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Cast syndrome

Maral Tajerian, Victor Hung, Hamda Khan, Lauren J Lahey, Yuan Sun, Frank Birklein, Heidrun H Krämer, William H Robinson, Wade S Kingery, J David Clark
OBJECTIVE: Using a mouse model of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), our goal was to identify autoantigens in the skin of the affected limb. METHODS: A CRPS-like state was induced using the tibia fracture/cast immobilization model. Three weeks after fracture, hindpaw skin was homogenized, run on 2-d gels, and probed by sera from fracture and control mice. Spots of interest were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and the list of targets validated by examining their abundance and subcellular localization...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Andrew J Irvine, William D Chey, Alexander C Ford
OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) share similar symptoms, leading to confusion between the two and diagnostic delay. International guidelines recommend screening individuals with IBS for CD, via serological testing. However, studies published recently have cast doubt on the utility of this. We updated a previous meta-analysis examining this issue. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and EMBASE Classic were searched through to May 2016. Eligible studies recruited adults with IBS according to symptom-based criteria, physician's opinion, or questionnaire data...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Olav Rueppell, Denise Aumer, Robin Fa Moritz
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the best studied model of ageing among the social insects. As in other social insects, the reproductive queen far outlives her non-reproductive workers despite developing from the same genome in the same colony environment. Thus, the different social roles of the two female castes are critical for the profound phenotypic plasticity. In several special cases, such as the reproductive workers of Apis mellifera capensis, within-caste plasticity enables further studies of the fecundity-longevity syndrome in honey bees...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Eleni Parcha, Elias Bitsanis, Demetrios J Halazonetis
OBJECTIVE: To assess shape covariation of the palate and craniofacial complex (CFC) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs and corresponding maxillary casts of 100 children (8-10 years) and 100 adolescents (15-20 years) were digitized. Exclusion criteria were previous orthodontic treatment, craniofacial syndromes, mouth breathing, finger sucking, crossbite, tooth agenesis, and tooth impaction. Palatal shape was described with 239 surface and curve semilandmarks and craniofacial shape with 10 fixed landmarks and 117 curve semilandmarks...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Orthodontics
Zheng Zhang, Chun-Kang Chang, Qi He, Juan Guo, Ying Tao, Ling-Yun Wu, Feng Xu, Dong Wu, Li-Yu Zhou, Ji-Ying Su, Lu-Xi Song, Chao Xiao, Xiao Li
Decitabine is an effective therapy for patients with lower risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, the mechanisms of decitabine's therapeutic effect are not well established. Forty-four lower risk MDS patients received decitabine therapy. 59.1% patients achieved treatment response, and 53.8% patients who were RBC/platelet-dependent cast off the transfusion burden. The median overall survival (OS) was 19.0 months after decitabine treatment. Moreover, polarization toward type 1 in the CD8 + subset was enhanced, and a significantly increased expression of the PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-1/STAT1 ratio was observed in these lower risk MDS...
August 11, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Shawn Nguyen, Mitchell McDowell, John Schlechter
Casting is a routine procedure used for fracture care in the pediatric population. The purpose of this review is to provide pearls and pitfalls that our institution has learned from previous literature. When applying the cast, we recommend using cotton padding for the liner and fiberglass or plaster depending on how much swelling is expected. A well-molded cast must be applied in order to prevent further fracture displacement. Cast valving is a valuable technique that allows a decrease in pressure which prevents discomfort and complications like compartment syndrome...
September 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
Lauren Roberts, Jason Strelzow, Emily K Schaeffer, Christopher W Reilly, Kishore Mulpuri
BACKGROUND: Although the recommended treatment for Gartland types I and III supracondylar humeral fractures is well-established, the optimal treatment for type II fractures without rotational malalignment remains controversial, involving circumferential casting or closed reduction and pinning. Our institution uses pronated flexion-taping for Gartland type IIA fractures. This theoretically removes external pressure secondary to circumferential casting, potentially decreasing risks of compartment syndrome and mitigating loss of reduction with extension while maintaining optimal flexion position for reduction...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Liping Wang, Tian-Zhi Guo, Tzuping Wei, Wen-Wu Li, Xiaoyou Shi, J David Clark, Wade S Kingery
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates are used to prevent the bone loss and fractures associated with osteoporosis, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and osteogenesis deformans. Distal limb fractures cause regional bone loss with cutaneous inflammation and pain in the injured limb that can develop into complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Clinical trials have reported that antiresorptive bisphosphonates can prevent fracture-induced bone loss, inhibit serum inflammatory cytokine levels, and alleviate CRPS pain...
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
C Druschel, K Heck, C Kraft, R Placzek
OBJECTIVE: PemberSal osteotomy to improve femoral head coverage by rotating the acetabular roof ventrally and laterally. INDICATIONS: Insufficient coverage of the femoral head, and can be combined with other surgical procedures such as femoral intertrochanteric varus-derotation osteotomy and open reduction for developmental dysplasia and dislocation of the hip or to improve sphericity and containment in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. This specific acetabuloplasty can only be performed in patients with an open epiphyseal growth-plate...
September 14, 2016: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
Maëva Elzaiat, Anne-Laure Todeschini, Sandrine Caburet, Reiner A Veitia
In a 46, XY individual, the presence of the Y chromosome harboring the testis-determining factor (SRY) triggers testis determination and differentiation. In a 46, XX individual, the absence of SRY along with the activation of genes associated with the female pathway leads to ovarian development. The latter process has long been considered as a default pathway. However, recent studies have cast doubts on this dogma. Here, after a brief overview of the main steps of ovarian development, we focus on three genes WNT4, RSPO1 and FOXL2 that are essential for ovarian determination, differentiation and/or maintenance...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Anil Agarwal, Anubrat Kumar, Abbas Shaharyar, Madhusudan Mishra
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to create awareness in the practicing health care workers toward the problems encountered during casting and bracing of clubfoot following Ponseti method, and in turn avoid them. MATERIAL AND PATIENTS: Retrospective audit of 6 years' clubfoot clinic records to analyze problems associated with Ponseti method. OBSERVATIONS: Problems were encountered in 26 cast and in 6 braced patients. Just 4 patients out of 71 syndromic (5...
September 7, 2016: Foot & Ankle Specialist
A Ujam, M Perry
Current guidelines for the urgent management of patients with orbital compartment syndrome include immediate lateral canthotomy and cantholysis, followed by surgical decompression. Medical treatment is also advocated to 'buy time' while preparing the patient for theatre. This consists of high-dose steroids, mannitol, and acetazolamide diuretics to reduce swelling and orbital pressure. It is generally recognized that late or delayed intervention is associated with poor outcomes including blindness. With early presentation, given the potential risk to sight, there is generally a low threshold for treating suspected cases...
November 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
V Saey, T Vandecasteele, G van Loon, P Cornillie, M Ploeg, C Delesalle, A Gröne, I Gielen, R Ducatelle, K Chiers
BACKGROUND: Acquired aortopulmonary fistulation is a rare condition in humans. It usually results as a late complication of a true or pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta. It is most commonly associated with trauma or surgery, less commonly with atherosclerosis, inflammation, hypertension or Marfan's syndrome. Aortopulmonary fistulation is also seen as a rare complication of acute aortic dissection. On rare occasions, acquired aortopulmonary fistulation is reported in aged patients without any of the above mentioned triggering factors...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Mona Doshi, Amit Lahoti, Farhad R Danesh, Vecihi Batuman, Paul W Sanders
Disorders of plasma and B cells leading to paraproteinemias are associated with a variety of renal diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of injury and associated nephropathies provides a framework that aids clinicians in prompt diagnosis and appropriate adjunctive treatment of these disorders. Glomerular diseases that may be associated with paraproteinemias include amyloid deposition, monoclonal Ig deposition disease, proliferative GN with monoclonal Ig deposits, C3 glomerulopathy caused by alterations in the complement pathway, immunotactoid glomerulopathy, fibrillary GN, and cryoglobulinemia...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Manuel Luque-Ramírez, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
: Background The prevalence of adrenal hyperandrogenism (AH), as defined by increased circulating dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) levels, ranges from 15 to 45% in women with polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS. METHODS: The aim of this review is to update the pathogenesis and consequences of AH in PCOS, from molecular genetics to the clinical setting. RESULTS: Mounting evidence derived from animal models suggests that genetically or enviromentally determined prenatal androgen excess, by influencing the hormonal and metabolic phenotype of susceptible female fetuses later in life, may be the capital event for the development of AH in PCOS...
July 20, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
H E Matar, N K Garg
INTRODUCTION Larsen syndrome is an autosomal-dominant osteochondrodysplasia characterised by large joint dislocations and craniofacial anomalies. CASE HISTORY We present a rare case of Larsen syndrome with bilateral dislocated hips and knees and severe clubfeet at 7-year follow-up. We undertook bilateral open reduction of both hips at age 8 months. This procedure was preceded by open reduction and left-knee V-Y quadricepsplasty at age 4 months following a failed trial of closed reduction of the left knee. Both feet had a severe deformity (Pirani score of 5...
August 9, 2016: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Pietro Persiani, Filippo Maria Ranaldi, Lorena Martini, Anna Zambrano, Mauro Celli, Patrizia D'Eufemia, Ciro Villani
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare congenital genetic osteodystrophy, which has a prevalence of 1:20,000. OI is caused by the mutation of the COL1A1/COL1A2 genes, leading to a deficit of quality and/or quantity in the synthesis of procollagen-α type 1. Seven different forms of diverse clinical entity have been classified by Sillence and Glorieux, although, recently, up to 11 forms characterized by different genetic mutations have been recognized. Patients with OI suffer from extreme bone fragility and osteoporosis, which often predisposes them to frequent fractures...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Manoj Kumar Mohapatra, Ashok Kumar Behera, Purna Chandra Karua, Prafulla Kumar Bariha, Ashutosh Rath, Kailash Chandra Aggrawal, Snigdha Rani Nahak, Santosh Shankar Gudaganatti
BACKGROUND: Severe cholestatic jaundice may complicate with bile cast nephropathy (BCN) causing severe acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we investigate BCN in severe falciparum malaria complicated with jaundice and AKI. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary health care institution with high prevalence of malaria. A cohort of 110 patients with falciparum malaria complicated with cerebral malaria, jaundice and AKI were enrolled. Species diagnosis was made from peripheral blood smear or rapid diagnostic test...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Jana Zímová, Pavlína Zímová
Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1)...
June 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Ozgur Dede, Peter F Sturm
PURPOSE: Body casts have a long history in the treatment of spinal deformity. Currently the use of body casts is limited to early onset scoliosis. Here, we aim to provide a brief narrative of the evolution of cast application for the management of spinal deformity. METHODS: A history of cast application is provided with a brief review of the orthopedic literature. The current indications for cast application and the authors' preferred technique are described. RESULTS: Serial casting is an effective treatment method for early onset scoliosis...
October 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
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