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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352468/developmental-plasticity-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-to-brainstem-motoneurons
#1
Lila Buls Wollman, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signalling regulates neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) disrupts the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission to hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs). GABAergic spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC/mIPSC) were recorded from XIIMNs in brainstem slices from control and DNE rat pups of either sex, 1-5 days old, at baseline and following acute stimulation of nAChRs with nicotine...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352287/ifn%C3%AE-inhibits-g-csf-induced-neutrophil-expansion-and-invasion-of-the-cns-to-prevent-viral-encephalitis
#2
Chandran Ramakrishna, Edouard M Cantin
Emergency hematopoiesis facilitates the rapid expansion of inflammatory immune cells in response to infections by pathogens, a process that must be carefully regulated to prevent potentially life threatening inflammatory responses. Here, we describe a novel regulatory role for the cytokine IFNγ that is critical for preventing fatal encephalitis after viral infection. HSV1 encephalitis (HSE) is triggered by the invasion of the brainstem by inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In mice lacking IFNγ (GKO), we observed unrestrained increases in G-CSF levels but not in GM-CSF or IL-17...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352094/auditory-brainstem-function-in-microcephaly-related-to-zika-virus-infection
#3
Dimitri Marques Abramov, Tania Saad, Saint-Clair Gomes-Junior, Daniel de Souza E Silva, Izabel Araújo, Maria Elizabeth Lopes Moreira, Vladimir V Lazarev
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of prenatal Zika virus (ZV) infection on brainstem function reflected in brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). METHODS: In a cross-sectional study in 19 children (12 girls) with microcephaly related to ZV infection, aged between 12 and 62 weeks, the brainstem function was examined through BAEPs. The latencies of wave peaks I, III, and V of the left and right ears (n = 37) were standardized according to normative data, and compared between them by 2-tailed t test...
January 19, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351390/vagally-mediated-gastric-effects-of-brainstem-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-activation-in-stressed-rats
#4
Yanyan Jiang, Kirsteen N Browning, Luca Toti, R Alberto Travagli
Chronic stress exerts vagally-dependent effects to disrupt gastric motility; previous studies have shown that, among other nuclei, A2 neurons are involved in mediating these effects. Several studies have also shown robust in vitro and in vivo effects of α2 adrenoceptor agonists on vagal motoneurons. We have demonstrated previously that brainstem vagal neurocircuits undergo remodeling following acute stress, however, the effects following brief periods of chronic stress have not been investigated. Our aim, therefore, was to test the hypothesis that different types of chronic stress influence gastric tone and motility by inducing plasticity in the response of vagal neurocircuits to α2 adrenoreceptor agonists...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351088/fraction-variant-beam-orientation-optimization-for-non-coplanar-imrt
#5
Daniel O'Connor, Victoria Yu, Dan Nguyen, Dan Ruan, Ke Sheng
Conventional beam orientation optimization (BOO) algorithms for IMRT assume that the same set of beam angles is used for all treatment fractions. In this paper we present a BOO formulation based on group sparsity that simultaneously optimizes non-coplanar beam angles for all fractions, yielding a fraction-variant (FV) treatment plan. Beam angles are selected by solving a multi-fraction fluence map optimization problem involving 500-700 candidate beams per fraction, with an additional group sparsity term that encourages most candidate beams to be inactive...
January 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350301/constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-nuisance-or-nuanced-answer-to-the-pathophysiological-puzzle
#6
REVIEW
Amol Sharma, Julie Kurek, John C Morgan, Chandramohan Wakade, Satish S C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic constipation is a common, nonmotor, and prodromal symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Its underlying neuropathology may provide pathophysiological insight into PD. Here, we critically review what is currently known about the neuroanatomical and brain-gut interactions, and the origin and progression of Lewy pathology (LP) at three levels-brain/brainstem, spinal cord, and enteric nervous system. RECENT FINDINGS: Many recent studies have illustrated the challenges of examining LP in tissues obtained from colon biopsies of PD patients...
January 19, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350260/modulation-rate-transfer-functions-from-four-species-of-stranded-odontocete-stenella-longirostris-feresa-attenuata-globicephala-melas-and-mesoplodon-densirostris
#7
Adam B Smith, Aude F Pacini, Paul E Nachtigall
Odontocete marine mammals explore the environment by rapidly producing echolocation signals and receiving the corresponding echoes, which likewise return at very rapid rates. Thus, it is important that the auditory system has a high temporal resolution to effectively process and extract relevant information from click echoes. This study used auditory evoked potential methods to investigate auditory temporal resolution of individuals from four different odontocete species, including a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), and Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348287/recurrent-hiccups-may-signal-brainstem-pathology-and-should-be-investigated
#8
Dmitri Shastin, Priya Nidamanuri, Ravindra Nannapaneni
While occasional hiccups are normal, their persistent recurrence is distressing and may have an underlying aetiology. Patients with recurrent hiccups may undergo a long journey and see many physicians before the diagnosis is finally made. The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of central nervous system lesions as a possible cause for recurrent hiccups and provide an illustrative case of an otherwise fit man presenting with ongoing hiccups caused by a medullary haemangioblastoma.
January 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346088/intense-olfactory-stimulation-blocks-seizures-in-an-experimental-model-of-epilepsy
#9
Polianna Delfino-Pereira, Poliana Bertti-Dutra, Eduardo Henrique de Lima Umeoka, José Antônio Cortes de Oliveira, Victor Rodrigues Santos, Artur Fernandes, Simone Saldanha Marroni, Flávio Del Vecchio, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco
There are reports of patients whose epileptic seizures are prevented by means of olfactory stimulation. Similar findings were described in animal models of epilepsy, such as the electrical kindling of amygdala, where olfactory stimulation with toluene (TOL) suppressed seizures in most rats, even when the stimuli were 20% above the threshold to evoke seizures in already kindled animals. The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is a model of tonic-clonic seizures induced by acute acoustic stimulation, although it also expresses limbic seizures when repeated acoustic stimulation occurs - a process known as audiogenic kindling (AK)...
January 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344456/early-clinical-exposure-as-a-learning-tool-to-teach-neuroanatomy-for-first-year-mbbs-students
#10
Maitreyee Kar, Chinmaya Kar, Hironmoy Roy, Parmod Goyal
Context: Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. Aim: This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343472/clinical-spectrum-of-hemiplegic-migraine-and-chances-of-finding-a-pathogenic-mutation
#11
Nadine Pelzer, Joost Haan, Anine H Stam, Lisanne S Vijfhuizen, Stephany C Koelewijn, Amber Smagge, Boukje de Vries, Michel D Ferrari, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Gisela M Terwindt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the clinical characteristics of patients with hemiplegic migraine with and without autosomal dominant mutations in CACNA1A, ATP1A2, or SCN1A differ, and whether the disease may be caused by mutations in other genes. METHODS: We compared the clinical characteristics of 208 patients with familial (n = 199) or sporadic (n = 9) hemiplegic migraine due to a mutation in CACNA1A, ATP1A2, or SCN1A with those of 73 patients with familial (n = 49) or sporadic (n = 24) hemiplegic migraine without a mutation in these genes...
January 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343467/hearing-impairment-in-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-2
#12
Judith van Vliet, Alide A Tieleman, Baziel G M van Engelen, Guillaume Bassez, Laurent Servais, Anthony Béhin, Tanya Stojkovic, Jan Meulstee, Joost A M Engel, George Lamas, Bruno Eymard, Wim I M Verhagen, Elisabeth Mamelle
OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess auditory characteristics of a large cohort of patients with genetically confirmed myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2). METHODS: Patients with DM2 were included prospectively in an international cross-sectional study. A structured interview about hearing symptoms was held. Thereafter, standardized otologic examination, pure tone audiometry (PTA; 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz), speech audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic middle ear muscle reflexes, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were performed...
January 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342440/the-critical-warning-sign-of-real-time-brainstem-auditory-evoked-potentials-during-microvascular-decompression-for-hemifacial-spasm
#13
Sang-Ku Park, Byung-Euk Joo, Seunghoon Lee, Jeong-A Lee, Jeong-Ho Hwang, Doo-Sik Kong, Dae-Won Seo, Kwan Park, Hoon-Taek Lee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to define the critical warning sign of real-time brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) for predicting hearing loss (HL) after microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS). METHODS: Nine hundred and thirty-two patients with HFS who underwent MVD with intraoperative monitoring (IOM) of BAEP were analyzed. We used a 43.9 Hz/s stimulation rate and 400 averaging trials to obtain BAEP. To evaluate HL, pure-tone audiometry and speech discrimination scoring were performed before and one week after surgery...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342142/midbrain-circuits-that-set-locomotor-speed-and-gait-selection
#14
V Caggiano, R Leiras, H Goñi-Erro, D Masini, C Bellardita, J Bouvier, V Caldeira, G Fisone, O Kiehn
Locomotion is a fundamental motor function common to the animal kingdom. It is implemented episodically and adapted to behavioural needs, including exploration, which requires slow locomotion, and escape behaviour, which necessitates faster speeds. The control of these functions originates in brainstem structures, although the neuronal substrate(s) that support them have not yet been elucidated. Here we show in mice that speed and gait selection are controlled by glutamatergic excitatory neurons (GlutNs) segregated in two distinct midbrain nuclei: the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN)...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341898/induction-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-rat-and-non-human-primate-results-in-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-and-transient-cns-pathology
#15
Fredric P Manfredsson, Kelvin C Luk, Matthew J Benskey, Aysegul Guezer, Joanna Garcia, Nathan C Kuhn, Ivette M Sandoval, Joseph R Patterson, Alana O'Mara, Reid Yonkers, Jeffrey H Kordower
Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) is by far the most highly vetted pathogenic and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. Aggregated α-syn is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The enteric division of the PNS is of particular interest because 1) gastric dysfunction is a key clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease, and 2) Lewy pathology in myenteric and submucosal neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been referred to as stage zero in the Braak pathological staging of Parkinson's disease...
January 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339643/effect-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-on-systemic-toxicity-and-ototoxicity-induced-by-cisplatin-in-rats-role-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-nitric-oxide
#16
Marcos Jullian Barreto Martins, Avner Marcos Alves Batista, Yuri Neyson Ferreira Brito, Pedro Marcos Gomes Soares, Conceição da Silva Martins, Ronaldo de Albuquerque Ribeiro, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Marcos Rabelo de Freitas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent. The use of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) was proposed after the observation that ischemic preconditioning of a cardiac vascular area could protect another completely distinctly. METHODS: This is an experimental study. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and they underwent a hearing evaluation via measurement of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BSAEP). Then, cisplatin was administered intraperitoneally (IP) at a dose of 8 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive days to group 1, whereas saline solution was administered IP to group 2...
January 17, 2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338930/neurologic-disorders-associated-with-anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies-a-comparison-of-anti-gad-antibody-titers-and-time-dependent-changes-between-neurologic-disease-and-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Hideto Nakajima, Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Yuiko Inaba, Chiharu Tsutsumi, Kiichi Unoda, Takafumi Hosokawa, Fumiharu Kimura, Toshiaki Hanafusa, Masamichi Date, Haruko Kitaoka
To determine clinical features of neurologic disorders associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD-Ab), we examined titers and time-dependent changes of anti-GAD-Ab. Six patients, stiff person syndrome (2), cerebellar ataxia (1), limbic encephalitis (1), epilepsy (1), brainstem encephalitis (1), were compared with 87 type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients without neurologic disorders. Anti-GAD-Ab titers and index were higher in neurologic disorders than in T1DM, suggesting intrathecal antibody synthesis...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337762/tinnitus-and-auditory-perception-after-a-history-of-noise-exposure-relationship-to-auditory-brainstem-response-measures
#18
Naomi F Bramhall, Dawn Konrad-Martin, Garnett P McMillan
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave I amplitude is associated with measures of auditory perception in young people with normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and varying levels of noise exposure history. DESIGN: Tinnitus, loudness tolerance, and speech perception ability were measured in 31 young military Veterans and 43 non-Veterans (19 to 35 years of age) with normal pure-tone thresholds and DPOAEs. Speech perception was evaluated in quiet using Northwestern University Auditory Test (NU-6) word lists and in background noise using the words in noise (WIN) test...
January 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337760/using-thresholds-in-noise-to-identify-hidden-hearing-loss-in-humans
#19
Courtney L Ridley, Judy G Kopun, Stephen T Neely, Michael P Gorga, Daniel M Rasetshwane
OBJECTIVES: Recent animal studies suggest that noise-induced synaptopathy may underlie a phenomenon that has been labeled hidden hearing loss (HHL). Noise exposure preferentially damages low spontaneous-rate auditory nerve fibers, which are involved in the processing of moderate- to high-level sounds and are more resistant to masking by background noise. Therefore, the effect of synaptopathy may be more evident in suprathreshold measures of auditory function, especially in the presence of background noise...
January 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337005/walker-warburg-syndrome-and-tectocerebellar-dysraphia-a-novel-association-caused-by-a-homozygous-dag1-mutation
#20
Zvi Leibovitz, Hanna Mandel, Tzipora C Falik-Zaccai, Shani Ben Harouch, David Savitzki, Karina Krajden-Haratz, Liat Gindes, Mordechai Tamarkin, Dorit Lev, William B Dobyns, Tally Lerman-Sagie
OBJECTIVES: To elaborate the imaging phenotype associated with a homozygous c.743C > del frameshift mutation in DAG1 leading to complete absence of both α- and β-dystroglycan previously reported in a consanguineous Israeli-Arab family. METHODS: We analyzed prenatal and postnatal imaging data of patients from a consanguineous Israeli-Arab kindred harboring the DAG1 mutation. RESULTS: The imaging studies (fetal ultrasound, CT scan and postnatal MRI) demonstrated: flat cortex (abnormally thick with irregular pebbled cortical-white matter border on MRI), hydrocephalus, scattered small periventricular heterotopia and subependymal hemorrhages and calcifications, z-shaped brainstem, and in addition an occipital encephalocele, vermian agenesis, and an elongated and thick tectum (tectocerebellar dysraphia)...
December 26, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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