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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100210/prevalence-of-psychiatric-morbidity-in-a-community-sample-in-western-kenya
#1
Edith Kwobah, Steve Epstein, Ann Mwangi, Debra Litzelman, Lukoye Atwoli
BACKGROUND: About 25% of the worldwide population suffers from mental, neurological and substance use disorders but unfortunately, up to 75% of affected persons do not have access to the treatment they need. Data on the magnitude of the mental health problem in Kenya is scarce. The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence and the socio-demographic factors associated with mental and substance use disorders in Kosirai division, Nandi County, Western Kenya. METHODS: This was a cross sectional descriptive study in which participants were selected by simple random sampling...
January 18, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097648/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-transition-from-major-depression-to-bipolar-disorder
#2
A Ratheesh, C Davey, S Hetrick, M Alvarez-Jimenez, C Voutier, A Bechdolf, P D McGorry, J Scott, M Berk, S M Cotton
OBJECTIVE: Some people with major depressive disorder (MDD) may be at a pre-onset stage for bipolar disorder (BD), where early identification or prevention efforts may be feasible. We aimed to identify rates and characteristics predictive of transition to BD in prospective follow-up studies of people with MDD. METHODS: Using a systematic search strategy, we identified studies with a diagnostic ascertainment of MDD and BD of an adequate standard, and where the minimum length of follow-up was 6 months...
January 18, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072643/early-life-trauma-in-hospitalized-patients-with-mood-disorders-and-its-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#3
Ajay K Parsaik, Noha Abdelgawad, Jigar K Chotalia, Scott D Lane, Teresa A Pigott
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood trauma and its impact on clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with mood disorders is unknown. We studied the frequency of childhood trauma among inpatient adults with mood disorders and its association with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Patients admitted to our hospital with a primary diagnosis of mood disorders completed the short form of the Early Trauma Inventory-Self-Report (ETISR-SF), the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Clinician-Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity scale...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049620/how-do-people-experiencing-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-or-other-psychotic-disorders-use-the-internet-to-get-information-on-their-mental-health-literature-review-and-recommendations
#4
Murielle Villani, Viviane Kovess-Masfety
BACKGROUND: Studies show that the Internet has become an influential source of information for people experiencing serious psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia spectrum disorders or other psychotic disorders, among which the rate of Internet users is growing, with rates ranging from 33.3% to 79.5% given the country. Between 20.5% and 56.4% of these Internet users seek mental health information. OBJECTIVE: Focusing on this population's Web searches about their mental health, this paper examines what type of content they look for and what could be the benefits and disadvantages of this navigation...
January 3, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033511/vitamin-d-and-alcohol-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#5
REVIEW
Vitor Soares Tardelli, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do Lago, Dartiu Xavier da Silveira, Thiago Marques Fidalgo
Vitamin D is associated with bone mineral density, and its deficiency is a global health problem. In psychiatry, low vitamin D levels have been associated with schizophrenia, depression, psychotic symptoms, and, more recently, alcohol use disorders. Alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between alcohol use and vitamin D serum levels. The PubMed, SCIELO, and Lilacs databases were searched for this systematic review. We assessed all articles published from 1976 to December 2015, and we examined the associated reference lists to retrieve articles that appeared to fulfill our criteria...
February 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031038/using-a-smartphone-app-to-reduce-cognitive-vulnerability-and-mild-depressive-symptoms-study-protocol-of-an-exploratory-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Cezar Giosan, Cristina Mogoaşe, Oana Cobeanu, Aurora Szentágotai Tătar, Vlad Mureşan, Rareș Boian
BACKGROUND: Depression is a major challenge worldwide, with significant increasing personal, economic, and societal costs. Although empirically supported treatments have been developed, they are not always available for patients in routine clinical care. Therefore, we need effective and widely accessible strategies to prevent the onset of the very first depressive symptoms. Mental health apps could prove a valuable solution for this desideratum. Although preliminary research has indicated that such apps can be useful in treating depression, no study has attempted to test their utility in preventing depressive symptoms...
December 28, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025071/th17-cells-correlate-positively-to-the-structural-and-functional-integrity-of-the-brain-in-bipolar-depression-and-healthy-controls
#7
Sara Poletti, Harm de Wit, Elena Mazza, Annemarie J M Wijkhuijs, Clara Locatelli, Veronica Aggio, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti, Hemmo A Drexhage
: Abnormalities of T cell-mediated immune activation, in the absence of active somatic immune diseases, have consistently been reported in mood disorders. Apart from being important players in the regulation of cells of the immune system, T cells are essential for normal brain development. We here report studies on the relationship between circulating levels of T helper cells and structural and functional brain imaging in depressed bipolar patients. Since the CCL20-CCR6 axis is an important entry to the brain we differentiated the various T helper cell subpopulations on the basis of their chemokine receptor expression...
December 23, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992854/differential-associations-of-affective-temperaments-and-diagnosis-of-major-affective-disorders-with-suicidal-behavior
#8
Ross J Baldessarini, Marco Innamorati, Denise Erbuto, Gianluca Serafini, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Amore, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Affective temperaments are associated with suicidal risk, but their predictive value relative to diagnosis of major affective disorder is uncertain. METHODS: We compared diagnoses, affective-temperament ratings (TEMPS-A), and other potential risk factors in 956 psychiatric inpatients, using bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression modeling for associations with suicidal status. RESULTS: Lifetime suicide-attempt rates were high (43...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987214/targeting-and-transforming-major-depression
#9
G Parker, A Paterson, S McCraw, D Hadzi-Pavlovic
OBJECTIVE: To detail limitations to the construct of 'major depression', argue for repositioning it as a proxy for 'clinical depression' and then operationalize it and its principal constituent depressive subtypes, while preserving the DSM criteria-based format. METHOD: We summarize limitations to major depression being viewed as a diagnostic entity. Data from 391 clinically depressed patients were analysed to identify high-prevalence non-specific depressive symptoms to define 'clinical depression' as well as the features showing specificity to a melancholic depressive subtype...
December 16, 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978453/relationships-of-neutrophil-lymphocyte-and-platelet-lymphocyte-ratios-with-the-severity-of-major-depression
#10
Fatih Kayhan, Şule Gündüz, Sevde Afife Ersoy, Ali Kandeğer, Bilge Burçak Annagür
We aimed to evaluate the neutrophil-lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte (PLR) ratios of inpatients and outpatients suffering from different levels of major depression. In total, 100 inpatients and 60 patients treated at an outpatient clinic were included the study. The presence of mood and anxiety disorders was identified with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition/Clinical Version, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was used to assess the severity of major depression (MD)...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938775/a-woman-in-her-60s-with-fever-and-altered-mental-status-in-a-psychiatric-hospital
#11
Benjamin C Kalivas, Andrew J Goodwin
A woman in her 60s with a history of hepatitis C with cirrhosis and major depressive disorder with psychotic features was admitted to the inpatient psychiatric unit for suicidal ideation. She was initially treated with a combination of sertraline and paliperidone. The paliperidone was subsequently changed to risperidone and ultimately to olanzapine. She developed worsening mental status and was then treated for catatonia with benzodiazepines. Over 2 days, her mental status continued to worsen and she developed fever and tachycardia...
December 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927846/risk-of-postpartum-psychosis-after-ivf-treatment-a-nationwide-case-control-study
#12
Josefin Vikström, Ann Josefsson, Mats Hammar, Marie Bladh, Gunilla Sydsjö
STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of postpartum psychosis (PPP) increased in women who give birth after IVF treatment compared to after spontaneous conception? SUMMARY ANSWER: The risk of PPP is not higher in the group of women who give birth after IVF treatment compared with women who give birth after spontaneous conception. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Women who conceive using IVF treatment can experience higher levels of pregnancy-specific distress and are at increased risk of pre-eclampsia, an immune-related condition which in turn has been linked to PPP, as well as other pregnancy and delivery complications, which also serve as PPP risk factors...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894237/new-insight-in-improving-therapeutic-efficacy-of-antipsychotic-agents-an-overview-of-improved-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-performance-efficacy-upgradation-and-future-prospects
#13
Zahid Hussain, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that rigorously affect patient personality, critical thinking, and perceptional ability. High prevalence, global dissemination and limitations of conventional pharmacological approaches compel a significant burden to the patient, medical professionals and the healthcare system. To date, numerous orally administered therapies are available for the management of depressive disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, bipolar disorders and autism spectrum problems. However, poor water solubility, erratic oral absorption, extensive first-pass metabolism, low oral bioavailability and short half-lives are major factors which limit the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of these agents...
November 25, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891104/hoarding-symptoms-are-not-exclusive-to-hoarders
#14
Caterina Novara, Gioia Bottesi, Stella Dorz, Ezio Sanavio
Hoarding disorder (HD) was originally conceptualized as a subcategory of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and numerous studies have in fact focused exclusively on investigating the comorbidity between OCD and HD. Hoarding behavior can nevertheless also be found in other clinical populations and in particular in patients with eating disorders (ED), anxiety disorders (AD), major depression (MD), and psychotic disorders (PD). The current study was carried out with the aim of investigating, using a validated instrument such as the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R), the presence of HD symptoms in patients diagnosed with ED, AD, MD, and PD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888722/a-pilot-study-on-predictors-of-brainstem-raphe-abnormality-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#15
Milutin Kostić, Ana Munjiza, Danilo Pesic, Amir Peljto, Ivana Novakovic, Valerija Dobricic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski, Milija Mijajlovic
BACKGROUND: Hypo/anechogenicity of the brainstem raphe (BR) structures has been suggested as a possible transcranial parenchymal sonography (TCS) marker associated with depression. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze possible association of the abnormal BR echogenicity in patients with major depression when compared to healthy controls, and to evaluate its clinical and genetic correlates. METHODS: TCS was performed in 53 patients diagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD) without psychotic symptoms and in 54 healthy matched controls...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877043/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-mental-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-exploratory-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Sergio Luís Blay, João Vicente Augusto Aguiar, Ives Cavalcante Passos
BACKGROUND: The association between depression, anxiety, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still unclear. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders among women with PCOS compared to women without it. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to November 27, 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were original reports in which the rates of mood (bipolar disorder, dysthymia, or major depressive disorder), obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, trauma- and stressor-related disorders, anxiety disorders or psychotic disorders, somatic symptom and related disorders, or eating disorders had been investigated among women with an established diagnosis of PCOS and compared with women without PCOS...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876300/functional-voice-disorders-the-importance-of-the-psychologist-in-clinical-voice-assessment
#17
Mafalda Andrea, Óscar Dias, Mário Andrea, Maria Luísa Figueira
OBJECTIVES: The etiopathogenesis of functional voice disorders (FVDs) is multifactorial. The purpose of this study was to analyze the severity of depression and anxiety, and the incidence of affective and anxiety disorders, in patients who presented different types of FVDs and were followed at the University Clinic of Otolaryngology. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: After ENT observation, 83 women were classified into three groups: psychogenic voice disorder (PVD = 39), primary muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD1 = 16), and secondary muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD2 = 28)...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863313/an-examination-of-sleep-quality-in-veterans-with-a-dual-diagnosis-of-ptsd-and-severe-mental-illness
#18
Wilson J Brown, Allison K Wilkerson, Melissa E Milanak, Peter W Tuerk, Thomas W Uhde, Bernadette M Cortese, Anouk L Grubaugh
Poor sleep quality is one of the most frequently reported symptoms by veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and by veterans with severe mental illness (SMI; i.e., schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, major depression with or without psychotic features). However, little is known about the compounding effects of co-occurring PTSD/SMI on sleep quality in this population. Given the high rates of comorbidity and poor functional outcomes associated with sleep dysfunction, there is a need to better understand patterns of poor sleep quality in this population...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863295/the-effect-of-early-psychological-symptom-severity-on-long-term-functional-recovery-a-secondary-analysis-of-data-from-a-cohort-study-of-minor-injury-patients
#19
Sara F Jacoby, Justine Shults, Therese S Richmond
BACKGROUND: The mental health consequences of injuries can interfere with recovery to pre-injury levels of function and long term wellbeing. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological symptoms after minor injury and long-term functional recovery and disability. DESIGN: This exploratory study uses secondary data derived from a longitudinal cohort study of psychological outcomes after minor injury...
January 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856684/psychedelics-in-the-treatment-of-unipolar-mood-disorders-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
James Jh Rucker, Luke A Jelen, Sarah Flynn, Kyle D Frowde, Allan H Young
Unipolar mood disorders, including major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), confer high rates of disability and mortality and a very high socioeconomic burden. Current treatment is suboptimal in most cases and there is little of note in the pharmaceutical development pipeline. The psychedelic drugs, including lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin, were used extensively in the treatment of mood disorders, and other psychiatric conditions, before their prohibition in the late 1960s...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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