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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777731/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-is-required-for-ischemic-preconditioning-mediated-neuroprotection-in-the-hippocampus-following-a-subsequent-longer-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#1
Jae-Chul Lee, Chan Woo Park, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Hyang-Ah Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Jeong Hwi Cho, Hyun-Jin Tae, In Koo Hwang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Il Jun Kang
Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in neuronal damage in response to cerebral ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides neuroprotection against a subsequent severer or longer transient ischemia by ischemic tolerance. Here, we focused on the role of TNF-α in IPC-mediated neuroprotection against neuronal death following a subsequent longer transient cerebral ischemia (TCI). Gerbils used in this study were randomly assigned to eight groups; sham group, TCI operated group, IPC plus (+) sham group, IPC + TCI operated group, sham + etanercept (an inhibitor of TNF-a) group, TCI + etanercept group, IPC + sham + etanercept group, and IPC + TCI + etanercept group...
May 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775702/abnormal-sleep-architecture-and-hippocampal-circuit-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#2
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765314/underlying-mechanisms-of-cooperativity-input-specificity-and-associativity-of-long-term-potentiation-through-a-positive-feedback-of-local-protein-synthesis
#3
Lijie Hao, Zhuoqin Yang, Jinzhi Lei
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a specific form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity that is a leading mechanism of learning and memory in mammals. The properties of cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity are essential for LTP; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, based on experimentally observed phenomena, we introduce a computational model of synaptic plasticity in a pyramidal cell to explore the mechanisms responsible for the cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity of LTP...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763986/early-iv-injected-human-dermis-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-do-not-pass-through-damaged-blood-brain-barrier
#4
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Bai Hui Chen, Joon Ha Park, Bich Na Shin, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, Jae Chul Lee, Jeong-Ran Park, Se-Ran Yang, Sungwoo Ryoo, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Il Jun Kang, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Young-Myeong Kim, Moo-Ho Won
There is lack of researches on effects of intravenously injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against transient cerebral ischemia (TCI). We investigated the disruption of the neurovascular unit (NVU), which comprises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and examined entry of human dermis-derived MSCs (hDMSCs) into the damaged hippocampal CA1 area in a gerbil model of TCI, and their subsequent effects on neuroprotection and cognitive function. Impairments of neurons, and BBB were examined by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and Evans blue and immunoglobulin G (IgG) leakage...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760195/neuron-specific-hur-deficient-mice-spontaneously-develop-motor-neuron-disease
#5
Kevin Sun, Xiao Li, Xing Chen, Ying Bai, Gao Zhou, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran, Bruce Lamb, Thomas A Hamilton, Ching-Yi Lin, Yu-Shang Lee, Tomasz Herjan
Human Ag R (HuR) is an RNA binding protein in the ELAVL protein family. To study the neuron-specific function of HuR, we generated inducible, neuron-specific HuR-deficient mice of both sexes. After tamoxifen-induced deletion of HuR, these mice developed a phenotype consisting of poor balance, decreased movement, and decreased strength. They performed significantly worse on the rotarod test compared with littermate control mice, indicating coordination deficiency. Using the grip-strength test, it was also determined that the forelimbs of neuron-specific HuR-deficient mice were much weaker than littermate control mice...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760176/postnatal-ablation-of-synaptic-retinoic-acid-signaling-impairs-cortical-information-processing-and-sensory-discrimination-in-mice
#6
Esther Park, Michelle Tjia, Yi Zuo, Lu Chen
Retinoic acid (RA) and its receptors (RARs) are well-established essential transcriptional regulators during embryonic development. Recent findings in cultured neurons identified an independent and critical post-transcriptional role of RA and RARα in the homeostatic regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in mature neurons. However, the functional relevance of synaptic RA signaling in vivo has not been established. Here, using somatosensory cortex as a model system and the RARα conditional knockout mouse as a tool, we applied multiple genetic manipulations to delete RARα postnatally in specific populations of cortical neurons, and asked whether synaptic RA signaling observed in cultured neurons is involved in cortical information processing in vivo Indeed, conditional ablation of RARα in mice via a CaMKIIα-Cre or a layer 5-Cre driver line or via somatosensory cortex-specific viral expression of Cre-recombinase impaired whisker-dependent texture discrimination, suggesting a critical requirement of RARα expression in L5 pyramidal neurons of somatosensory cortex for normal tactile sensory processing...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759351/dysbindin-1-contributes-to-prefrontal-cortical-dendritic-arbor-pathology-in-schizophrenia
#7
Glenn T Konopaske, Darrick T Balu, Kendall T Presti, Grace Chan, Francine M Benes, Joseph T Coyle
Deep layer III pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder previously were shown to exhibit dendritic arbor pathology. This study sought to determine whether MARCKS, its regulatory protein dysbindin-1, and two proteins, identified using microarray data, CDC42BPA and ARHGEF6, were associated with dendritic arbor pathology in the DLPFC from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder subjects. Using western blotting, relative protein expression was assessed in the DLPFC (BA 46) grey matter from subjects with schizophrenia (n = 19), bipolar disorder (n = 17) and unaffected control subjects (n = 19)...
May 11, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755553/neuroprotective-effect-of-paroxetine-on-memory-deficit-induced-by-cerebral-ischemia-after-transient-bilateral-occlusion-of-common-carotid-arteries-in-rat
#8
Yazdan Naderi, Siavash Parvardeh, Taraneh Moini Zanjani, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei
Memory deficit is the most visible symptom of cerebral ischemia. The hippocampus is sensitive against cerebral ischemia. Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathological process after cerebral ischemic injury. Paroxetine has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the effect of paroxetine on memory deficit after cerebral ischemia was investigated. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model was established using the bilateral occlusion of common carotid artery method...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753863/sex-differences-in-the-subcellular-distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-in-the-rat-hippocampus-following-chronic-immobilization-stress
#9
Helena R McAlinn, Batsheva Reich, Natalina H Contoreggi, Renata Poulton Kamakura, Andreina G Dyer, Bruce S McEwen, Elizabeth M Waters, Teresa A Milner
Corticotropin releasing factor receptors (CRFR1) contribute to stress-induced adaptations in hippocampal structure and function that can affect learning and memory processes. Our prior studies showed that female rats with elevated estrogens compared to males have more plasmalemmal CRFR1 in CA1 pyramidal cells, suggesting a greater sensitivity to stress. Here, we examined the distribution of hippocampal CRFR1 following chronic immobilization stress (CIS) in female and male rats using immuno-electron microscopy...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751725/structural-evaluation-of-5-5-bis-naphth-2-yl-2-2-bithiophene-in-organic-field-effect-transistors-with-n-octadecyltrichlorosilane-coated-sio2-gate-dielectric
#10
Andreas Ejdrup Lauritzen, Mika Torkkeli, Oier Bikondoa, Jes Linnet, Luciana Tavares, Jakob Kjelstrup-Hansen, Matti Knaapila
We report on the structure and morphology of 5,5'-bis(naphth-2-yl)- 2,2'-bithiophene (NaT2) films in bottom-contact organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) coated SiO2 gate dielectric, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and electrical transport measurements. Three types of devices were investigated with the NaT2 thin-film deposited either on (1) pristine SiO2 (corresponding to higher surface energy, 47 mJ/m2) or on OTS deposited on SiO2 under (2) anhydrous or (3) humid conditions (corresponding to lower surface energies, 20-25 mJ/m2)...
May 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748523/unprecedented-fluorescent-dinuclear-co-ii-and-zn-ii-coordination-compounds-with-a-symmetric-bis-salamo-like-tetraoxime
#11
Lin-Wei Zhang, Ling-Zhi Liu, Fei Wang, Wen-Kui Dong
Two unprecedented homometallic CoII and ZnII coordination compounds, [M₂(L)(OCH₃)][M₂(L)(OAc)] (MII = CoII ( 1 ) and ZnII ( 2 )), with a novel symmetric bis(salamo)-like tetraoxime ligand H₃L were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, infrafred (IR), ultraviolet⁻visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), fluorescent spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The unit cell of the two coordination compounds contains two crystallographically and chemically independent dinuclear coordination compounds...
May 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745593/-high-frequency-stimulations-change-the-phase-locking-relationship-between-neuronal-firing-and-the-rhythms-of-field-potentials
#12
Weijian Ma, Zhouyan Feng, Wenjie Zhou, Zhaoxiang Wang, Ziyan Cai
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been successfully used to treat a variety of brain diseases in clinic. Recent investigations have suggested that high frequency stimulation (HFS) of electrical pulses used by DBS might change pathological rhythms in action potential firing of neurons, which may be one of the important mechanisms of DBS therapy. However, experimental data are required to confirm the hypothesis. In the present study, 1 min of 100 Hz HFS was applied to the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA1 region in anaesthetized rats...
February 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742799/hippocampal-place-cell-dysfunction-and-the-effects-of-muscarinic-m-1-receptor-agonism-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Claire R Galloway, Kaushik Ravipati, Suyashi Singh, Evan P Lebois, Robert M Cohen, Allan I Levey, Joseph R Manns
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that disproportionately impacts memory and the hippocampus. However, it is unclear how AD pathology influences the activity of surviving neurons in the hippocampus to contribute to the memory symptoms in AD. One well-understood connection between spatial memory and neuronal activity in healthy brains is the activity of place cells, neurons in the hippocampus that fire preferentially in a specific location of a given environment (the place field of the place cell)...
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742427/hippocampal-network-dynamics-during-rearing-episodes
#14
Albert M Barth, Andor Domonkos, Antonio Fernandez-Ruiz, Tamas F Freund, Viktor Varga
Animals build a model of their surroundings on the basis of information gathered during exploration. Rearing on the hindlimbs changes the vantage point of the animal, increasing the sampled area of the environment. This environmental knowledge is suggested to be integrated into a cognitive map stored by the hippocampus. Previous studies have found that damage to the hippocampus impairs rearing. Here, we characterize the operational state of the hippocampus during rearing episodes. We observe an increase of theta frequency paralleled by a sink in the dentate gyrus and a prominent theta-modulated fast gamma transient in the middle molecular layer...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740596/neuregulin-1-type-i-overexpression-is-associated-with-reduced-nmda-receptor-mediated-synaptic-signaling-in-hippocampal-interneurons-expressing-pv-or-cck
#15
Dimitrios Kotzadimitriou, Wiebke Nissen, Melinda Paizs, Kathryn Newton, Paul J Harrison, Ole Paulsen, Karri Lamsa
Hypofunction of N -methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ), a heritable disorder with many susceptibility genes. However, it is still unclear how SZ risk genes interfere with NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission in diverse inhibitory interneuron populations. One putative risk gene is neuregulin 1 ( NRG1 ), which signals via the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4, itself a schizophrenia risk gene. The type I isoform of NRG1 shows increased expression in the brain of SZ patients, and ErbB4 is enriched in GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV) or cholecystokinin (CCK)...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740398/neurosteroids-in-adult-hippocampus-of-male-and-female-rodents-biosynthesis-and-actions-of-sex-steroids
#16
REVIEW
Yasushi Hojo, Suguru Kawato
The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo . Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice), a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1-CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG)] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740284/ionic-mechanism-underlying-rebound-depolarization-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons
#17
Przemysław Kurowski, Katarzyna Grzelka, Paweł Szulczyk
Rebound depolarization (RD) occurs after membrane hyperpolarization and converts an arriving inhibitory signal into cell excitation. The purpose of our study was to clarify the ionic mechanism of RD in synaptically isolated layer V medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons in slices obtained from 58- to 62-day-old male rats. The RD was evoked after a step hyperpolarization below -80 mV, longer than 150 ms in 192 of 211 (91%) tested neurons. The amplitude of RD was 30.6 ± 1.2 mV above the resting membrane potential (-67...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738844/removal-of-area-ca3-from-hippocampal-slices-induces-postsynaptic-plasticity-at-schaffer-collateral-synapses-that-normalizes-ca1-pyramidal-cell-discharge
#18
Theodore C Dumas, Michael R Uttaro, Carolina Barriga, Tiffany Brinkley, Maryam Halavi, Susan N Wright, Michele Ferrante, Rebekah C Evans, Sarah L Hawes, Erin M Sanders
Neural networks that undergo acute insults display remarkable reorganization. This injury related plasticity is thought to permit recovery of function in the face of damage that cannot be reversed. Previously, an increase in the transmission strength at Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was observed after long-term activity reduction in organotypic hippocampal slices. Here we report that, following acute preparation of adult rat hippocampal slices and surgical removal of area CA3, input to area CA1 was reduced and Schaffer collateral synapses underwent functional strengthening...
May 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733310/ex-utero-electroporation-and-organotypic-slice-cultures-of-embryonic-mouse-brains-for-live-imaging-of-migrating-gabaergic-interneurons
#19
Lara Eid, Mathieu Lachance, Gilles Hickson, Elsa Rossignol
GABAergic interneurons (INs) are critical components of neuronal networks that drive cognition and behavior. INs destined to populate the cortex migrate tangentially from their place of origin in the ventral telencephalon (including from the medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE, CGE)) to the dorsal cortical plate in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Different methodologies have been developed over the years to genetically manipulate specific pathways and investigate how they regulate the dynamic cytoskeletal changes required for proper IN migration...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731678/expression-of-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-in-ca1-hippocampal-astrocytes
#20
Min-Ho Nam, Kyung-Seok Han, Jaekwang Lee, Jin Young Bae, Heeyoung An, Seahyung Park, Soo-Jin Oh, Eunju Kim, Eunmi Hwang, Yong Chul Bae, C Justin Lee
µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin. In hippocampus, activation of MOR is known to enhance the neuronal excitability of pyramidal neurons, which has been mainly attributed to a disinhibition of pyramidal neurons via activating Gαi subunit to suppress the presynaptic release of GABA in hippocampal interneurons. In contrast, the potential role of MOR in hippocampal astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain, has remained unexplored...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
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