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Seraphim Dempsey, Seán Lyons, Anne Nolan
We examine the association between living in an urban area with more or less green space and the probability of being obese. This work involves the creation of a new dataset which combines geo-coded data at the individual level from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing with green space data from the European Urban Atlas 2012. We find evidence suggestive of a u-shaped relationship between green space in urban areas and obesity; those living in areas with the lowest and highest shares of green space within a 1...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Feilun Cui, Jianpeng Hu, Yu Fan, Jian Tan, Huaming Tang
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in Chinese males. Cell-cycle aberration is a hallmark of cancer. Spindle pole body component 25 homolog (SPC25), a component of the Ndc80 complex, serves an important role in regulating mitotic chromosome segregation. However, the functional roles of SPC25 in PCa remain poorly understood. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate that SPC25 is significantly upregulated in PCa. In order to investigate the molecular roles of SPC25, a loss of function assay was performed, revealing that SPC25 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, and induced a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase and an increase in the number of cells in the G2/M phase...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
S Li, S Park, J-Y Lee, K-J Ha, M-K Park, C O Jo, H Oh, J Mühle, K-R Kim, S A Montzka, S O'Doherty, P B Krummel, E Atlas, B R Miller, F Moore, R F Weiss, S C Wofsy
The East Asian Summer Monsoon driven by temperature and moisture gradients between the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean, leads to approximately 50% of the annual rainfall in the region across 20-40°N. Due to its increasing scientific and social importance, there have been several previous studies on identification of moisture sources for summer monsoon rainfall over East Asia mainly using Lagrangian or Eulerian atmospheric water vapor models. The major source regions for EASM previously proposed include the North Indian Ocean, South China Sea and North western Pacific...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniëlle Bp Eekers, Lieke In 't Ven, Erik Roelofs, Alida Postma, Claire Alapetite, Neil G Burnet, Valentin Calugaru, Inge Compter, Ida E M Coremans, Morton Høyer, Maarten Lambrecht, Petra Witt Nyström, Alejandra Méndez Romero, Frank Paulsen, Ana Perpar, Dirk de Ruysscher, Laurette Renard, Beate Timmermann, Pavel Vitek, Damien C Weber, Hiske L van der Weide, Gillian A Whitfield, Ruud Wiggenraad, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: To create a digital, online atlas for organs at risk (OAR) delineation in neuro-oncology based on high-quality computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. METHODS: CT and 3 Tesla (3T) MR images (slice thickness 1 mm with intravenous contrast agent) were obtained from the same patient and subsequently fused. In addition, a 7T MR without intravenous contrast agent was obtained from a healthy volunteer. Based on discussion between experienced radiation oncologists, the clinically relevant organs at risk (OARs) to be included in the atlas for neuro-oncology were determined, excluding typical head and neck OARs previously published...
March 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Sacha Klein, Brittany Mihalec-Adkins, Stephanie Benson, Sei-Young Lee
Increasing access to early care and education (ECE) for children in the child welfare system (CWS) remains a critical issue in the United States, as the numbers of young children entering this system steadily increases. Mounting evidence suggests that participation in at least some types of ECE can mitigate the need for child welfare supervision. Moreover, ECE participation has been linked to positive developmental and school readiness outcomes, lower rates of foster placement, and greater placement stability for children in the CWS...
March 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, L Eric Huang
OBJECTIVE Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors. Recent studies have supported the importance of key genetic alterations, including isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations and 1p19q codeletion, in glioma prognosis. Mutant IDH produces 2-hydroxyglutarate from α-ketoglutarate, a key metabolite of the Krebs cycle. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is composed of MPC1 and MPC2 subunits and is functionally essential for the Krebs cycle. The authors sought to explore the impact of MPC1 and MPC2 expression on patient prognosis...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Honglei Zhang, Xing Yang, Xu Feng, Haibo Xu, Qin Yang, Li Zou, Mei Yan, Dequan Liu, Xiaosan Su, Baowei Jiao
The high-risk of tumor initiation in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) characterized by X chromosome monosomy in women has been well established and aneuploidy, defined as an abnormal number of chromosomes, is a common feature in human cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of X chromosome aneuploidy promoting tumorigenesis remain obscure. We propose that chromosome-wide gene dosage imbalance (CDI) may serve as an important mechanism. Here, we assess the relative expression ratios of X chromosome and autosomes (expression ratios of X:AA) between tumor samples and adjacent normal samples across 16 tumor types using expression datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Haiyan Gao, Mei Yang, Xiaolan Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate potential recurrence-risk biomarkers based on significant pathways for Luminal A breast cancer through gene expression profile analysis. Initially, the gene expression profiles of Luminal A breast cancer patients were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using a Limma package and the hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted for the DEGs. In addition, the functional pathways were screened using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses and rank ratio calculation...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Zhong Ni, Xiting Wang, Tianchen Zhang, Linlin Li, Jianxue Li
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the subtype of lung cancer with the highest degree of malignancy and the lowest degree of differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of SCLC using bioinformatics analysis, and to provide new ideas for the early diagnosis and targeted therapy of SCLC. Microarray data were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SCLC were compared with the normal lung samples and identified. Gene Ontology (GO) function and pathway analysis of DEGs was performed through the DAVID database...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Krishna B Singh, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Lora H Rigatti, Daniel P Normolle, Jian-Min Yuan, Shivendra V Singh
We have shown previously that dietary administration of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a small molecule from edible cruciferous vegetables, significantly decreases the incidence of poorly-differentiated prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice without any side effects. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Myc-regulated glycolysis in prostate cancer chemoprevention by PEITC. Exposure of LNCaP (androgen-responsive) and 22Rv1 (castration-resistant) human prostate cancer cells to PEITC resulted in suppression of expression as well as transcriptional activity of c-Myc...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Holger Winkels, Erik Ehinger, Melanie Vassallo, Konrad Buscher, Huy Dinh, Kouji Kobiyama, Anouk Hamers, Clément Cochain, Ehsan Vafadarnejad, Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba, Alma Zernecke, Akula Pramod, Amlan Ghosh, Nathaly Anto Michel, Natalie Hoppe, Ingo Hilgendorf, Andreas Zirlik, Catherine Hedrick, Klaus Ley, Dennis Wolf
<u>Rationale:</u> Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is driven by the interplay of pro- and anti-inflammatory leukocytes in the aorta. Yet, the phenotypic and transcriptional diversity of aortic leukocytes is only poorly understood. <u>Objective:</u> We characterized leukocytes from healthy and atherosclerotic mouse aortas in-depth by single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNAseq) and mass cytometry (CyTOF) to define an atlas of the immune cell landscape in atherosclerosis...
March 15, 2018: Circulation Research
J D Santoro, N D Forkert, Q-Z Yang, S Pavitt, S J MacEachern, M E Moseley, K W Yeom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tension-type and migraine-type headaches are the most common chronic paroxysmal disorders of childhood. The goal of this study was to compare regional cerebral volumes and diffusion in tension-type and migraine-type headaches against published controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients evaluated for tension-type or migraine-type headache without aura from May 2014 to July 2016 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-two patients with tension-type headache and 23 with migraine-type headache at an average of 4 months after diagnosis were enrolled...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Rolf Quam, Nohemi Sala, Morgane Bardey, James C Ohman, Antoine Balzeau
The La Ferrassie 1 (LF1) skeleton, discovered over a century ago, is one of the most important Neandertal individuals both for its completeness and due to the role it has played historically in the interpretation of Neandertal anatomy and lifeways. Here we present new skeletal remains from this individual, which include a complete right middle ear ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes), three vertebral fragments, and two costal remains. Additionally, the study of the skeleton has allowed us to identify new pathological lesions, including a congenital variant in the atlas, a greenstick fracture of the left clavicle, and a lesion in a mid-thoracic rib of unknown etiology...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Júlia Perera-Bel, Barbara Hutter, Christoph Heining, Annalen Bleckmann, Martina Fröhlich, Stefan Fröhling, Hanno Glimm, Benedikt Brors, Tim Beißbarth
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive understanding of cancer has been furthered with technological improvements and decreasing costs of next-generation sequencing (NGS). However, the complexity of interpreting genomic data is hindering the implementation of high-throughput technologies in the clinical context: increasing evidence on gene-drug interactions complicates the task of assigning clinical significance to genomic variants. METHODS: Here we present a method that automatically matches patient-specific genomic alterations to treatment options...
March 15, 2018: Genome Medicine
Wei Tse Li, Hao Zheng, Vincent Nguyen, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, Weg M Ongkeko
Though bladder urothelial carcinoma is the most common form of bladder cancer, advances in its diagnosis and treatment have been modest in the past few decades. To evaluate miRNAs as putative disease markers for bladder urothelial carcinoma, this study develops a process to identify dysregulated miRNAs in cancer patients and potentially stratify patients based on the association of their microRNAome phenotype to genomic alterations. Using RNA sequencing data for 409 patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas, we examined miRNA differential expression between cancer and normal tissues and associated differentially expressed miRNAs with patient survival and clinical variables...
March 12, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
I S Lvov, A A Grin', M A Nekrasov, A Yu Kordonskiy, A V Sytnik
Compression of the caudal medulla oblongata and ventral portions of the spinal cord is the most dangerous complication of atlanto-axial dislocation (AAD). AIM: The study objective was to improve surgical management of patients with ventral compression of the spinal cord in the setting of AAD of various genesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed treatment outcomes in 250 patients with C1 and C2 injuries and diseases for the period between 2002 and 2016. Persistent ventral compression of the neural structures in the setting of AAD was detected in 34 (13...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Tanya van de Water, Jaco Rossouw, Alberta S J van der Watt, Elna Yadin, Soraya Seedat
This qualitative investigation, nested within a randomized controlled trial (RCT), describes the experiences of adolescent participants accessing psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a school-based setting. Supervised nurses provided the psychotherapeutic interventions. Twelve participants who took part in the RCT were invited, and 10 agreed to share their experiences through recorded face-to-face, semistructured, in-depth interviews and treatment-specific focus groups. Basic thematic analysis was applied using Atlas...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr, Stephanie A Sassoon, Wesley K Thompson, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Importance: The prevalence of alcohol misuse increased substantially over a decade in adults, particularly in those aged 65 years or older. Ramifications for brain structural integrity are significant, especially in older adults. Objectives: To combine cross-sectional, longitudinal data to test age-alcoholism interactions and examine the association between prevalent comorbidities (drug dependence and hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection) and cortical volume deficits in alcohol dependence...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Fantin Girard, Conrad Kavalec, Farida Cheriet
Optic disc (OD) appearance in fundus images is one of the clinical indicators considered in the assessment of retinal diseases such as glaucoma. The cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) is the most common clinical measurement used to characterize glaucoma. However, the CDR only evaluates the relative sizes of the cup and the OD via their diameters. We propose to construct an atlas-based shape descriptor (ASD) to statistically characterize the geometric deformations of the OD shape and of the blood vessels' configuration inside the OD region...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Andrew J Lawrence, Daniel J Tozer, Emmanuel A Stamatakis, Hugh S Markus
Objective: MRI measures of network integrity may be useful disease markers in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). We compared the sensitivity and reproducibility of MRI derived structural and functional network measures in healthy controls and SVD subjects. Methods: Diffusion tractography and resting state fMRI were used to create connectivity matrices from 26 subjects with symptomatic MRI confirmed lacunar stroke and 19 controls. Matrices were constructed at multiple scales based on a multi-resolution cortical atlas and at multiple thresholds for the matrix density...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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