy
#12
Won-Hee Song, Peter Sutovsky
A cell-free system using oocyte extracts is a valuable tool to study early events of animal fertilization and examine protein-protein interactions difficult to observe in whole cells. The process of postfertilization sperm mitophagy assures timely elimination of paternal, sperm-contributed mitochondria carrying potentially corrupted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Cell-free systems would be especially advantageous for studying postfertilization sperm mitophagy as large amounts of oocyte extracts can be incubated with hundreds to thousands of spermatozoa in a single trial, while only one spermatozoon per zygote can be examined by whole-cell approaches...
May 11, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748649/efficient-mouse-genome-engineering-by-crispr-ez-technology
#13
Andrew J Modzelewski, Sean Chen, Brandon J Willis, K C Kent Lloyd, Joshua A Wood, Lin He
CRISPR/Cas9 technology has transformed mouse genome editing with unprecedented precision, efficiency, and ease; however, the current practice of microinjecting CRISPR reagents into pronuclear-stage embryos remains rate-limiting. We thus developed CRISPR ribonucleoprotein (RNP) electroporation of zygotes (CRISPR-EZ), an electroporation-based technology that outperforms pronuclear and cytoplasmic microinjection in efficiency, simplicity, cost, and throughput. In C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mouse strains, CRISPR-EZ achieves 100% delivery of Cas9/single-guide RNA (sgRNA) RNPs, facilitating indel mutations (insertions or deletions), exon deletions, point mutations, and small insertions...
June 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746690/retrospective-analysis-reproducibility-of-interblastomere-differences-of-mrna-expression-in-2-cell-stage-mouse-embryos-is-remarkably-poor-due-to-combinatorial-mechanisms-of-blastomere-diversification
#14
E Casser, S Israel, S Schlatt, V Nordhoff, M Boiani
STUDY QUESTION: What is the prevalence, reproducibility and biological significance of transcriptomic differences between sister blastomeres of the mouse 2-cell embryo? SUMMARY ANSWER: Sister 2-cell stage blastomeres are distinguishable from each other by mRNA analysis, attesting to the fact that differentiation starts mostly early in the mouse embryo; however, the interblastomere differences are poorly reproducible and invoke the combinatorial effects of known and new mechanisms of blastomere diversification...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741247/prenatal-and-preimplantation-diagnosis-of-hemoglobinopathies
#15
REVIEW
C Vrettou, G Kakourou, T Mamas, J Traeger-Synodinos
The hemoglobinopathies, as a group, are one of the most common serious monogenic diseases in the world. An accepted and widely adopted approach to reduce the number of new cases involves carrier-screening programs, with the option of prenatal diagnosis (PND) or preimplantation diagnosis (preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disease, PGT-M) for carrier couples. The aim of PND is to provide an accurate result as early in pregnancy as possible, which necessitates prior identification of the parental disease-causing mutations, as well as safe and timely biopsy of fetal material...
May 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740477/determination-of-oocyte-manipulation-zygote-manipulation-and-genome-reprogramming-effects-on-the-transcriptomes-of-bovine-blastocysts
#16
Byungkuk Min, Jung S Park, Yong-Kook Kang
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (scNT) embryos suffer from damage caused by micro-operation (manipulation) and inefficient genome reprograming that hinder their normal development at different levels and in distinct ways. These two effects are inseparable in the nature of the scNT embryo, although methods to separately measure them are needed to improve scNT technology and evaluate incoming reprogramming tools. As an attempt to meet these demands, we made bovine sham nuclear-transfer (shNT) blastocysts, special embryos made with a standard nuclear-transfer procedure at the zygote stage, while retaining an intact genome...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738714/atypical-cadherin-dachsous1b-interacts-with-ttc28-and-aurora-b-to-control-microtubule-dynamics-in-embryonic-cleavages
#17
Jiakun Chen, Gina D Castelvecchi, Nanbing Li-Villarreal, Brian Raught, Andrzej M Krezel, Helen McNeill, Lilianna Solnica-Krezel
Atypical cadherin Dachsous (Dchs) is a conserved regulator of planar cell polarity, morphogenesis, and tissue growth during animal development. Dchs functions in part by regulating microtubules by unknown molecular mechanisms. Here we show that maternal zygotic (MZ) dchs1b zebrafish mutants exhibit cleavage furrow progression defects and impaired midzone microtubule assembly associated with decreased microtubule turnover. Mechanistically, Dchs1b interacts via a conserved motif in its intracellular domain with the tetratricopeptide motifs of Ttc28 and regulates its subcellular distribution...
May 7, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732662/survival-in-double-aneuploidy-involving-trisomy-18-and-sex-chromosome-trisomy-a-case-report-of-a-27-month-old-child-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
Takahide Watabe, Hiroshi Koga
Maternal meiotic nondisjunction can cause autosomal trisomy, such as trisomy 13, 18, and 21, and parental meiotic nondisjunction or post-zygotic nondisjunction can cause sex chromosome trisomy, such as XXX (triple X syndrome), XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), and XYY (XYY syndrome).
May 7, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731305/disumo-like-interacts-with-rna-binding-proteins-and-affects-cell-cycle-progression-during-maize-embryogenesis
#19
Junyi Chen, Kamila Kalinowska, Benedikt Müller, Julia Mergner, Rainer Deutzmann, Claus Schwechheimer, Ulrich Z Hammes, Thomas Dresselhaus
Embryogenesis in flowering plants is initiated by an asymmetric zygote division, generating two daughter cells that are the precursors of different cell lineages. Little is known about the molecular players regulating activation and progression of zygote development, establishment of asymmetry, and the plant-specific process of cell-plate formation. Here, we report the function of the ubiquitin-like modifier DiSUMO-LIKE (DSUL) for early embryo development in maize. Introducing a DSUL-RNAi construct by sperm cells affects cytokinesis generating non-separated zygotic daughter nuclei or multinucleate embryonic cells lacking cell plates...
April 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729430/functional-genetics-of-early-human-development
#20
REVIEW
Nicolás M Ortega, Nerges Winblad, Alvaro Plaza Reyes, Fredrik Lanner
Understanding the genetic underpinning of early human development is of great interest not only for basic developmental and stem cell biology but also for regenerative medicine, infertility treatments, and better understanding the causes of congenital disease. Our current knowledge has mainly been generated with the use of laboratory animals, especially the mouse. While human and mouse early development present morphological resemblance, we know that the timing of the events as well as the cellular and genetic mechanisms that control fundamental processes are distinct between the species...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
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