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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343329/stress-fractures-of-the-foot-and-ankle-part-2-site-specific-etiology-imaging-and-treatment-and-differential-diagnosis
#1
Jacob C Mandell, Bharti Khurana, Stacy E Smith
Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a commonly encountered problem among athletes and individuals participating in a wide range of activities. This illustrated review, the second of two parts, discusses site-specific etiological factors, imaging appearances, treatment options, and differential considerations of stress fractures of the foot and ankle. The imaging and clinical management of stress fractures of the foot and ankle are highly dependent on the specific location of the fracture, mechanical forces acting upon the injured site, vascular supply of the injured bone, and the proportion of trabecular to cortical bone at the site of injury...
March 25, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342896/neuroprotective-and-axonal-outgrowth-promoting-effects-of-tetramethylpyrazine-nitrone-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-rats-and-primary-hippocampal-neurons-exposed-to-hypoxia
#2
Tao Zhang, Jianbo Gu, Liangmiao Wu, Ning Li, Yewei Sun, Pei Yu, Yuqiang Wang, Gaoxiao Zhang, Zaijun Zhang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is an important risk factor for vascular dementia and other brain dysfunctions, for which there are currently no effective medications available. We investigated the neuroprotective and axonal outgrowth promoting effects of tetramethylpyrazine nitrone (TBN) in a permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) rat model and in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). At 6th week after 2VO, TBN increased the time spent in novel arms in the Y-maze test and improved the discrimination ratio in object reorganization task...
March 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342880/-for-a-targeted-use-of-aspirin
#3
H Madar, S Brun, F Coatleven, A Nithart, C Lecoq, M Gleyze, B Merlot, L Sentilhes
The use of low-dose aspirin in pregnancy should remain a highly targeted indication since its long-term safety has not been established and should be restricted to women at high risk of vascular complications. Indications for which the benefit of aspirin has been shown are women with a history of preeclampsia responsible for a premature birth before 34 weeks, those having at least two history of preeclampsia, those with an antiphospholipid syndrome and those with lupus associated with positive antiphospholipid antibodies or renal failure...
March 22, 2017: Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342700/nicotine-replacement-therapy-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-survey-of-canadian-practice
#4
REVIEW
Ricky D Turgeon, Stephano J Chang, Charlotte Dandurand, Peter A Gooderham, Camille Hunt
Tobacco smoke increases the risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), as well as complications such as vasospasm. Most patients presenting with aneurysmal SAH smoke, and many survivors continue to smoke after discharge. Neurosurgeons often hesitate to use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) during hospitalization of patients with SAH due to concerns of inducing vasospasm. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy, and patterns of use of NRT in smokers hospitalized for SAH. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Embase, and unpublished sources of literature to October 2016 for randomized and observational studies comparing exposure to non-exposure of smoking cessation products in the acute phase of aneurysmal SAH...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342684/persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#5
REVIEW
Mamta Fuloria, Judy L Aschner
Failure of the normal circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life results in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Although this condition is most often secondary to parenchymal lung disease or lung hypoplasia, it may also be idiopathic. PPHN is characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance with resultant right-to-left shunting of blood and hypoxemia. Although the preliminary diagnosis of PPHN is often based on differential cyanosis and labile hypoxemia, the diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography...
March 23, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340509/liver-transplant-lt-recipients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-have-lower-risk-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc
#6
Sara M Lewin, Neil Mehta, R Kate Kelley, John P Roberts, Francis Y Yao, Danielle Brandman
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment for HCC in carefully selected patients. Risk factors for tumors with poor prognostic features on explant have not been well described in a national cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult LT recipients with HCC transplanted from 4/8/12 (when explant pathology in UNOS became available) until 9/30/2014. We evaluated the association between listing diagnosis and other demographic factors with tumor features on explant using logistic regression...
March 24, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340238/cigarette-smoke-exposure-worsens-endotoxin-induced-lung-injury-and-pulmonary-edema-in-mice
#7
Jeffrey E Gotts, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Haru Yanagisawa, Naoki Takasaka, Stephen L Nishimura, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Introduction: Cigarette smoking (CS) remains a major public health concern and has recently been associated with an increased risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) experiments in human volunteers have demonstrated that active smokers develop increased alveolar-epithelial barrier permeability to protein after inhaling lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we tested the hypothesis that short-term whole-body CS exposure would increase LPS-induced lung edema in mice...
March 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340221/nationwide-multicentre-kidney-biopsy-study-of-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Kengo Furuichi, Yukio Yuzawa, Miho Shimizu, Akinori Hara, Tadashi Toyama, Hiroshi Kitamura, Yoshiki Suzuki, Hiroshi Sato, Noriko Uesugi, Yoshifumi Ubara, Satoshi Hisano, Yoshihiko Ueda, Shinichi Nishi, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Tomoya Nishino, Kentaro Kohagura, Daisuke Ogawa, Koki Mise, Yugo Shibagaki, Kenjiro Kimura, Masakazu Haneda, Hirofumi Makino, Seiichi Matsuo, Takashi Wada
Background.: The clinical and pathologic manifestations of nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes are diverse, but large-scale pathologic studies with long-term observations are limited. Methods.: Kidney biopsies and clinical data of 600 patients with type 2 diabetes were collected retrospectively from 13 centres across Japan. Thirteen pathologic findings (nine glomerular lesions, two interstitial lesions and two vascular lesions) were clearly defined and scored. Results...
March 2, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339557/deficiency-of-circulating-progenitor-cells-associated-with-vascular-thrombosis-of-hemodialysis-patients
#9
Mu-Yang Hsieh, Tsung-Yan Chen, Lin Lin, Shao-Yuan Chuang, Shing-Jong Lin, Der-Cheng Tarng, Po-Hsun Huang, Chih-Cheng Wu
Background.: Hemodialysis (HD) patients have an increased risk of thrombosis. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which function in vascular repair, are deficient in HD patients. Nonetheless, the relationship between EPC deficiency and thrombosis in HD patients is unknown. Methods.: From January 2010 to December 2012, circulating levels of EPCs that were positive for CD34 and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) were measured in 269 HD patients. Patients received prospective follow-ups at 6-month intervals until May 2015...
January 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339085/integrated-analysis-of-mrna-and-mirna-expression-profiles-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#10
Hongwei Sun, Liang Zhao, Kehua Pan, Zhao Zhang, Mengtao Zhou, Guoquan Cao
In the present study, to investigate the potential molecular mechanism of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), mRNA and miRNA expression profiles were integrated for systematic analysis. Results showed that a total of 76 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from 2 mRNA expression profiles that contained 39 tumor and 15 normal samples. Notably, the tumor and normal samples were able to be clearly classified into 4 groups based on the DEGs. mRNA‑miRNA regulation network analysis indicated that 22 out of the 76 DEGs including MUC4, RRM2 and CCL2 are regulated by 5 reported miRNAs...
March 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338487/the-evolution-of-disease-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Michael C Tracy, David N Cornfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease of infancy BPD was originally described 50 years ago, in 1967 by Northway et al. This article possesses two fundamental objectives to provide: a brief historical perspective on BPD; and an update relative to current notions of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and clinical management of BPD complicated by vascular disease. The review highlights areas of consensus and ongoing uncertainty. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical cause and presentation of infants with BPD has evolved over the past several decades...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338469/the-utility-of-thyroid-ultrasonography-in-the-management-of-thyroid-nodules
#12
Gary Gamme, Tyler Parrington, Edward Wiebe, Sunita Ghosh, Brendan Litt, David C Williams, Todd P W McMullen
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography for thyroid nodules is one of the most common imaging tests performed in the general population. Details from ultrasound reports guide biopsies and surgery. This study quantifies the completeness of these reports based on Thyroid Imaging and Reporting System (TI-RADS) criteria and considers their utility in predicting malignant disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed ultrasound reports for 329 thyroidectomy patients and extracted data elements using the TI-RADS criteria: nodule size, echogenicity, margins, vascularity, solid/cystic composition and the presence or absence of microcalcifications and the halo sign...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338160/-value-of-tumor-deposits-in-staging-and-prognostic-evaluation-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#13
Wenquan Liang, Zhengfang Zhou, Jianxin Cui, Hongqing Xi, Lin Chen
OBJECTIVE: To analyze relationships between the tumor deposits (TD) and clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer and investigate the value of TD in staging and prognosis in gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the clinicopathologic data of 388 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical procedures in Chinese PLA General Hospital between November 2011 and December 2012. Relationships between TD and clinicopathologic features were analyzed by χ(2) or Fisher exact tests...
March 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337901/cardiopathy-and-osteoporosis-the-epidemiology-in-a-region-of-italy
#14
A Notarnicola, G Maccagnano, L Moretti, S Tafuri, B Moretti
Cardiopathies and osteoporosis are inter-related due to pathogenetic, hormonal, genetic features as well as an increased risk of fragility. An important feature is attributed to the process of atherosclerosis, which is responsible for an osteopenia effect and degeneration of vascular walls. To date the study populations have been limited. To verify the incidence of cardio-vascular disease in a larger osteoporotic population, we designed a retrospective clinical study analyzing the “Hospital Discharge Data” (HDD) in Apulia between 2006 and 2010...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337704/analysis-of-traditional-and-emerging-risk-factors-in-premenopausal-women-with-coronary-artery-disease-a-pilot-scale-study-from-north-india
#15
Rajesh Vijayvergiya, Divya Kapoor, Ajay Aggarwal, Sonal Sangwan, Vanita Suri, Veena Dhawan
Premenopausal women are known to have less heart disease than their menopausal counterparts and men. However, there is a rising prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in premenopausal females, which necessitates determination of risk factors that negate the effects of hormonal protection. There are few studies describing the prevalence of traditional and emerging risk factors in premenopausal women with CAD. Thus, our objective was to explore the prevalence of traditional and emerging risk factors and features of coronary lesions in premenopausal women with CAD in an Indian population...
March 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337466/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-approaches-to-evaluate-next-generation-tobacco-and-non-tobacco-products-on-human-blood-platelets
#16
Sherry L Spinelli, Katie L Lannan, Shannon G Loelius, Richard P Phipps
Human blood platelets are major hemostatic regulators in the circulation and important in the mediation of chronic inflammation and immunomodulation. They are key elements that promote cardiovascular pathogenesis that leads to atherosclerosis, thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. New information on tobacco use and platelet dysregulation shows that these highly understudied vascular cells are dysregulated by tobacco smoke. Thus, platelet function studies should be an important consideration for the evaluation of existing and next-generation tobacco and non-tobacco products...
March 1, 2017: Appl In Vitro Toxicol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336829/-the-effect-of-oral-calcimimetics-on-cardiovascular-events
#17
Takayuki Hamano
The Evolve Trial showed no significant benefit of cinacalcet on the primary composite outcome(death or first non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or peripheral vascular event)but significantly reduced the incidence of heart failure in an intention-to-treat(ITT)analysis. In an adjusted ITT analysis and lag-censoring analysis, the effect of cinacalcet on the primary outcome was significant. The reduced incidence of cardiovascular events in the cinacalcet arm could by predicted by a >=30% reduction in FGF23 levels at week 20...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336553/tlr2-knockout-protects-against-diabetes-mediated-changes-in-cerebral-perfusion-and-cognitive-deficits
#18
Trevor Hardigan, Caterina Hernandez, Rebecca Ward, M Nasrul Hoda, Adviye Ergul
The risk of cognitive decline in diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) is significantly greater compared to normoglycemic patients, and the risk of developing dementia in diabetic patients is doubled. The etiology for this is likely multifactorial, but one mechanism that has gained increasing attention is decreased cerebral perfusion as a result of cerebrovascular dysfunction. The innate immune system has been shown to play a role in diabetic vascular complications, notably through Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that leads to vascular damage...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336397/soluble-endoglin-modulates-the-pro-inflammatory-mediators-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-il-6-in-cultured-human-endothelial-cells
#19
Michala Varejckova, Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Matej Vicen, Barbora Vitverova, Petra Fikrova, Eva Dolezelova, Jana Rathouska, Alena Prasnicka, Katerina Blazickova, Stanislav Micuda, Carmelo Bernabeu, Ivana Nemeckova, Petr Nachtigal
AIMS: Endoglin is a transmembrane glycoprotein, that plays an important role in regulating endothelium. Proteolytic cleavage of membrane endoglin releases soluble endoglin (sEng), whose increased plasma levels have been detected in diseases related to the cardiovascular system. It was proposed that sEng might damage vascular endothelium, but detailed information about the potential mechanisms involved is not available. Thus, we hypothesized that sEng contributes to endothelial dysfunction, leading to a pro-inflammatory phenotype by a possible modulation of the TGF-β and/or inflammatory pathways...
March 20, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336370/purinergic-p2y6-receptors-a-new-therapeutic-target-of-age-dependent-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Caroline Sunggip, Akiyuki Nishimura, Kakeru Shimoda, Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Makoto Tsuda, Motohiro Nishida
Aging has a remarkable effect on cardiovascular homeostasis and it is known as the major non-modifiable risk factor in the development of hypertension. Medications targeting sympathetic nerve system and/or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are widely accepted as a powerful therapeutic strategy to improve hypertension, although the control rates remain unsatisfactory especially in the elder patients with hypertension. Purinergic receptors, activated by adenine, uridine nucleotides and nucleotide sugars, play pivotal roles in many biological processes, including platelet aggregation, neurotransmission and hormone release, and regulation of cardiovascular contractility...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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