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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731517/mental-steps-differential-activation-of-internal-pacemakers-in-motor-imagery-and-in-mental-imitation-of-gait
#1
Lucia Maria Sacheli, Laura Zapparoli, Carlo De Santis, Matteo Preti, Catia Pelosi, Nicola Ursino, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
Gait imagery and gait observation can boost the recovery of locomotion dysfunctions; yet, a neurologically justified rationale for their clinical application is lacking as much as a direct comparison of their neural correlates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural correlates of explicit motor imagery of gait during observation of in-motion videos shot in a park with a steady cam (Virtual Walking task). In a 2 × 2 factorial design, we assessed the modulatory effect of gait observation and of foot movement execution on the neural correlates of the Virtual Walking task: in half of the trials, the participants were asked to mentally imitate a human model shown while walking along the same route (mental imitation condition); moreover, for half of all the trials, the participants also performed rhythmic ankle dorsiflexion as a proxy for stepping movements...
July 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731267/heuristic-knowledge-based-planning-for-single-isocenter-stereotactic-radiosurgery-to-multiple-brain-metastases
#2
Benjamin P Ziemer, Parag Sanghvi, Jona Hattangadi-Gluth, Kevin L Moore
PURPOSE: Single-isocenter, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for multiple brain metastases (multi-mets) can deliver highly conformal dose distributions and reduce overall patient treatment time compared to other techniques. However, treatment planning for multi-met cases is highly complex due to variability in numbers and sizes of brain metastases, as well as their relative proximity to organs-at-risk (OARs). The purpose of this study was to automate the VMAT planning of multi-met cases through a knowledge-based planning (KBP) approach that adapts single target SRS dose predictions to multiple target predictions...
July 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731162/a-homozygous-myo7a-mutation-associated-to-usher-syndrome-and-unilateral-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder
#3
Hong Xia, Pengzhi Hu, Lamei Yuan, Wei Xiong, Hongbo Xu, Junhui Yi, Zhijian Yang, Xiong Deng, Yi Guo, Hao Deng
Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, progressive visual loss and night blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa (RP), with or without vestibular dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to detect the causative gene in a consanguineous Chinese family with USH. A c.3696_3706del (p.R1232Sfs*72) variant in the myosin VIIa gene (MYO7A) was identified in the homozygous state by exome sequencing. The co‑segregation of the MYO7A c.3696_3706del variant with the phenotype of deafness and progressive visual loss in the USH family was confirmed by Sanger sequencing...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730834/resveratrol-alleviates-ethanol-induced-hormonal-and-metabolic-disturbances-in-the-rat
#4
J Popelář, M Díaz Gómez, J Lindovský, N Rybalko, J Burianová, T Oohashi, J Syka
Brain-specific link protein Bral2 represents a substantial component of perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping neurons in the central nervous system. To elucidate the role of Bral2 in auditory signal processing, the hearing function in knockout Bral2(-/-) (KO) mice was investigated using behavioral and electrophysiological methods and compared with wild type Bral2(+/+) (WT) mice. The amplitudes of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and the efficiency of the prepulse inhibition of ASR (PPI of ASR), produced by prepulse noise stimulus or gap in continuous noise, was similar in 2-week-old WT and KO mice...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730571/early-trigeminal-nerve-involvement-in-listeria-monocytogenes-rhombencephalitis-case-series-and-systematic-review
#5
William K Karlsson, Zitta Barrella Harboe, Casper Roed, Jeppe B Monrad, Mette Lindelof, Vibeke Andrée Larsen, Daniel Kondziella
Listeria monocytogenes is associated with rhombencephalitis. However, the exact mechanisms of brainstem invasion remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate clinical and radiological data suggesting that Listeria may invade the brainstem via the trigeminal nerve. Three females (41, 64 and 70 years) with culture proven L. monocytogenes bacteremia and rhombencephalitis were investigated in the period of 2014-16. T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI revealed a cerebellopontine abscess in all three patients, including the involvement of the trigeminal nerve root...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729852/towards-better-understanding-of-the-pathogenesis-of-neuronal-respiratory-network-in-sudden-perinatal-death
#6
REVIEW
Riffat Mehboob, Mahvish Kabir, Naseer Ahmed, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad
Sudden perinatal death that includes the victims of sudden infant death syndrome, sudden intrauterine death syndrome, and stillbirth are heartbreaking events in the life of parents. Most of the studies about sudden perinatal death were reported from Italy, highlighting two main etiological factors: prone sleeping position and smoking. Other probable contributory factors are prematurity, male gender, lack of breastfeeding, respiratory tract infections, use of pacifiers, infant botulism, extensive use of pesticides and insecticides, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729831/investigating-focal-connectivity-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-using-directional-brain-networks-derived-from-resting-state-fmri
#7
Sinan Zhao, D Rangaprakash, Archana Venkataraman, Peipeng Liang, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI has been widely used to identify biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on brain network aberrations. However, it is not straightforward to interpret such connectivity results since our understanding of brain functioning relies on regional properties (activations and morphometric changes) more than connections. Further, from an interventional standpoint, it is easier to modulate the activity of regions (using brain stimulation, neurofeedback, etc.) rather than connections...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729246/vagally-mediated-effects-of-brainstem-dopamine-on-gastric-tone-and-phasic-contractions-of-the-rat
#8
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, R Alberto Travagli
Dopamine (DA) containing fibers and neurons are embedded within the brainstem dorsal vagal complex (DVC); we have shown previously that DA modulates the membrane properties of neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) via DA1 and DA2 receptors. The vagally-dependent modulation of gastric tone and phasic contractions, i.e. motility, by DA, however, has not been characterized. Using microinjections of DA in the DVC while recording gastric tone and motility, the aims of the present study were: i) assess the gastric effects of brainstem DA application, ii) identify the DA receptor subtype, and, iii) identify the postganglionic pathway(s) activated...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728911/effects-of-riluzole-on-spinal-seizure-like-activity-in-the-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-of-newborn-rat
#9
Shih Tien Lin, Masayuki Ohbayashi, Toshinori Yamamoto, Hiroshi Onimaru, Mari Kogo
Riluzole blocks persistent Na(+) current, inhibits generation of neuronal bursts and decreases glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In previous studies of respiratory activity, riluzole suppressed inspiratory-related burst generation activity in rat slice or en bloc preparations. We examined riluzole's effects on inspiratory burst generation and drug-induced seizure-like activity in newborn rat en bloc preparations. Medulla-spinal cord preparations from postnatal day 0-3 Wistar rats were isolated under deep isoflurane anesthesia and were superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, pH 7...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728837/epileptic-apnea-in-a-patient-with-inherited-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor-deficiency-and-pigt-mutations
#10
Kosuke Kohashi, Akihiko Ishiyama, Shota Yuasa, Tomomi Tanaka, Kazushi Miya, Yuichi Adachi, Noriko Sato, Hirotomo Saitsu, Chihiro Ohba, Naomichi Matsumoto, Yoshiko Murakami, Taroh Kinoshita, Kenji Sugai, Masayuki Sasaki
We report an 11-month-old boy with acetazolamide-responsive epileptic apnea and inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor deficiency who presented with decreased serum alkaline phosphatase associated with compound PIGT mutations. The patient exhibited congenital anomalies, severe intellectual disability, and seizures, including epileptic apnea with epileptiform discharges from bilateral temporal areas. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed delayed myelination and progressive atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum...
July 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728536/postnatal-delayed-exacerbation-of-dural-sinus-malformation-associated-with-brainstem-cavernous-malformations-a-case-report
#11
Katsuhiro Mizutani, Tomoru Miwa, Takenori Akiyama, Tokunori Kanazawa, Hideaki Nagashima, Kei Miyakoshi, Yasunari Niimi, Kazunari Yoshida
Dural sinus malformation (DSM) is a rare paediatric vascular malformation characterised by abnormal dilation of the posterior dural sinus. Owing to its rarity, the pathophysiology of DSM has not been fully elucidated. We report a case of prenatally diagnosed DSM with an unusual clinical course. We detected DSM in a male foetus in the 26th week of gestation by using foetal ultrasonography. Although the DSM regressed during the foetal stage and the arteriovenous shunt was insignificant in the neonate, the shunt rapidly developed four months after birth...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727713/local-brain-activity-differences-between-herpes-zoster-and-postherpetic-neuralgia-patients-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#12
Song Cao, Ying Li, Wenwen Deng, Bangyong Qin, Yi Zhang, Peng Xie, Jie Yuan, Buwei Yu, Tian Yu
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) can develop into postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), both of which are painful diseases. PHN patients suffer chronic pain and emotional disorders. Previous studies showed that the PHN brain displayed abnormal activity and structural change, but the difference in brain activity between HZ and PHN is still not known. OBJECTIVES: To identify regional brain activity changes in HZ and PHN brains with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) technique, and to observe the differences between HZ and PHN patients...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726127/clippers
#13
REVIEW
Nicholas L Zalewski, W Oliver Tobin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a recently described treatable, inflammatory, brainstem predominant encephalomyelitis. The diagnosis of CLIPPERS is challenging without a specific biomarker, and thus it is important to consider if both the clinical and radiographic features are consistent with the diagnosis, or rather a disease mimicker. RECENT FINDINGS: Many patients with CLIPPERS-like lesions have been described in the literature with follow-up revealing a range of alternative diagnoses, such as malignancies, vasculitis, and other specific inflammatory diseases...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726052/transcranial-sonography-image-characteristics-in-different-parkinson-s-disease-subtypes
#14
Ai Yan Sheng, Ying Chun Zhang, Yu Jing Sheng, Cai Shan Wang, Ying Zhang, Hua Hu, Wei Feng Luo, CHun-Feng LIu
Recently, Parkinson's disease (PD) has been classified into three subtypes: postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD), tremor dominate (TD), and indeterminate PD. Transcranial sonography (TCS) is considered to be an important tool to diagnose PD. However, it is uncertain that whether there are differences in TCS image characteristics in different PD subtypes, so 373 idiopathic PD (188 PIGD, 108 TD, 77 indeterminate PD) were registered and received TCS in our investigation; also, the association between clinical characteristics and TCS results in different PD subtypes was analyzed...
July 19, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725185/reticular-formation-and-pain-the-past-and-the-future
#15
REVIEW
Isabel Martins, Isaura Tavares
The involvement of the reticular formation (RF) in the transmission and modulation of nociceptive information has been extensively studied. The brainstem RF contains several areas which are targeted by spinal cord afferents conveying nociceptive input. The arrival of nociceptive input to the RF may trigger alert reactions which generate a protective/defense reaction to pain. RF neurons located at the medulla oblongata and targeted by ascending nociceptive information are also involved in the control of vital functions that can be affected by pain, namely cardiovascular control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724778/eupnea-tachypnea-and-autoresuscitation-in-a-closed-loop-respiratory-control-model
#16
Casey O Diekman, Peter J Thomas, Christopher G Wilson
How sensory information influences the dynamics of rhythm generation varies across systems, and general principles for understanding this aspect of motor control are lacking. Determining the origin of respiratory rhythm generation is challenging because the mechanisms in a central circuit considered in isolation may be different than those in the intact organism. We analyze a closed-loop respiratory control model incorporating a central pattern generator (CPG), the Butera-Rinzel-Smith (BRS) model, together with lung mechanics, oxygen handling, and chemosensory components...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723864/sacral-neuromodulation-for-fecal-incontinence-a-review-of-the-central-mechanisms-of-action
#17
Paul T J Janssen, Niels Komen, Jarno Melenhorst, Nicole D Bouvy, Ali Jahanshahi, Yasin Temel, Stephanie O Breukink
OBJECTIVE: Fecal incontinence (FI) has a devastating effect on the quality of life and results in social isolation. Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is proven to be an effective, minimal invasive treatment modality for FI. Despite the increasing application of SNM, the exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. The initial assumption of peripheral motor neurostimulation is not supported by increasing evidence, which report effects of SNM outside the pelvic floor. A new hypothesis states that afferent signals to the brain are essential for a successful therapy...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723600/detailed-analysis-of-high-frequency-auditory-brainstem-response-in-patients-with-tinnitus-a-preliminary-study
#18
Joseph Pinkl, Matthew J Wilson, Danica Billingsly, Raymundo Munguia-Vazquez
Increased spontaneous activity and aberrant neural synchrony is thought to be the underlying cause of tinnitus. The perceived pitch of tinnitus may be dictated by frequency specific neural fibers of the subcortical pathway, or the projection of altered cortical activity by-way-of tonotopic reorganizations. Subcortical neural activity in relation to tinnitus was characterized using ABR measurements. In the present study, 11 patients (21 ears) with constant tonal tinnitus underwent a two-part experiment. Experiment 1 involved click ABR measurements and included two experimental groups: tinnitus with normal hearing from 2000-4000 Hz (GI) and tinnitus with hearing loss within the range of 2000-4000 Hz (GII)...
June 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720776/dissonance-encoding-in-human-inferior-colliculus-covaries-with-individual-differences-in-dislike-of-dissonant-music
#19
Seung-Goo Kim, Jöran Lepsien, Thomas Hans Fritz, Toralf Mildner, Karsten Mueller
Harmony is one of the most fundamental elements of music that evokes emotional response. The inferior colliculus (IC) has been known to detect poor agreement of harmonics of sound, that is, dissonance. Electrophysiological evidence has implicated a relationship between a sustained auditory response mainly from the brainstem and unpleasant emotion induced by dissonant harmony. Interestingly, an individual's dislike of dissonant harmony of an individual correlated with a reduced sustained auditory response. In the current paper, we report novel evidence based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for such a relationship between individual variability in dislike of dissonance and the IC activation...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720739/-disorder-of-gastric-myoelectric-activity-in-patients-with-cerebral-infarction-electrogastrographic-assessment
#20
Fumihiko Kinekawa, Noboru Sasaoka, Kazuya Matsuda, Yuko Kita, Ryoichi Okura, Ryota Nakabayashi, Akiko Ohara, Katsuyuki Nakao, Toshihiko Inoue, Michiaki Tokuda, Yohei Kokudo, Tsutomu Masaki
In this study, gastric myoelectric activity in patients with acute cerebral infarction was investigated using electrogastrography. The patients were divided into four groups; those with mild brainstem infarction(group A, n=13, men:8, women:5, 75±2 years old), severe brainstem infarction(group B, n=6, men:4, women:2, 79±4 years old), mild non-brainstem infarction(group C, n=14, men:7, women:7, 76±3 years old), and severe non-brainstem infarction(group D, n=9, men:3, women:6, 87±2 years old). In group B, the% ratio of normogastria(2...
July 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
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