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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320137/what-increases-the-risk-of-malnutrition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Svetlana Tomic, Vlasta Pekic, Zeljka Popijac, Tomislav Pucic, Marta Petek, Tihana Gilman Kuric, Sanja Misevic, Ruzica Palic Kramaric
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are at a higher risk of malnutrition. The prevalence has been estimated to 0-24%, while 3%-60% of PD patients are reported to be at risk of malnutrition. To date, there is no clear explanation for malnutrition in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to analyze factors that influence its appearance. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used to determine normal nutritional status; at risk of malnutrition; and already malnourished status...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319947/effects-of-capsaicin-on-older-patients-with-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#2
Rui Nakato, Noriaki Manabe, Sayako Shimizu, Kozo Hanayama, Akiko Shiotani, Jiro Hata, Ken Haruma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The standard of care for older patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is poor. Stimulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 might become a pharmacological strategy for these patients. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effect of film food containing 0.75 µg of capsaicin in these patients. METHODS: In a crossover, randomized trial, 49 patients with OD were provided capsaicin or identical placebo at least 7 days apart. Patients' reported symptoms during repeated swallowing, the volume, pH and substance P (SP) concentrations in saliva, and cervical esophageal wall motion evaluated by ultrasonographic tissue Doppler imaging were obtained before and after capsaicin or placebo administration...
March 21, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319848/treatment-of-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-with-the-gabaa-receptor-modulating-steroid-antagonist-sepranolone-uc1010-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Marie Bixo, Karin Ekberg, Inger Sundström Poromaa, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Aino Fianu Jonasson, Lotta Andréen, Erika Timby, Marianne Wulff, Agneta Ehrenborg, Torbjörn Bäckström
CONTEXT: Allopregnanolone is a metabolite from progesterone and a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor. This endogenous steroid may induce negative mood in sensitive women when present in serum levels comparable to the premenstrual phase. Its endogenous isomer, isoallopregnanolone, has been shown to antagonize allopregnanolone effects in experimental animal and human models. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test whether inhibition of allopregnanolone by treatment with the GABAA modulating steroid antagonist (GAMSA) Sepranolone (UC1010) during the premenstrual phase could reduce symptoms of the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)...
March 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319785/the-long-and-complex-road-in-the-search-for-treatment-for-mental-disorders-an-analysis-of-the-process-in-five-groups-of-patients
#4
Gema Del Valle, Amparo Belloch, Carmen Carrió
Seeking treatment for mental-health problems is a complex process, with different underlying motives in each stage. However, the entire process and these motives have hardly been investigated. This study aims to analyze the different stages of the help-seeking process and their underlying motives in five groups of patients with different mental disorders. In all, 156 patients seeking treatment in outpatient mental health clinics were individually interviewed: 71 had Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), 21 had Agoraphobia (AGO), 18 had Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), 20 had Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and 22 had Cocaine Dependence (COC)...
March 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319687/effects-of-subclinical-depression-anxiety-and-somatization-on-brain-structure-in-healthy-subjects
#5
Bianca Besteher, Christian Gaser, Kerstin Langbein, Maren Dietzek, Heinrich Sauer, Igor Nenadić
BACKGROUND: Dimensional approaches in highly prevalent psychiatric disorders like depression or anxiety could lead to a better understanding of pathogenesis and advantages in early detection and prevention. In an effort to better understand associations of brain structural variation across the depression/anxiety spectra, we investigated minor subclinical symptoms in a non-clinical healthy population. METHODS: We studied 177 healthy subjects from the community, who underwent high-resolution T1-weighted 3T MRI and completed the symptom-checklist-90 (SCL-90-R)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319591/psychopathological-assessment-of-risk-of-restraint-in-acute-psychiatric-patients
#6
Federico Dazzi, Lorenzo Tarsitani, Michele Di Nunzio, Valeria Trincia, Gabriella Scifoni, Giuseppe Ducci
The study aims to identify independent predictors of physical restraint in acute psychiatric patients and to determine the predictive power of a risk assessment model centered on psychopathological dimensions. We included 1552 patients admitted to a psychiatric intensive care unit over a 5-year period. Patients were rated on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-E) at admission. Principal axis factoring (PAF) with varimax rotation was performed on BPRS-E items to identify psychopathological factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319458/quality-of-life-in-807-patients-with-vestibular-schwannoma-comparing-treatment-modalities
#7
Géke Soulier, Bibian M van Leeuwen, Hein Putter, Jeroen C Jansen, Martijn J A Malessy, Peter Paul G van Benthem, Andel G L van der Mey, Anne M Stiggelbout
Objective In vestibular schwannoma treatment, the choice among treatment modalities is controversial. The first aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of patients with vestibular schwannoma having undergone observation, radiation therapy, or microsurgical resection. The second aim was to examine the relationship between perceived symptoms and quality of life. Last, the association between quality of life and time since treatment was studied. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Tertiary referral center...
March 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318911/cannabis-use-polysubstance-use-and-psychosis-spectrum-symptoms-in-a-community-based-sample-of-u-s-youth
#8
Jason D Jones, Monica E Calkins, J Cobb Scott, Emily C Bach, Raquel E Gur
PURPOSE: To examine how cannabis use and polysubstance use among cannabis users relate to psychosis spectrum (PS) symptoms in a large community-based sample of U.S. youth. METHODS: Four thousand one hundred seventy-one youths (aged 14-21 years; mean = 16.90 years, SD = 1.85; 55% female) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort completed assessments of substance use, PS symptoms, and confounding variables (e.g., demographics, comorbid psychopathology, and trauma exposure)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318835/improvement-in-mismatch-negativity-generation-during-d-serine-treatment-in-schizophrenia-correlation-with-symptoms
#9
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Michael L Epstein, Migyung Lee, Nayla Lehrfeld, Karen A Nolan, Constance Shope, Eva Petkova, Gail Silipo, Daniel C Javitt
BACKGROUND: Deficits in N-methyl-d-aspartate-type (NMDAR) function contribute to symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The efficacy of NMDAR agonists in the treatment of persistent symptoms of schizophrenia has been variable, potentially reflecting limitations in functional target engagement. We recently demonstrated significant improvement in auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) with once-weekly treatment with d-serine, a naturally occurring NMDAR glycine-site agonist. This study investigates effects of continuous (daily) NMDAR agonists in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318598/pediatric-eating-assessment-tool-10-as-an-indicator-to-predict-aspiration-in-children-with-esophageal-atresia
#10
Tutku Soyer, Sule Yalcin, Selen Serel Arslan, Numan Demir, Feridun Cahit Tanyel
AIM: Airway aspiration is a common problem in children with esophageal atresia (EA). Pediatric Eating Assessment Tool-10 (pEAT-10) is a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate dysphagia symptoms in children. A prospective study was performed to evaluate the validity of pEAT-10 to predict aspiration in children with EA. METHODS: Patients with EA were evaluated for age, sex, type of atresia, presence of associated anomalies, type of esophageal repair, time of definitive treatment, and the beginning of oral feeding...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318473/the-developmental-trajectory-of-perceived-stress-mediates-the-relations-between-distress-tolerance-and-internalizing-symptoms-among-youth
#11
Julia W Felton, Anne N Banducci, Julia M Shadur, Ryan Stadnik, Laura MacPherson, Carl W Lejuez
The current study examines the relation between distress tolerance, perceived stress, and internalizing symptoms across adolescence. Participants included 331 youth, ages 10 to 14 at the first wave of the study, assessed annually over 5 years. A latent growth curve approach was used to test three research questions, including whether perceived stress would increase across adolescence, whether distress tolerance (as measured by a behavioral task) would predict changes in perceived stress, and whether changes in perceived stress would mediate the relation between distress tolerance and internalizing symptoms...
March 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318325/emergent-life-events-during-youth-evidence-based-treatment-impact-on-future-provider-adherence-and-clinical-progress
#12
Karen Guan, Alayna L Park, Bruce F Chorpita
Emergent life events (ELEs)-unexpected stressors disclosed in psychotherapy that have a significant negative impact on the client-commonly occur in community populations of youth and are associated with decreased provider adherence to evidence-based treatment (EBT) in session. The present study extends previous research by examining longer term associations of ELEs with (a) provider adherence to planned EBT practices in subsequent sessions and (b) clinical progress. Data were drawn from the modular EBT condition (MATCH) of the Child STEPs California trial conducted with primarily Latino youth, ages 5-15, who were 54% male (Chorpita et al...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318196/-paradoxical-reaction-to-antituberculosis-treatment-in-an-immunocompetent-girl-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#13
Ignacio Ruiz Del Olmo Izuzquiza, Claudia Orden Rueda, Laura Ochoa Gómez, Nuria Clavero Montañés, Enrique Berdún Chéliz, Carmelo Guerrero Laleona
Paradoxical reaction to antituberculosis treatment is rare in paediatric population. We report a 9-year-old girl with high fever and productive cough for the last three weeks. Tuberculine test and Quantiferon were positive, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 64 mm/h, culture and polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis negative, and chest X ray showed a widened right mediastinum. Tuberculosis was diagnosed, therefore treatment with standard doses of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol was started...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318179/depressive-symptoms-and-associated-factors-in-caregivers-of-newborn-infants-hospitalized-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#14
Jorge L Alvarado Socarrás, Edna M Gamboa-Delgado, Silvia Trujillo Cáceres, Sandra Rodríguez Forero
INTRODUCTION: A high prevalence of depressive symptoms has been reported in family members of newborn infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units. This causes a high negative impact on the newborn infant-family bond. OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their associated factors in caregivers of newborn infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, analytical study conducted at a tertiary care health facility specialized in cardiovascular disease...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318045/diagnosis-of-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-disease-is-enhanced-by-adding-oesophageal-histology-and-excluding-epigastric-pain
#15
N Vakil, M Vieth, B Wernersson, J Wissmar, J Dent
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in clinical practice is limited by the sensitivity and specificity of symptoms and diagnostic testing. AIM: To determine if adding histology as a criterion and excluding patients with epigastric pain enhances the diagnosis for GERD. METHODS: Patients with frequent upper gastrointestinal symptoms who had not taken a proton pump inhibitor in the previous 2 months and who had evaluable distal oesophageal biopsies were included (Diamond study: NCT00291746)...
March 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317804/a-survey-on-undiagnosed-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-pregnant-mothers-in-mekelle-and-surrounding-districts-in-tigray-ethiopia
#16
Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Kelemework Adane, Markos Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of undiagnosed active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of symptom combinations for undiagnosed TB infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative pregnant mothers attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics. Mycobacterium TB and HIV are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age worldwide. Symptom screening is the first step in the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended TB intensified case finding algorithm for people living with HIV...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317797/analysis-of-a-novel-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-as-a-sensitive-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-indeterminate-and-tuberculoid-forms-of-leprosy
#17
V Sundeep Chaitanya, Luz Cuello, Madhusmita Das, A Sudharsan, Pavithrra Ganesan, K Kanmani, Lakshmi Rajan, Mannam Ebenezer
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of indeterminate and tuberculoid leprosy is often difficult due to limited and confounding signs and symptoms. In the current study, we evaluated the utility of new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Mycobacterium leprae-specific DNA sequences in the pseudogene regions of ML1545, ML2180, and ML2179 for PCR-based diagnosis of indeterminate leprosy (IND) and leprosy cases across the immunological spectrum. The sensitivity was compared with that of RLEP PCR...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317506/theory-of-mind-impairments-in-women-with-cocaine-addiction
#18
Breno Sanvicente-Vieira, Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon, Rhiannon Corcoran, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the Theory of Mind performance of female cocaine-dependent users (CDUs) and possible associations between theory of mind performance and features of cocaine use. METHOD: Sixty women controlled for age, education, individual income, and IQ participated in this study: 30 in the CDU group and 30 in the healthy control group. Participants were assessed for theory of mind with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a test of understanding of first-order and second-order false beliefs, and the Hinting task...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317414/anxiety-depression-and-the-suicidal-spectrum-a-latent-class-analysis-of-overlapping-and-distinctive-features
#19
Matthew C Podlogar, Megan L Rogers, Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Bruno Chiurliza, Thomas E Joiner
Anxiety and depression diagnoses are associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours. However, a categorical understanding of these associations limits insight into identifying dimensional mechanisms of suicide risk. This study investigated anxious and depressive features through a lens of suicide risk, independent of diagnosis. Latent class analysis of 97 depression, anxiety, and suicidality-related items among 616 psychiatric outpatients indicated a 3-class solution, specifically: (1) a higher suicide-risk class uniquely differentiated from both other classes by high reported levels of depression and anxious arousal; (2) a lower suicide-risk class that reported levels of anxiety sensitivity and generalised worry comparable to Class 1, but lower levels of depression and anxious arousal; and (3) a low to non-suicidal class that reported relatively low levels across all depression and anxiety measures...
March 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317113/temperamental-markers-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Suzanne L Macari, Judah Koller, Daniel J Campbell, Katarzyna Chawarska
BACKGROUND: Although temperament has been recognized as an important contributor to childhood psychopathology, its role in emergent autism spectrum phenotypes is not well understood. This study examined whether toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display temperamental vulnerabilities compared to toddlers with other developmental challenges, whether these characteristics are distinct from core autism symptoms, if they are stable over time, and if they contribute to social outcomes in preschool...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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