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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792885/effects-of-vasopressin-on-neural-processing-of-infant-crying-in-expectant-fathers
#1
Sandra Thijssen, Anna E Van 't Veer, Jurriaan Witteman, Willemijn M Meijer, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the effect of 20 IU intranasal vasopressin on the neural processing of infant crying in 25 fathers-to-be. We explored whether familial background modulates vasopressin effects, and whether vasopressin differentially affects cry processing coupled with neutral or emotional contextual information. Participants listened to cries accompanied by neutral ('this is an infant') or emotional ('this infant is sick/bored') contextual information, and neutral control sounds ('this is a saw')...
May 21, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792178/anti-ganglioside-complex-antibody-profiles-in-a-recurrent-complicated-case-of-gq1b-seronegative-miller-fisher-syndrome-and-bickerstaff-brainstem-encephalitis-a-case-report
#2
Hiroto Ito, Yuki Hatanaka, Yuki Fukami, Yumiko Harada, Rei Kobayashi, Hisashi Okada, Ayumi Uchibori, Atsuro Chiba, Satoshi Okuda
BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) are a group of autoimmune neurological disorders (GBS spectrum disorder) that rarely recur. Recently, anti-ganglioside complex antibodies (GSC-Abs) were identified in patients with GBS spectrum disorder. However, there has been no case report describing GSC-Abs profiles in a recurrent case showing different phenotypes. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 33-year-old male patient with GQ1b-seronegative BBE-GBS after two prior episodes of MFS-GBS...
May 23, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791616/short-and-long-latency-auditory-evoked-potentials-in-individuals-with-vestibular-dysfunction
#3
Valdete Alves Valentins Dos Santos Filha, Mirtes Bruckmann, Michele Vargas Garcia
Purpose Evaluate the auditory pathway at the brainstem and cortical levels in individuals with peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Methods The study sample was composed 19 individuals aged 20-80 years that presented exam results suggestive of Peripheral Vestibular Disorder (PVD) or Vestibular Dysfunction (VD). Participants underwent evaluation of the auditory pathway through Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP) (short latency) and P1, N1, P2, N2, and P300 cortical potentials (long latency). Results Nine individuals presented diagnosis of VD and 10 participants were diagnosed with PVD...
2018: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791036/neuroplasticity-in-cholinergic-neurons-of-the-laterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus-contributes-to-the-development-of-cocaine-addiction
#4
Katsuyuki Kaneda
The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is a brainstem nucleus that sends cholinergic, glutamatergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key brain region associated with reward information processing and reinforcement learning, and thus, with addiction induced by drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Recent studies have revealed that the LDT, in addition to the VTA, plays important roles in the development and expression of cocaine-induced addiction and stress-induced enhancement of addictive behaviors...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790979/petrosal-meningiomas-factors-affecting-outcome-and-the-role-of-intraoperative-multimodal-assistance-to-microsurgery
#5
Francesco Tomasello, Filippo Flavio Angileri, Alfredo Conti, Antonino Scibilia, Salvatore Cardali, Domenico La Torre, Antonino Germanò
BACKGROUND: Petrous meningiomas (PMs) represent a subset of posterior fossa tumors accounting for ∼8% of all intracranial meningiomas. Surgical treatment of PMs is challenging because of their relationships with vital neurovascular structures of the cerebellopontine angle. OBJECTIVE: To investigate independent pre- and intraoperative predictors of PM surgery outcome. METHODS: We reviewed the surgical and outcome data of patients who underwent microsurgical resection of PMs from 1997 to 2016...
May 22, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790978/mobilization-of-the-anterior-posterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-on-the-cerebellar-surface-in-microvascular-decompression-surgery-for-hemifacial-spasm-potential-effect-on-hearing-preservation
#6
Kenichi Amagasaki, Saiko Watanabe, Atushi Hosono, Hiroshi Nakaguchi
BACKGROUND: The infrafloccular approach in microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) reduces the risk of postoperative hearing impairment. However, location of the anterior/posterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA/PICA) on the cerebellar surface in the surgical route requires mobilization to maintain the approach direction for the protection of hearing function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of mobilization of the AICA/PICA on the cerebellar surface in the surgical route...
May 22, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790849/-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibody-encephalitis-the-janus-faced-disorder
#7
Ildiko Sipos
The recognition of the antibody-mediated encephalitis as a separate entity among the immune disorders of the central nervous system was one of the greatest breakthroughs of the last two decades in neurology. Unlike viral or tumor-related encephalitis, the antibody-mediated form has a good response to immunotherapy, which gives a special clinical importance to the discovery. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the first fully characterized antibody-mediated encephalitises. This article attempts to summarize the clinical features of this complex neuropsychiatric disorder with the aim to help its early recognition and to report the clinical course and the outcome of our six seropositive anti-NMDAR cases...
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790476/-erratum-to-translation-and-validation-of-the-four-scale-for-children-and-its-use-as-outcome-predictor-a-pilot-study
#8
Sofia Simões Ferreira, Daniel Meireles, Alexandra Pinto, Francisco Abecasis
The article "Translation and Validation of the FOUR Scale for Children and its Use as Outcome Predictor: A Pilot Study", published by Acta Médica Portuguesa on September 2017 [Acta Med Port 2017 Sep;30(9):599-607] exhibited the mistake detailed here below: On page 600, paragrapah 4, where it reads: "(...) only the last two are assessed by the GCS and depth of coma may not be accurately detected.4" It should read: "(…) GCS does not include important indicators for an adequate evaluation of coma severity, that is, it only evaluates the cortical function, not including brainstem function evaluation parameters such as respiratory pattern, pupil size and reflexes, nor eye movements; as such it may not detect the coma depth properly...
March 29, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790009/a-new-model-of-the-spinal-locomotor-networks-of-a-salamander-and-its-properties
#9
Qiang Liu, Huizhen Yang, Jinxue Zhang, Jingzhuo Wang
A salamander is an ideal animal for studying the spinal locomotor network mechanism of vertebrates from an evolutionary perspective since it represents the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial animal. However, little is known about the spinal locomotor network of a salamander. A spinal locomotor network model is a useful tool for exploring the working mechanism of the spinal networks of salamanders. A new spinal locomotor network model for a salamander is built for a three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical model of the salamander using a novel locomotion-controlled neural network model...
May 22, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789952/carotid-body-ablation-a-new-target-to-address-central-autonomic-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Rodrigo Iturriaga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An abnormal heightened carotid body (CB) chemoreflex, which produces autonomic dysfunction and sympathetic overactivation, is the common hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), resistant hypertension, systolic heart failure (HF), and cardiometabolic diseases. Accordingly, it has been proposed that the elimination of the CB chemosensory input to the brainstem may reduce the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations in sympathetic-associated diseases in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of evidence obtained in preclinical animal models support that an enhanced CB discharge produces sympathetic hyperactivity, baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability impairment, breathing instability, hypertension, and insulin resistance...
May 22, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789895/diffusion-weighted-imaging-determinants-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-diagnosis-in-the-emergency-room
#11
Alejandro M Brunser, Gabriel Cavada, Paula Muñoz Venturelli, Verónica Olavarría, Alexis Rojo, Juan Almeida, Violeta Díaz, Arnold Hoppe, Pablo Lavados
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical-radiological determinants of diffusion-weighted image (DWI) abnormalities in patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke (AIS) seen at the emergency room (ER). METHODS: During the study period, 882 consecutive patients were screened at Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Chile; 786 had AIS and 711 (90.4%) were included. RESULTS: DWI demonstrated 87.3% sensitivity and 99.0% specificity, with a positive likelihood ratio of 79 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0...
May 22, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789702/parallel-descending-dopaminergic-connectivity-of-a13-cells-to-the-brainstem-locomotor-centers
#12
Sandeep Sharma, Linda H Kim, Kyle A Mayr, David A Elliott, Patrick J Whelan
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is an important integrative area for the initiation and modulation of locomotion. Recently it has been realized that dopamine (DA) projections from the substantia nigra pars compacta project to the MLR. Here we explore DA projections from an area of the medial zona incerta (ZI) known for its role in motor control onto the MLR. We provide evidence that dopaminergic (DAergic) A13 neurons have connectivity to the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) of the MLR...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789138/introduction-to-primary-hemifacial-spasm-a-neurosurgical-disease
#13
P Mercier, M Sindou
Primary hemifacial spasm is a hyperactive cranial nerve syndrome. The cause is always a neurovascular compression, generally at the root exit zone from the brainstem. Its curative treatment is microvascular compression, that may be performed as a first option, or secondarily when botulinum toxin injections fail.
May 19, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787471/hemi-sensory-disturbances-in-patients-with-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#14
Peter D Drummond, Philip M Finch, Frank Birklein, Michael Stanton-Hicks, Lone F Knudsen
Sensory disturbances often spread beyond the site of injury in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) but whether this applies equally to CRPS I and II, or changes across the course of the disease, is unknown. Establishing this is important, because different symptom profiles in CRPS I and II, or in acute versus chronic CRPS, might infer different pathophysiology and treatment approaches. To explore these questions, sensory disturbances were assessed in the limbs and forehead of 71 patients with CRPS I and 33 patients with CRPS II...
May 21, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787381/multi-atlas-based-segmentation-should-we-prefer-the-best-atlas-group-over-the-group-of-best-atlases
#15
Paolo Zaffino, Delia Ciardo, Patrik Raudaschl, Karl Fritscher, Rosalinda Ricotti, Daniela Alterio, Giulia Marvaso, Cristiana Fodor, Guido Baroni, Francesco Amato, Roberto Orecchia, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Gregory C Sharp, Maria Francesca Spadea
Multi Atlas Based Segmentation (MABS) uses a database of atlas images, and an atlas selection process is used to choose an atlas subset for registration and voting. In the current state of the art, atlases are chosen according to a similarity criterion between the target subject and each atlas in the database. In this paper, we propose a new concept for atlas selection that relies on selecting the best performing group of atlases rather than the group of highest scoring individual atlases.
 Experiments were performed using CT images of 50 patients, with contours of brainstem and parotid glands...
May 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786614/a-novel-optimization-framework-for-vmat-with-dynamic-gantry-couch-rotation
#16
Qihui Lyu, Victoria Y Yu, Dan Ruan, Ryan Neph, Daniel O'Connor, Ke Sheng
Existing Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization using coplanar arcs is highly efficient but usually dosimetrically inferior to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with optimized non-coplanar beams. To achieve both dosimetric quality and delivery efficiency, we proposed in this study, a novel integrated optimization method for non-coplanar VMAT (4πVMAT). 4πVMAT with Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) was achieved by utilizing a least square dose fidelity objective, along with an anisotropic total variation term for regularizing the fluence smoothness, a single segment term for imposing simple apertures, and a group sparsity term for selecting beam angles...
May 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785155/the-volume-of-the-cerebellum-in-the-second-semester-of-gestation
#17
Damiana Vulturar, Alexandru Fărcăşanu, Flaviu Turcu, Dan Boitor, Carmen Crivii
Background and aims: The cerebellum ("little brain"), the largest part of hind brain, lies in the posterior cranial fossa, beneath the occipital lobe and dorsal to the brainstem. It develops over a long period: it is one of the first structures in the brain to begin to differentiate, but one of the last to mature. The use of ultrasonography has significantly improved the evaluation of fetal growth and development and has permitted prenatal diagnosis of a variety of congenital malformations...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784430/microvascular-decompression-for-hemifacial-spasm-surgical-techniques-and-intraoperative-monitoring
#18
M Sindou, P Mercier
Primary hemifacial spasm with few exceptions is due to the vascular compression of the facial nerve that can be evidenced with high resolution MRI. Microvascular decompression is the only curative treatment for this pathology. According to literature review detailed in chapter "conflicting vessels", the compression is located at the facial Root Exit Zone (REZ) in 95% of the cases, and in 5% distally at the cisternal or the intrameatal portion of the root as the sole conflict or in addition to one at brainstem/REZ...
May 18, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783905/effects-of-lorazepam-on-saccadic-eye-movements-the-role-of-sex-task-characteristics-and-baseline-traits
#19
Ulrich Ettinger, Inga Meyhöfer, Mitul A Mehta, Veena Kumari, Philip J Corr, Steven Cr Williams, Adam M Perkins
BACKGROUND: Saccadic eye movements are controlled by a network of parietal, frontal, striatal, cerebellar and brainstem regions. The saccadic peak velocity is an established biomarker of benzodiazepine effects, with benzodiazepines reliably reducing the peak velocity. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to replicate the effects of benzodiazepines on peak velocity and we investigated effects on previously less studied measures of saccades. We also explored the roles of sex, task characteristics and the baseline variables age, intelligence and trait anxiety in these effects...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782957/the-role-of-monoamines-in-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-neuroprotective-effect-of-a-proline-rich-polypeptide
#20
Konstantin Yenkoyan, Katarine Fereshetyan, Senik Matinyan, Vergine Chavushyan, Michail Aghajanov
INTRODUCTION: We have analyzed the alterations in the brain monoaminergic system using the rat model of AD-like pathology. In addition, we have investigated potential neuroprotective effects of the hypothalamic proline-rich polypeptide (PRP-1). METHODS: Histochemical staining, HPLC, chemiluminescent and bioluminescence assays. RESULTS: The levels of monoamines in the target AD brain structures were found elevated, except serotonin, which was unaffected in both hippocampus and brainstem and decreased in frontal cortex...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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