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Geeta Shroff
AIM: To describe the morphogenesis of different neuronal cells from the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line, SCT-N, under in vitro culture conditions. METHODS: The directed neuronal cell line was produced from a single, spare, pre-implantation stage fertilized ovum that was obtained during a natural in vitro fertilization process. The hESCs were cultured and maintained as per our proprietary in-house technology in a Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Laboratory Practice and Good Tissue Practice compliant laboratory...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
D Y Hao, R Zhang, X Zhang, C Y Shen, Y Yang, W B Wu, Y L Liu, J Liu, J R Zhang, X L Wang
Objective: To compare the fertility rate and embryo outcome between normal fertilization and the use of Calcium ionophore A23187 on the same period of the same cycle of human ovum for artificial activation. Methods: Patients who conducted the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle in vitro fertilization assisted reproductive from January 2015 to December in reproductive center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were enrolled.The protocol of this study was approved by the ethics committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Seung-Dam Heo, Changnam Park, Jeongtae Kim, Meejung Ahn, Taekyun Shin
The localization of galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding animal lectin, was immunohistochemically studied in the ovaries of pigs to determine its expression in ovarian folliculogenesis. Various stages of ovarian follicles were identified in the ovaries of adult pigs. Galectin-3 was immunostained in the squamous follicular cells surrounding oocytes in primordial follicles and in the unilaminar granulosa cells of primary follicles, but not in oocytes of multilaminar follicles (including primary, secondary, and tertiary Graafian follicles)...
November 17, 2016: Tissue & Cell
Teresa N Sparks, Mary E Norton, Monica Flessel, Sara Goldman, Robert J Currier
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the observed incidence of Down syndrome in twins compared with that expected based on maternal age-matched singletons, which is the current clinical approach. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of California Prenatal Screening Program participants with expected delivery dates between July 1995 and December 2012. Cases confirmed prenatally or postnatally with a genetic imbalance leading to phenotypic Down syndrome (trisomy 21, mosaic trisomy 21, or translocations) were included...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Charles B Lindemann, Kathleen A Lesich
The eukaryotic flagellum is the organelle responsible for the propulsion of the male gamete in most animals. Without exception, sperm of all mammalian species use a flagellum for swimming. The mammalian sperm has a centrally located 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubule doublets and hundreds of accessory proteins that together constitute an axoneme. However, they also possess several characteristic peri-axonemal structures that make the mammalian sperm tail function differently. These modifications include nine outer dense fibers (ODFs) that are paired with the nine outer microtubule doublets of the axoneme, and are anchored in a structure called the connecting piece located at the base...
November 2016: Cytoskeleton
Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira Braga, Amanda Souza Setti, Edson Guimarães Lo Turco, Fernanda Bertuccez Cordeiro, Elaine Cristina Cabral, Sylvia Sanches Cortezzi, Erika Ono, Rita Cássia Sávio Figueira, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin, Edson Borges
PURPOSE: The goal for the present study was to implement a technique for protein extraction and identification in human cumulus cells (CCs). METHODS: Forty samples of CCs were collected after ovum pick-up from patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Samples were split into the blastocyst group (n = 10), including patients in which all embryos converted into blastocysts, and the non-blastocyst group (n = 10), including patients in which none of the embryos reached the blastocyst stage or the positive-pregnancy (n = 10) and negative-pregnancy group (n = 10)...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Vassilis Fragoulakis, Chris P Pescott, Jesper M J Smeenk, Evert J P van Santbrink, G Jur E Oosterhuis, Frank J M Broekmans, Nikos Maniadakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Subfertility represents a multidimensional problem associated with significant distress and impaired social well-being. In the Netherlands, an estimated 50,000 couples visit their general practitioner and 30,000 couples seek medical specialist care for subfertility. We conducted an economic evaluation comparing recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin alfa, r-hFSH, Gonal-F(®)) with two classes of urinary gonadotrophins-highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (hp-HMG, Menopur(®)) and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone (uFSH, Fostimon(®))-for ovarian stimulation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in the Netherlands...
December 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Louise H Oliveira, Carlos P Sanches, Adriano S Seddon, Marcio B Veras, Flávio A Lima, Pedro L J Monteiro, Milo C Wiltbank, Roberto Sartori
The objective was to evaluate in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in nonlactating Holstein cows after ovarian superstimulation. Cows were randomly assigned in a crossover design to 1 of 2 groups: control (n = 35), which was not synchronized and not treated with hormones before ovum pick-up (OPU), or hormone-treated (n = 35), in which wave emergence was synchronized and animals treated with porcine (p)-FSH in the presence of norgestomet before OPU. In the hormone-treated group, all follicles ≥7 mm in diameter were aspirated for synchronization of wave emergence and cows received a norgestomet ear implant...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
L H Oliveira, A B Nascimento, P L J Monteiro, M M Guardieiro, M C Wiltbank, R Sartori
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high-producing dairy cows become increasingly resistant to insulin throughout lactation and that, consequently, oocyte quality is compromised. We used Holstein cows at 50 (51.5 ± 3.7; n = 30), 100 (102.3 ± 9.4; n = 30), and 150 (154.5 ± 18.9; n = 30) days in milk (DIM). We measured circulating insulin and glucose and performed a glucose tolerance test (GTT) after 5 h of fasting. To evaluate oocyte quality, we performed ovum pickup on the day before the GTT (581 oocytes)...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Kristina Hamilton, Narelle Hadlow, Peter Roberts, Patricia Sykes, Allison McClements, Jacqui Coombes, Phillip Matson
OBJECTIVE: To study antimüllerian hormone (AMH) from gestation week 0-7. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of 85 pregnant women with AMH and reproductive hormones sampled during conception cycle and early pregnancy until week 7. SETTING: Fertility clinic. PATIENT(S): Of 85 pregnant women, 69 had a singleton pregnancy, 1 a twin pregnancy, and 15 had a nonviable pregnancy (3 chemical pregnancies, 11 miscarriages, and 1 blighted ovum)...
August 23, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Cecilia Dieci, Valentina Lodde, Rémi Labreque, Isabelle Dufort, Irene Tessaro, Marc-André Sirard, Alberto M Luciano
STUDY QUESTION: Does the gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC) accompanying oocytes with different degrees of chromatin compaction within the germinal vesicle (GV) reflect the oocyte's quality and response in culture during in-vitro embryo production (IVP). SUMMARY ANSWER: The transcriptomic profile of the cumulus cells is related to oocyte competence, setting the stage for the development of customized pre-maturation strategies to improve IVP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocytes complete the acquisition of their competence during antral follicle development...
August 24, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Brett Nixon, Heath Ecroyd, Jean-Louis Dacheux, Francoise Dacheux, Valerie Labas, Steve D Johnston, Russell C Jones
As monotremes are the earliest offshoot of the mammalian lineage, the platypus and short-beaked echidna were studied as model animals to assess the origin and biological significance of adaptations considered unique to therian mammals: epididymal maturation and subsequent capacitation. We show that spermatozoa from both species assemble into bundles of approximately 100 cells during passage through the epididymis and that an epididymal protein, secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (SPARC), is involved in bundle formation...
August 24, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
José Felipe W Sprícigo, Severino Bernardino Sena Netto, Carolle Vieira Muterlle, Sarah de Andrade Dias Rodrigues, Ligiane Oliveira Leme, Ana Luiza Guimarães, Felippe Manoel Costa Caixeta, Maurício Machain Franco, Ivo Pivato, Margot Alves Nunes Dode
Embryo production by intrafollicular oocyte transfer (IFOT) represents an alternative for production of a large number of embryos without requiring any hormones and only basic laboratory handling. We aimed to (1) evaluate the efficiency of IFOT using immature oocytes (IFIOT) and (2) compare embryo development after IFIOT using fresh or vitrified immature oocytes. First, six IFIOTs were performed using immature oocytes obtained by ovum pickup. After insemination and uterine flush for embryo recovery, 21.3% of total transferred structures were recovered excluding the recipient's own oocyte or embryo, and of those, 26% (5...
November 2016: Theriogenology
C Jaton, A Koeck, M Sargolzaei, C A Price, C Baes, F S Schenkel, F Miglior
Multiple embryos can be produced from a heifer or cow donors using an in vivo or an in vitro technique. Comparisons of the number of embryos produced by the same donors as heifers and cows and using different techniques are limited. The main objectives of this study were to assess the genetic correlation between the number of embryos produced by Holstein donors using an in vivo and in vitro technique as a heifer and as a cow. The data set used was recorded by Holstein Canada and included all successful superovulations or ovum pickup and in vitro fertilization procedures performed on Holstein donors for more than 20yr...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
S A Strumilo, U Czyzewska, M Siemieniuk, J Strumilo, A Tylicki
We studied the effects of insulin and cAMP on the offspring of female rats after daily treatment with these substances over 4 weeks. In adult offspring from cAMP-treated females, activities of pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased in the liver and brain and activities of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decreased in the liver. In the offspring of insulin-treated females, we observed only activation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in the liver and only in females...
July 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Marina A Nikolaeva, Alina A Babayan, Elena O Stepanova, Veronika Y Smolnikova, Elena A Kalinina, Nelson Fernández, Lubov V Krechetova, Ludmila V Vanko, Gennady T Sukhikh
It has been proposed that the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 present in seminal plasma (SP) triggers a female immune response favorable for implantation. We hypothesize that seminal interleukin (IL)-18, a cytokine that can potentially cause implantation failure, interferes with the beneficial effect of TGF-β1. This study aims to determine whether the levels of seminal TGF-β1 and IL-18 are associated with reproductive outcomes in patients exposed to SP during in vitro fertilization (IVF) or IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)...
September 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Dongxue Che, Yang Wang, Weiyang Bai, Leijie Li, Guiyou Liu, Liangcai Zhang, Yongchun Zuo, Shiheng Tao, Jinlian Hua, Mingzhi Liao
Gametogenesis is a complex process, which includes mitosis and meiosis and results in the production of ovum and sperm. The development of gametogenesis is dynamic and needs many different genes to work synergistically, but it is lack of global perspective research about this process. In this study, we detected the dynamic process of gametogenesis from the perspective of systems biology based on protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) and functional analysis. Results showed that gametogenesis genes have strong synergistic effects in PPINs within and between different phases during the development...
July 3, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Jing Tan, Gen Di Song, Jia Sheng Song, Shi Hao Ren, Chun Li Li, Zhen Yu Zheng, Wei Dong Zhao
A striking infertile phenotype has been discovered in the DDK strain of mouse. The DDK females are usually infertile when crossed with males of other inbred strains, whereas DDK males exhibit normal fertility in reciprocal crosses. This phenomenon is caused by mutation in the ovum (Om) locus on chromosome 11 and known as the DDK syndrome. Previously, some research groups reported that the embryonic mortality deviated from the semilethal rate in backcrosses between heterozygous (Om/+) females and males of other strains...
June 2016: Journal of Genetics
N Hemmings, C Bennison, T R Birkhead
Among internal fertilizers, typically fewer than 1% sperm survive the journey through the oviduct. Several studies suggest that the sperm reaching the ovum-the 'fertilizing set'-comprise a non-random sub-population, but the characteristics of this group remain unclear. We tested whether oviductal selection in birds results in a morphologically distinct subset of sperm, by exploiting the fact that the fertilizing set are trapped by the perivitelline layer of the ovum. We show that these sperm have remarkably low morphological variation, as well as smaller head size and greater tail length, compared with those inseminated...
June 2016: Biology Letters
Miro Kasum, Kristijan Kurdija, Slavko Orešković, Ermin Čehić, Dinka Pavičić-Baldani, Lana Škrgatić
The aim of the review is to analyse the combination of a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist with a human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) trigger, for final oocyte maturation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. The concept being a ''dual trigger'' combines a single dose of the GnRH agonist with a reduced or standard dosage of hCG at the time of triggering. The use of a GnRH agonist with a reduced dose of hCG in high responders demonstrated luteal phase support with improved pregnancy rates, similar to those after conventional hCG and a low risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)...
June 8, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
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