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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734265/decreased-lung-function-with-mediation-of-blood-parameters-linked-to-e-waste-lead-and-cadmium-exposure-in-preschool-children
#1
Xiang Zeng, Xijin Xu, H Marike Boezen, Judith M Vonk, Weidong Wu, Xia Huo
Blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels have been associated with lower lung function in adults and smokers, but whether this also holds for children from electronic waste (e-waste) recycling areas is still unknown. To investigate the contribution of blood heavy metals and lung function levels, and the relationship among living area, the blood parameter levels, and the lung function levels, a total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (exposed area), and Haojiang and Xiashan (reference areas) were recruited and required to undergo blood tests and lung function tests during the study period...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734260/time-averaged-concentrations-are-effective-for-predicting-chronic-toxicity-of-varying-copper-pulse-exposures-for-two-freshwater-green-algae-species
#2
Brad M Angel, Stuart L Simpson, Ellissah Granger, Kathryn Goodwyn, Dianne F Jolley
Intermittent, fluctuating and pulsed contaminant discharges may result in organisms receiving highly variable contaminant exposures. This study investigated the effects of dissolved copper pulse concentration and exposure duration on the toxicity to two freshwater green algae species. The effects of single copper pulses of between 1 and 48 h duration and continuous exposures (72 h) on growth rate inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella sp. were compared on a time-averaged concentration (TAC) basis...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734237/the-spider-and-the-snake-a-psychometric-study-of-two-phobias-and-insights-from-the-hungarian-validation
#3
Andras N Zsido
Specific phobias-particularly zoophobias-are prevalent worldwide and can have fairly dramatic health consequences. Self-report measurements play a crucial role in phobia research studies; thus, it is important to have a reliable tool in different languages. The present investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of two commonly used measures of fear: the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (i.e. SPQ) and the Snake Questionnaire (i.e. SNAQ). The SPQ and SNAQ scores both demonstrated excellent reliability, including a test-retest over a 4-week period...
July 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734233/risk-of-hospitalization-among-survivors-of-childhood-and-adolescent-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-compared-to-siblings-and-a-general-population-sample
#4
Judy Y Ou, Rochelle R Smits-Seemann, Sapna Kaul, Mark N Fluchel, Carol Sweeney, Anne C Kirchhoff
BACKGROUND: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) has a high survival rate, but cancer-related late effects in the early post-treatment years need documentation. Hospitalizations are an indicator of the burden of late effects. We identify rates and risk factors for hospitalization from five to ten years after diagnosis for childhood and adolescent ALL survivors compared to siblings and a matched population sample. METHODS: 176 ALL survivors were diagnosed at ≤22 years between 1998 and 2008 and treated at an Intermountain Healthcare facility...
July 19, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734200/rates-of-meaningful-change-in-the-mental-health-of-children-in-long-term-out-of-home-care-a-seven-to-nine-year-prospective-study
#5
Michael Tarren-Sweeney
Children residing in long-term out-of-home care have high rates of clinical-level mental health difficulties. However, the stability of these children's difficulties throughout their time in care is uncertain. This paper reports estimates of the seven- to nine-year stability of carer-reported scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Assessment Checklists for Children (ACC) and Adolescents (ACA) for 85 children in long-term foster or kinship care. Prospective score changes on the CBCL total problems and ACC-ACA shared-item scales were assigned to one of four change groups: 'sustained mental health'; 'meaningful improvement'; 'no meaningful change'; and 'meaningful deterioration'...
July 19, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734160/selective-and-accurate-c5-acylcarnitine-quantitation-by-uhplc-ms-ms-distinguishing-true-isovaleric-acidemia-from-pivalate-derived-interference
#6
Paul E Minkler, Maria S K Stoll, Stephen T Ingalls, Charles L Hoppel
Tandem MS acylcarnitine "profiles" are extremely valuable. Although used appropriately in newborn screening programs to identify patients with possible diseases, their inadequate quantitative accuracy and lack of selectivity is problematic for confirmatory testing. In this report, we show the application of our validated, selective, accurate, precise, and robust UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantitation of acylcarnitines, specifically to C5 acylcarnitines: pivaloyl-, 2-methylbutyryl-, isovaleryl-, and valerylcarnitine...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734152/trajectories-of-alcohol-use-in-the-uk-military-and-associations-with-mental-health
#7
L Goodwin, S Norton, N T Fear, M Jones, L Hull, S Wessely, R J Rona
INTRODUCTION: There are higher levels of alcohol misuse in the military compared to the general population. Yet there is a dearth of research in military populations on the longitudinal patterns of alcohol use. This study aims to identify group trajectories of alcohol consumption in the UK military and to identify associations with childhood adversity, deployment history and mental disorder. METHODS: Data on weekly alcohol consumption across an eight year period and three phases of a UK military cohort study (n=667) were examined using growth mixture modelling...
July 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734138/ghrelin-plasma-concentration-does-not-covary-with-energy-demand-in-adult-laying-hens
#8
A Höhne, L Schrader, S Weigend, S Petow
The peptide hormone ghrelin is suggested to be involved in food intake regulation in young growing chicken. Whether ghrelin is involved in the regulation of energetic balance associated with laying performance in adult laying hens was studied by use of 4 chicken lines that differ in laying performance and phylogeny (4 lines; 16 hens per line). As housing conditions are also known to affect energy demand, half of the hens per line were housed in single cages and the other half of hens were maintained in a floor housing system...
June 29, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732433/the-effect-of-salt-space-on-clinical-findings-and-peak-expiratory-flow-in-children-with-mild-to-moderate-asthma-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#9
Saeideh Mazloomzadeh, Niousha Bakhshi, Akefeh Ahmadiafshar, Mehdi Gholami
The asthma treatment and control might be associated with significant burden on family and community' thus exploring other therapeutic plans could be desirable. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salt space on clinical findings and peak expiratory flow rate among children with asthma. In this randomized crossover trial, 34 patients aged 6-14 years old with mild to moderate asthma were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The first group went through a period of salt therapy by staying in the salt room for one hour, three times a week for 3 consecutive weeks and then was under observation for three weeks...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732397/combined-sewer-overflow-events-and-childhood-emergency-department-visits-a-case-crossover-study
#10
Cole Brokamp, Andrew F Beck, Louis Muglia, Patrick Ryan
In localities with combined sewer systems, combined sewer overflow (CSO) events frequently occur following high precipitation and can result in the release of untreated sewage and industrial wastewater into surface waters. We hypothesized that either direct contact with or proximity to aerosolized CSO effluent would increase the risk for childhood emergency department (ED) visits for asthma, gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses, and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in Cincinnati, OH, USA. ED visits for 2010-2014 due to GI diseases, asthma, and SSTIs were extracted from the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center electronic health records...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732373/impact-of-preoperative-diagnostic-turbt-on-progression-free-survival-in-patients-with-pathological-high-grade-stage-t3-t4-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma
#11
Haichao Huang, Zhenhua Liu, Xin Li, Wei Li, Jinchun Xing, Wei Yu, Jie Jin
Transurethral bladder tumor resection (TURBT) reportedly increases the circulating tumor cell count in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). To determine whether diagnostic TURBT leads to poorer progression-free survival (PFS) than diagnostic cystoscopic biopsy, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 96 consecutive primary pathological high-grade, stage T3/T4 UCB patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) between January 2009 to December 2013. Clinicopathological features were collected from the medical records...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732335/characteristics-and-source-apportionment-of-pm2-5-during-persistent-extreme-haze-events-in-chengdu-southwest-china
#12
Lulu Li, Qinwen Tan, Yuanhang Zhang, Miao Feng, Yu Qu, Junling An, Xingang Liu
Based on detailed data from Chengdu Plain (CP) from 6 January to 16 January, two typical haze episodes were analyzed to clarify the haze formation mechanism in winter. Weather conditions, chemical compositions, secondary pollutant transformation, optical properties of aerosols, the potential source contribution function (PSCF) and source apportionment were studied. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) height decreased distinctly during the haze episodes and restrained air pollutant vertical dispersion. As the haze worsened, the value of PBL × PM2...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732328/spectroscopic-descriptors-for-dynamic-changes-of-soluble-microbial-products-from-activated-sludge-at-different-biomass-growth-phases-under-prolonged-starvation
#13
Tahir Maqbool, Jinwoo Cho, Jin Hur
In this study, the spectroscopic indices of soluble microbial products (SMP) were explored using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to identify different distinctive biomass growth phases (i.e., exponential phase, pseudo-endogenous phase, and endogenous phase) and to describe the microbial activity of activated sludge in a batch type bioreactor under prolonged starvation. The optical descriptors, including UV absorption at 254 nm (UVA254), spectral slope, absorbance slope index (ASI), biological index (BIX), humification index (HIX), and the ratio of tryptophan-like to humic-like components (C1/C2), were examined to describe the dynamic changes in SMP...
July 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732327/prediagnostic-serum-calcium-and-albumin-and-ovarian-cancer-a-nested-case-control-study-in-the-norwegian-janus-serum-bank-cohort
#14
Gary G Schwartz, Steinar Tretli, Linda Vos, Trude E Robsahm
BACKGROUND: Women with higher serum calcium may be more likely to be diagnosed and die of ovarian cancer. We evaluated that finding in a large, prospective cohort. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using a population-based biobank from Norway. We compared 202 ovarian cancer cases and 202 controls, matched for age, date at blood draw, and county of residence, with respect to serum calcium and albumin, adjusted for anthropometric variables. We evaluated risks using the entire follow-up period as well as 2-15 years and 16-25 years ("early" and "late", respectively)...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732319/did-the-dependent-coverage-expansion-increase-risky-substance-use-among-young-adults
#15
Joshua Breslau, Hao Yu, Bing Han, Rosalie L Pacula, Rachel M Burns, Bradley D Stein
BACKGROUND: The dependent coverage expansion (DCE) enacted through the Affordable Care Act increased health insurance coverage among young adults. Increasing insurance coverage in this age group has the potential for unintended consequences on risky substance use. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional surveys were used to compare change in substance use during the period the DCE was implemented in the 19-25year old target age group (Pre-DCE n=15,772, Post-DCE n=22,719) with contemporaneous change in a slightly older age group that was not targeted by the policy (Pre-DCE=19,851, Post-DCE n=28,157)...
July 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732317/cross-lagged-relations-between-motives-and-substance-use-can-use-strengthen-your-motivation-over-time
#16
Christine A Lee, Karen J Derefinko, Heather A Davis, Richard Milich, Donald R Lynam
Motives for substance use have garnered considerable attention due to the strong predictive utility of this construct, both in terms of use and problems associated with use. The current study examined the cross-lagged relations between alcohol use and motives, and marijuana use and motives over three yearly assessment periods in a large sample (N=526, 48% male) of college students. The relations between substance use and motives were assessed at each time point, allowing for the examination of these inter-relations over time...
June 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732310/achieving-directional-propagation-of-elastic-waves-via-topology-optimization
#17
Jingjie He, Zhan Kang
This paper presents a study on topology optimization of novel material microstructural configurations to achieve directional elastic wave propagation through maximization of partial band gaps. A waveguide incorporating a periodic-microstructure material may exhibit different propagation properties for the plane elastic waves incident from different inlets. A topology optimization problem is formulated to enhance such a property with a gradient-based mathematical programming algorithm. For alleviating the issue of local optimum traps, the random morphology description functions (RMDFs) are introduced to generate random initial designs for the optimization process...
July 12, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732303/do-analog-number-representations-underlie-the-meanings-of-young-children-s-verbal-numerals
#18
Susan Carey, Anna Shusterman, Paul Haward, Rebecca Distefano
Children learn to count, and even learn the cardinal meanings of the first three or four verbal numerals ("one" through "three" or "four"), before they master the numerical significance of counting. If so, it follows that the cardinal meanings of those first few numerals cannot be derived, initially, from their place in the count list and the counting routine. What non-verbal representations, then, support the cardinal meanings of verbal numerals before children have mastered how counting does so? Four experiments addressed the commonly adopted assumption that in the earliest period of learning the meanings of number words, children map verbal numerals to regions of the analog number system (ANS), a system of representation with numerical content that is widely attested in animals and in human infants...
July 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732265/chronic-work-stress-and-decreased-vagal-tone-impairs-decision-making-and-reaction-time-in-jockeys
#19
Kathleen Landolt, Paul Maruff, Ben Horan, Michael Kingsley, Glynda Kinsella, Paul D O'Halloran, Matthew W Hale, Bradley J Wright
The inverse relationship between acute stress and decision-making is well documented, but few studies have investigated the impact of chronic stress. Jockeys work exhaustive schedules and have extremely dangerous occupations, with safe performance requiring quick reaction time and accurate decision-making. We used the effort reward imbalance (ERI) occupational stress model to assess the relationship of work stress with indices of stress physiology and decision-making and reaction time. Jockeys (N=32) completed computerised cognitive tasks (Cogstate) on two occasions; September and November (naturally occurring lower and higher stress periods), either side of an acute stress test...
July 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732243/modeling-trait-depression-amplifies-the-effect-of-childbearing-on-postpartum-depression
#20
Kristen G Merkitch, Katherine G Jonas, Michael W O'Hara
BACKGROUND: The literature on the relative risk for depression in the postpartum period has largely focused on state (or episodic) depression, and has not addressed trait depression (a woman's general tendency to experience depressed mood). The present study evaluates the association between childbirth and depression in the postpartum period, taking into account the role of stable differences in women's vulnerability for depression across a 10-year span. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (N = 4385) were used...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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