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Adewole S Adamson, Elizabeth A Suarez, April R Gorman
Importance: Prescription underuse is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. A significant proportion of underuse is owing to primary nonadherence, defined as the rate at which patients fail to fill and pick up new prescriptions. Although electronic prescribing increases coordination of care and decreases errors, its effect on primary nonadherence is less certain. Objectives: To analyze factors associated with primary nonadherence to dermatologic medications and study whether electronic prescribing affects rates of primary nonadherence...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Antti Latvala, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Christian Rück, Brian M D'Onofrio, Tomas Jernberg, Catarina Almqvist, David Mataix-Cols, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein
Importance: Differences in cardiovascular autonomic activity between individuals with psychiatric disorders and healthy controls have been observed, but whether cardiovascular autonomic abnormalities are associated with subsequent psychiatric disorders is unknown. Objective: To investigate whether differences in cardiac autonomic function as indexed by resting heart rate and blood pressure are associated with psychiatric disorders during the lifetime of men in Sweden...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Kate Bunton, Brad H Story
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Arizona Child Acoustic Database project was to obtain a large set of acoustic recordings, primarily vowels, collected from a cohort of children over a critical period of growth and development. METHOD: Data was recorded longitudinally from 63 children between the ages of 2;0 and 7;0 at 3-month intervals. The protocol included individual American English vowels and diphthongs, nonsense multi-vowel transitions, word level multi-vowel sequences (e...
October 27, 2016: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Thomas Tischer, Melina Schuh
Mammalian oocytes are stored in the ovary, where they are arrested in prophase for prolonged periods. The mechanisms that abrogate the prophase arrest in mammalian oocytes and reinitiate meiosis are not well understood. Here, we identify and characterize an essential pathway for the resumption of meiosis that relies on the protein phosphatase DUSP7. DUSP7-depleted oocytes either fail to resume meiosis or resume meiosis with a significant delay. In the absence of DUSP7, Cdk1/CycB activity drops below the critical level required to reinitiate meiosis, precluding or delaying nuclear envelope breakdown...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Kathia Sandoval, Yan Ding, Piero Gardinali
Comprehensive characterization of exposure media used in toxicology studies is still an area of significant divergence when evaluating potential oil spill impacts. When preparing exposure media used for toxicology testing, small variations in simple parameters such as mixing energy, oil type and loading can significantly affect the concentration of the oil components to which test organisms are exposed. The key goal of this study was compare and contrast the physical and chemical compositions of oil water mixtures prepared using fresh and weathered Macondo-related oils under different conditions of mixing and in the presence/absence of chemical dispersants...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Michael D Besmer, Frederik Hammes
Short-term fluctuations in bacterial concentrations in drinking water systems, occurring on time scales of hours-to-weeks, are essentially unexplored due to a lack of microbial monitoring tools that allow high frequency measurements. Here, we applied fully automated online flow cytometry to measure the total cell concentrations (TCC) in both raw water (karstic groundwater) and treated water (flocculation - ultrafiltration (UF) - ozonation - granular active carbon (GAC) filtration) during a period of 70 days at high temporal resolution (n > 4000 for both water types)...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
Mukovhe Chad Phanguphangu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of outer and middle ear pathologies in paediatrics in Limpopo, South Africa. DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective review of otoscopy results obtained during a school health screening campaign conducted between March and June 2015. Descriptive statistics through percentages and frequency tables were used to analyse the data. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between age, gender and pathologies observed...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Maria Freytsis, Julia C Phillippi, Kim J Cox, Amy Romano, Leslie Cragin
In 2014, the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) launched a project called Clarity in Collaboration to develop data definitions related to midwifery and maternity care delivery processes. These definitions are needed to ensure midwifery care delivered in collaborative care models is accurately and consistently captured in clinical documentation systems, data registries, and systems being developed as part of health care restructuring and payment reform. The Clarity in Collaboration project builds on the efforts of the Women's Health Registry Alliance (WHRA), which was recently established by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Alexander P Decilveo, Bartlomiej W Szczech, Jacob Topfer, James C Wittig
Expandable endoprostheses have become an acceptable modality to address the issue of limb-length inequality in limb-sparing procedures for skeletally immature patients afflicted with lower extremity bone sarcomas. This study retrospectively analyzed postoperative outcomes and complications for 7 patients (8 limbs) who underwent minimally invasive or noninvasive reconstruction during a 12-year period. Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scores and complication rates were reported. Mean functional outcome (MSTS scores) at final follow-up was 93...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
Shoji Nishio, Shigeo Fukunishi, Shinichi Yoshiya, David C Sing, Erik N Hansen, Thomas P Vail
The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients who required revision and the rate of early complications after revision for metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (MOM THA) and metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty (MOP THA). Matched cohorts were selected by retrospective review from a single-center database of revision THAs for failed MOM and MOP THAs from 2010 to 2014. A total of 140 hips in 140 patients comprised the study population; 39 revisions were performed for failed MOM THAs (MOM group), and 101 revisions were performed for failed MOP THAs (MOP group)...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
P Abreu, K F Vitzel, I C C R Monteiro, T I Lima, A N Queiroz, J H Leal-Cardoso, S M Hirabara, V M Ceccatto
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Nilson do Rosário Costa, Miguel Abud Marcelino, Cristina Maria Rabelais Duarte, Deborah Uhr
The article analyzes the social protection policy for people with disabilities in Brazil. It describes the patterns of demand and eligibility for Continued Benefit of Social Assistance (Benefício de Prestação Continuada - BPC) in the 1996-2014 period. The article argues that BPC is a direct result of the social pact achieved by the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988. BPC is a social assistance benefit consisting in an unconditional and monthly transference of the equivalent of a minimum wage, to poor people with deficiency and elders with more than 65 years...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Tuany Defaveri Begossi, Janice Zarpellon Mazo
The scope of this study was to analyze the legal norms that have underpinned the alignment of organizational structures in the area of sports directed to individuals with disabilities in Brazil. The theoretical and methodological benchmark of the New Cultural History was based on the analysis of legal documents, as well as oral sources, which consist of three interviews with athletes who have experienced the period before the creation of the Brazilian Paralympic Committee. These sources were subjected to the technique of document analysis...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Ana Cláudia Moreira Melo, Augusto Ricardo Andrighetto, Suélen Darab Hirt, Ana Luiza Melo Bongiolo, Siddhartha Uhrigshardt Silva, Marcos André Duarte da Silva
The aims of this study were to identify (1) patient-related factors (sex, age, craniofacial pattern and smoking habit), (2) miniscrews implants (MSI)-related factors (length and diameter) and (3) location-related factors [bone (maxilla or mandible) and area (buccal, lingual and alveolar ridge)] that may be associated with MSI loss of stability. A total of 1356 MSI were installed in 570 patients (423 females and 147 males) with mean age of 42.7 during a 10-year period and were clinically evaluated once a month until the end of the proposed movement...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
B B Moura, P H Almeida, A G Balliana, J Y G Cobos, M Erbano, K A do Prado, S M Vudala, L Wosch, A B Pereira-Netto
Golden trumpet, Tabebuia chrysotricha, is a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest, with a broad latitudinal distribution. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of short-term changes in micro-weather conditions on structural features, and total protein and carbohydrate content of golden trumpet leaves, using structural and histochemical approaches. Leaves were harvested in four different micro-weather conditions: 1. Afternoon, after a hot, sunny day; 2. at dawn, after a previously hot, sunny day; 3...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Sheila Mara Pedrosa, Mary Lopes Reis, Daniela Tavares Gontijo, Sheila Araújo Teles, Marcelo Medeiros
Objective: the objective of this study was to understand the meaning of the harmful use of crack by people undergoing addiction treatment. Method: qualitative approach of social research on strategic modality was used. Field observation, preparation of field diary and focus groups, and data analysis through the method of interpreting meaning were carried out. Results: the results contributed to the construction of three thematic categories: "The discovery of crack and other drugs" that describes the experimentation with crack and other drugs; "The pain of the pleasure", key category that describes the moments after crack experimentation and that, many times, turns into addiction, which leads the person into a cycle of short periods of attempts at abstinence, relapse, and relentless consumption; and "Return to normal life"...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Sarah E Baum, Kari White, Kristine Hopkins, Joseph E Potter, Daniel Grossman
BACKGROUND: In November 2013, Texas implemented three abortion restrictions included in House Bill 2 (HB 2). Within six months, the number of facilities providing abortion decreased by almost half, and the remaining facilities were concentrated in large urban centers. The number of medication abortions decreased by 70% compared to the same period one year prior due to restrictions on this method imposed by HB 2. The purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the experiences of women who were most affected by the law: those who had to travel farther to reach a facility and those desiring medication abortion...
2016: PloS One
Marián Cueto, Edgard Camarós, Pedro Castaños, Roberto Ontañón, Pablo Arias
Pleistocene skinning and exploitation of carnivore furs have been previously inferred from archaeological evidence. Nevertheless, the evidence of skinning and fur processing tends to be weak and the interpretations are not strongly sustained by the archaeological record. In the present paper, we analyze unique evidence of patterned anthropic modification and skeletal representation of fossil remains of cave lion (Panthera spelaea) from the Lower Gallery of La Garma (Cantabria, Spain). This site is one of the few that provides Pleistocene examples of lion exploitation by humans...
2016: PloS One
Daniele Rimini, Filippo Molinari, William Liboni, Marina Balbo, Roberta Darò, Erika Viotti, Isabel Fernandez
INTRODUCTION: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapeutic treatment resolving emotional distress caused by traumatic events. With EMDR, information processing is facilitated by eye movements (EM) during the recall of a traumatic memory (RECALL). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ocular movements of EMDR on the hemodynamics of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups were recruited: a trial group (wEM) received a complete EMDR treatment, whereas a control group (woEM) received a therapy without EM...
2016: PloS One
Michael J Dunn, Jennifer A Jackson, Stacey Adlard, Amanda S Lynnes, Dirk R Briggs, Derren Fox, Claire M Waluda
We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3...
2016: PloS One
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