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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526530/insights-into-the-early-stage-of-pinus-nigra-arn-somatic-embryogenesis-using-discovery-proteomics
#1
Katarína Klubicová, Lubica Uvácková, Maksym Danchenko, Peter Nemecek, Ludovít Skultéty, Ján Salaj, Terézia Salaj
The somatic embryogenesis in conifers represents a suitable model of plant regeneration system facilitating studies of fundamental aspects of an early development as well as in vitro micropropagation. The aim of our study was to deeper understand the somatic embryogenesis in the conifer tree Pinus nigra Arn. Comparative proteomic analysis based on 2D-PAGE in 1) proliferating embryogenic tissues (E) initiated from immature zygotic embryos, 2) non-embryogenic calli (NEC) initiated from cotyledons of somatic seedlings of the same genotypes, 3) embryogenic tissues that lost the maturation capacity (E-L) of two cell lines (E362, E366)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525333/germocyte-lesions-caused-by-porcine-circovirus-type-2b-in-kunming-mice
#2
A W Yuan, P Pang, Q L Gong, Z B Deng
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been known as a causative agent of reproductive failure in the sow. In the present study mouse model was used to investigate PCV2 infection. In order to investigate whether PCV2 can induce lesions of spermatocytes and oocytes, 6 male and 6 female mice were each inoculated intraperitoneally with PCV2b, and 3 male and 3 female mice mock-infected with cell culture supernatant served as controls. Samples of testes and ovaries from PCV2b-inoculated and mock-infected mice were investigated using PCR, histopathological, ultrastructural and immunofluorescent histochemical methods at 14 and 21 day post infection (dpi)...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522611/long-terminal-repeats-power-evolution-of-genes-and-gene-expression-programs-in-mammalian-oocytes-and-zygotes
#3
Vedran Franke, Sravya Ganesh, Rosa Karlic, Radek Malik, Josef Pasulka, Filip Horvat, Maja Kuzman, Helena Fulka, Marketa Cernohorska, Jana Urbanova, Eliska Svobodova, Jun Ma, Yutaka Suzuki, Fugaku Aoki, Richard M Schultz, Kristian Vlahovicek, Petr Svoboda
Retrotransposons are 'copy-and-paste' insertional mutagens that substantially contribute to mammalian genome content. Retrotransposons often carry long terminal repeats (LTRs) for retrovirus-like reverse transcription and integration into the genome. We report an extraordinary impact of a group of LTRs from the mammalian endogenous retrovirus-related ERVL retrotransposon class on gene expression in the germline and beyond. In mouse, we identified >800 LTRs from ORR1, MT, MT2, and MLT families, which resemble mobile gene-remodeling platforms that supply promoters and first exons...
May 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520732/differential-gene-expression-along-the-animal-vegetal-axis-in-the-ascidian-embryo-is-maintained-by-a-dual-functional-protein-foxd
#4
Shin-Ichi Tokuhiro, Miki Tokuoka, Kenji Kobayashi, Atsushi Kubo, Izumi Oda-Ishii, Yutaka Satou
In many animal embryos, a specific gene expression pattern is established along the animal-vegetal axis soon after zygotic transcription begins. In the embryo of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, soon after the division that separates animal and vegetal hemispheres into distinct blastomeres, maternal Gata.a and β-catenin activate specific genes in the animal and vegetal blastomeres, respectively. On the basis of these initial distinct gene expression patterns, gene regulatory networks promote animal cells to become ectodermal tissues and vegetal cells to become endomesodermal tissues and a part of the nerve cord...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515048/essential-function-of-the-serine-hydroxymethyl-transferase-shmt-gene-during-rapid-syncytial-cell-cycles-in-drosophila
#5
Franziska Winkler, Maria Kriebel, Michaela Clever, Stephanie Gröning, Jörg Großhans
Many metabolic enzymes are evolutionary highly conserved and serve a central function for catabolism and anabolism of cells. The serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT) catalysing the conversion of serine and glycine and vice versa feeds into the tetrahydrofolate mediated C1 metabolism. We identified a Drosophila mutation in SHMT (CG3011) in a screen for blastoderm mutants. Embryos from SHMT mutant germline clones specifically arrest the cell cycle in interphase 13 at the time of the mid blastula transition (MBT) and prior to cellularisation...
May 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512193/dna-replication-timing-during-development-anticipates-transcriptional-programs-and-parallels-enhancer-activation
#6
Joseph C Siefert, Constantin Georgescu, Jonathan D Wren, Amnon Koren, Christopher L Sansam
In dividing cells, DNA replication occurs in a precise order, but many questions remain regarding the mechanisms of replication timing establishment and regulation. We now have generated genome-wide, high-resolution replication timing maps throughout zebrafish development. Unexpectedly, in the rapid cell cycles preceding the midblastula transition, a defined timing program was present that predicted the initial wave of zygotic transcription. Replication timing was thereafter progressively and continuously remodeled across the majority of the genome, and epigenetic changes involved in enhancer activation frequently paralleled developmental changes in replication timing...
May 16, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511701/easi-crispr-a-robust-method-for-one-step-generation-of-mice-carrying-conditional-and-insertion-alleles-using-long-ssdna-donors-and-crispr-ribonucleoproteins
#7
Rolen M Quadros, Hiromi Miura, Donald W Harms, Hisako Akatsuka, Takehito Sato, Tomomi Aida, Ronald Redder, Guy P Richardson, Yutaka Inagaki, Daisuke Sakai, Shannon M Buckley, Parthasarathy Seshacharyulu, Surinder K Batra, Mark A Behlke, Sarah A Zeiner, Ashley M Jacobi, Yayoi Izu, Wallace B Thoreson, Lisa D Urness, Suzanne L Mansour, Masato Ohtsuka, Channabasavaiah B Gurumurthy
BACKGROUND: Conditional knockout mice and transgenic mice expressing recombinases, reporters, and inducible transcriptional activators are key for many genetic studies and comprise over 90% of mouse models created. Conditional knockout mice are generated using labor-intensive methods of homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and are available for only ~25% of all mouse genes. Transgenic mice generated by random genomic insertion approaches pose problems of unreliable expression, and thus there is a need for targeted-insertion models...
May 17, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508537/superorganismality-and-caste-differentiation-as-points-of-no-return-how-the-major-evolutionary-transitions-were-lost-in-translation
#8
Jacobus J Boomsma, Richard Gawne
More than a century ago, William Morton Wheeler proposed that social insect colonies can be regarded as superorganisms when they have morphologically differentiated reproductive and nursing castes that are analogous to the metazoan germ-line and soma. Following the rise of sociobiology in the 1970s, Wheeler's insights were largely neglected, and we were left with multiple new superorganism concepts that are mutually inconsistent and uninformative on how superorganismality originated. These difficulties can be traced to the broadened sociobiological concept of eusociality, which denies that physical queen-worker caste differentiation is a universal hallmark of superorganismal colonies...
May 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508289/somatic-mosaicism-with-reversion-to-normality-of-a-mutated-transthyretin-allele-related-to-a-familial-amyloidotic-polyneuropathy
#9
Concetta Federico, Ketty Dugo, Francesca Bruno, Anna Maria Longo, Agata Grillo, Salvatore Saccone
Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a progressive neuropathy, with onset in adulthood and high mortality. It is related to an altered transthyretin (TTR) plasma protein, mainly produced by the liver and responsible for amyloid deposit in the peripheral nervous system. SNPs in the TTR gene were associated with FAP, and the G>C substitution (NM_000371.3:c.325G>C) in the 109th codon (GAG vs CAG; NP_362.1:p.E109Q) was previously described in Sicily (Italy). Here, we report on a Sicilian family with several patients affected by FAP related to the E109Q mutation, which displayed a somatic mosaicism with the reversion to normality of the c...
May 15, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508196/genetic-relationship-and-biological-status-of-the-industrially-important-yeast-saccharomyces-eubayanus-sampaio-et-al
#10
G I Naumov
The genomes of the recently discovered yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus and traditional S. cerevisiae are known to be found in the yeast S. pastorianus (syn. S. carlsbergensis), which are essential for brewing. The cryotolerant yeast S. bayanus var. uvarum is of great importance for production of some wines. Based on ascospore viability and meiotic recombination of the control parental markers in hybrids, we have shown that there is no complete interspecies post-zygotic isolation between the yeasts S. eubayanus, S...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503910/post-zygotic-single-nucleotide-mosaicisms-contribute-to-the-etiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-autistic-traits-and-the-origin-of-mutations
#11
Yanmei Dou, Xiaoxu Yang, Ziyi Li, Sheng Wang, Zheng Zhang, Adam Yongxin Ye, Linlin Yan, Changhong Yang, Qixi Wu, Jiarui Li, Boxun Zhao, August Yue Huang, Liping Wei
The roles and characteristics of post-zygotic single-nucleotide mosaicisms (pSNMs) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain unclear. In this study of the whole-exomes of 2,321 families in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC), we identified 1,248 putative pSNMs in children and 285 de novo SNPs in children with detectable parental mosaicism. Ultra-deep amplicon resequencing suggested a validation rate of 51%. Analyses of validated pSNMs revealed that missense/loss-of-function (LoF) pSNMs with a high mutant allele fraction (MAF> = 0...
May 14, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498870/brg1-chromatin-remodeling-atpase-balances-germ-layer-patterning-by-amplifying-the-transcriptional-burst-at-midblastula-transition
#12
Gabriele Wagner, Nishant Singhal, Dario Nicetto, Tobias Straub, Elisabeth Kremmer, Ralph A W Rupp
Zygotic gene expression programs control cell differentiation in vertebrate development. In Xenopus, these programs are initiated by local induction of regulatory genes through maternal signaling activities in the wake of zygotic genome activation (ZGA) at the midblastula transition (MBT). These programs lay down the vertebrate body plan through gastrulation and neurulation, and are accompanied by massive changes in chromatin structure, which increasingly constrain cellular plasticity. Here we report on developmental functions for Brahma related gene 1 (Brg1), a key component of embyronic SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497410/could-monopronucleated-icsi-zygotes-be-considered-for-transfer-analysis-through-time-lapse-monitoring-and-pgs
#13
S Mateo, F Vidal, M Parriego, I Rodríguez, V Montalvo, A Veiga, M Boada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the chromosomal constitution and the developmental potential of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) deriving embryos displaying a single pronucleus at the zygote stage. METHODS: Eighty-eight embryos from single pronucleus (1PN) two polar bodies (2PB) ICSI zygotes from 64 preimplantational genetic screening (PGS) cycles (October 2012-December 2014), were retrospectively analyzed. Zygotes were cultured in a time-lapse incubator...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497045/high-rate-of-deformed-larvae-among-gynogenetic-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-m-fario-doubled-haploids
#14
Krzysztof Jagiełło, Tomasz Zalewski, Stefan Dobosz, Oliwia Michalik, Konrad Ocalewicz
Mitotic gynogenesis results in the production of fully homozygous individuals in a single generation. Since inbred fish were found to exhibit an increased frequency of body deformations that may affect their survival, the main focus of this research was to evaluate the ratio of individuals with spinal deformities among gynogenetic doubled haploids (DHs) brown trout as compared to nonmanipulated heterozygous individuals. Gynogenetic development was induced by the activation of brown trout eggs by UV-irradiated homologous and heterologous (rainbow trout) spermatozoa...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495877/a-maternal-effect-selfish-genetic-element-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Eyal Ben-David, Alejandro Burga, Leonid Kruglyak
Selfish genetic elements spread in natural populations and have an important role in genome evolution. We discovered a selfish element causing embryonic lethality in crosses between wild strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans The element is made up of sup-35, a maternal-effect toxin that kills developing embryos, and pha-1, its zygotically expressed antidote. pha-1 has long been considered essential for pharynx development on the basis of its mutant phenotype, but this phenotype arises from a loss of suppression of sup-35 toxicity...
May 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494695/the-role-of-integrin-%C3%AE-6-cd49f-in-stem-cells-more-than-a-conserved-biomarker
#16
Paul H Krebsbach, Luis Gerardo Villa-Diaz
Stem cells have the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into specialized cells that form and repopulated all tissues and organs, from conception to adult life. Depending on their capacity for differentiation, stem cells are classified as totipotent (i.e., zygote), pluripotent (i.e., embryonic stem cells) and multipotent (i.e., neuronal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, epithelial stem cells, etc.). Adult, or tissue-specific stem cells, reside in specific niches located in, or nearby, their organ or tissue of origin...
May 11, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479180/accelerated-and-long-term-stability-study-of-pfs25-epa-conjugates-adjuvanted-with-alhydrogel%C3%A2
#17
Daming Zhu, Yimin Wu, Holly McClellan, Weili Dai, Kelly Rausch, Dominique Jones, Joan Aebig, Emma Barnafo, Brandi Butler, Lynn Lambert, David L Narum, Patrick E Duffy
Pfs25, a Plasmodium falciparum surface protein expressed during zygote and ookinete stages in infected mosquitoes, is a lead transmission-blocking vaccine candidate against falciparum malaria. To enhance immunogenicity, recombinant Pfs25 was chemically conjugated to recombinant nontoxic Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoProtein A (rEPA) in conformance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP), and formulated with the alum adjuvant Alhydrogel. In order to meet the regulatory requirements for a phase 1 human clinical trial, the vaccine product was extensively evaluated for stability at an initial time point and through the clinical trial period annually...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478841/somatic-mutation-a-cause-of-biliary-atresia-a-hypothesis
#18
Alexandre Fabre, Céline Roman, Bertrand Roquelaure
Despite many years of research, the causes of biliary atresia still remain elusive. Infection, immune disorder, toxins or maternal microchimerism have been cited as potential triggers of biliary atresia. This is a rare disease with a stable incidence over the years although with sizeable ethnic variations. This stability suggests that environmental factors have in fact only a slight influence. During the search for etiologies, twin studies have often helped disentangle the genetic from the environmental. For this condition, twin studies have mainly demonstrated a lack of concordance between twins (either monozygotic or dizygotic), ruling out Mendelian, infectious or toxic causes...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475701/crispr-cas9-mediated-mutation-of-%C3%AE-a-crystallin-gene-induces-congenital-cataracts-in-rabbits
#19
Lin Yuan, Haobin Yao, Yuxin Xu, Mao Chen, Jichao Deng, Yuning Song, Tingting Sui, Yong Wang, Yongye Huang, Zhanjun Li, Liangxue Lai
Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the role of the αA-crystallin gene in inducing congenital cataracts in rabbits and to construct a novel animal model for characterization and pathologic analysis of congenital cataracts for future research. Methods: We generated αA-crystallin gene knockout rabbits with congenital cataracts by coinjection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA into zygotes. Cataract phenotypes were investigated in a repeated study of 19 F0-generation and 11 F1-generation rabbits with αA-crystallin gene mutations...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473837/genetic-map-of-mango-a-tool-for-mango-breeding
#20
David N Kuhn, Ian S E Bally, Natalie L Dillon, David Innes, Amy M Groh, Jordon Rahaman, Ron Ophir, Yuval Cohen, Amir Sherman
Mango (Mangifera indica) is an economically and nutritionally important tropical/subtropical tree fruit crop. Most of the current commercial cultivars are selections rather than the products of breeding programs. To improve the efficiency of mango breeding, molecular markers have been used to create a consensus genetic map that identifies all 20 linkage groups in seven mapping populations. Polyembryony is an important mango trait, used for clonal propagation of cultivars and rootstocks. In polyembryonic mango cultivars, in addition to a zygotic embryo, several apomictic embryos develop from maternal tissue surrounding the fertilized egg cell...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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