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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821676/brief-novel-visual-experience-fundamentally-changes-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#1
Shuo Li, Laijian Wang, Xiaoxiu Tie, Kazuhiro Sohya, Xian Lin, Alfredo Kirkwood, Bin Jiang
Long-term potentiation (LTP) has been known to be a mechanism by which experience modifies synaptic responses in the neocortex. Visual deprivation in the form of dark exposure or dark rearing from birth enhances NMDAR-dependent LTP in layer 2/3 of visual cortex, a process often termed metaplasticity, which may involve changes in NMDAR subunit composition and function. However, the effects of re-exposure to light after dark rearing from birth on LTP induction have not been explored. Here, we showed that the light exposure after dark rearing revealed a novel NMDAR independent form of LTP in the layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in visual cortex of mice of both sexes which is dependent on mGluR5 activation and is associated with intracellular Ca2+ rise, CaMKII activity, PKC activity and intact protein synthesis...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821662/visual-receptive-field-heterogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-of-adjacent-neurons-in-primate-fronto-parietal-association-cortices
#2
Pooja Viswanathan, Andreas Nieder
The basic organization principles of the primary visual cortex (V1) are commonly assumed to also hold in the association cortex such that neurons within a cortical column share functional connectivity patterns and represent the same region of the visual field. We mapped the visual receptive fields (RFs) of neurons recorded at the same electrode in the ventral intraparietal area (VIP) and the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rhesus monkeys. We report that the spatial characteristics of visual receptive fields between adjacent neurons differed considerably, with increasing heterogeneity from VIP to PFC...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821660/contribution-of-astroglial-cx43-hemichannels-to-the-modulation-of-glutamatergic-currents-by-d-serine-in-the-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Claire Meunier, Nan Wang, Chenju Yi, Glenn Dallerac, Pascal Ezan, Annette Koulakoff, Luc Leybaert, Christian Giaume
Astrocytes interact dynamically with neurons by modifying synaptic activity and plasticity. This interplay occurs through a process named gliotransmission, meaning that neuroactive molecules are released by astrocytes. Acting as a gliotransmitter, D-serine co-agonist of the NMDA receptor at the glycine binding site, can be released by astrocytes in a calcium [Ca(2+)]i-dependent manner. A typical feature of astrocytes is their high expression level of connexin43 (Cx43), a protein forming gap junction channels and hemichannels associated with dynamic neuroglial interactions...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820910/impaired-dendritic-growth-and-positioning-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-by-activation-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-in-the-developing-mouse
#4
Eiki Kimura, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Toshihiro Endo, Wenting Ling, Kazunori Nakajima, Masaki Kakeyama, Chiharu Tohyama
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors exert multiple functions in mammalian cerebral cortex development. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the bHLH-Per-Arnt-Sim subfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor reported to regulate nervous system development in both invertebrates and vertebrates, but the functions that AhR signaling pathway may have for mammalian cerebral cortex development remains elusive. Although the endogenous ligand involved in brain developmental process has not been identified, the environmental pollutant dioxin potently binds AhR and induces abnormalities in higher brain function of laboratory animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820892/maternal-autoimmune-antibodies-alter-the-dendritic-arbor-and-spine-numbers-in-the-infragranular-layers-of-the-cortex
#5
Jeanelle Ariza, Jesus Hurtado, Haille Rogers, Raymond Ikeda, Michael Dill, Craig Steward, Donnay Creary, Judy Van de Water, Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño
An association between maternal IgG antibodies reactive against proteins in fetal brain and an outcome of autism in the child has been identified. Using a mouse model of prenatal intraventricular administration of autism-specific maternal IgG, we demonstrated that these antibodies produce behavioral alterations similar to those in children with ASD. We previously demonstrated that these antibodies bind to radial glial stem cells (RG) and observed an increase in the number of divisions of translocating RG in the developing cortex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819639/antioxidant-treatment-in-male-mice-prevents-mitochondrial-and-synaptic-changes-in-an-nmda-receptor-dysfunction-model-of-schizophrenia
#6
Aarron Phensy, Christopher Driskill, Karen Lindquist, Lan Guo, Vivek Jeevakumar, Bryan Fowler, Heng Du, Sven Kroener
Glutamate theories of schizophrenia suggest that the disease is associated with a loss of NMDA receptors, specifically on GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PVIs), leading to changes in the excitation-inhibition balance in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Oxidative stress contributes to the loss of PVI and the development of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated whether the glutathione precursor N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can prevent changes in synaptic transmission at pyramidal cells and PVIs that result from developmental NMDAR blockade and how these changes are related to mitochondrial dysfunction in the PFCs of mice...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819259/dendritic-calcium-spikes-are-clearly-detectable-at-the-cortical-surface
#7
Mototaka Suzuki, Matthew E Larkum
Cortical surface recording techniques such as EEG and ECoG are widely used for measuring brain activity. The prevailing assumption is that surface potentials primarily reflect synaptic activity, although non-synaptic events may also contribute. Here we show that dendritic calcium spikes occurring in pyramidal neurons (that we showed previously are cognitively relevant) are clearly detectable in cortical surface potentials. To show this we developed an optogenetic, non-synaptic approach to evoke dendritic calcium spikes in vivo...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814778/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-sex-differences-in-the-dendritic-morphology-of-developing-murine-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons
#8
Kimberly P Keil, Sunjay Sethi, Machelle D Wilson, Hao Chen, Pamela J Lein
Altered dendritic morphology is common in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), many of which show sex biases in prevalence, onset and/or severity. However, whether dendritic morphology varies as a function of sex in juvenile mice or primary neuronal cell cultures is largely unknown even though both are widely used models for studying NDDs. To address this gap, we quantified dendritic morphology in CA1 pyramidal hippocampal and adjacent somatosensory pyramidal cortical neurons from male and female postnatal day (P)28 C57BL/6J mice...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811534/distinct-projection-patterns-of-different-classes-of-layer-2-principal-neurons-in-the-olfactory-cortex
#9
Camille Mazo, Julien Grimaud, Yasuyuki Shima, Venkatesh N Murthy, C Geoffrey Lau
The broadly-distributed, non-topographic projections to and from the olfactory cortex may suggest a flat, non-hierarchical organization in odor information processing. Layer 2 principal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex (APC) can be divided into 2 subtypes: semilunar (SL) and superficial pyramidal (SP) cells. Although it is known that SL and SP cells receive differential inputs from the olfactory bulb (OB), little is known about their projections to other olfactory regions. Here, we examined axonal projections of SL and SP cells using a combination of mouse genetics and retrograde labeling...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809843/tuning-in-the-hippocampal-theta-band-in-vitro-methodologies-for-recording-from-the-isolated-rodent-septohippocampal-circuit
#10
Frédéric Manseau, Sylvain Williams
This protocol outlines the procedures for preparing and recording from the isolated whole hippocampus, of WT and transgenic mice, along with recent improvements in methodologies and applications for the study of theta oscillations. A simple characterization of the isolated hippocampal preparation is presented whereby the relationship between internal hippocampal theta oscillators is examined together with the activity of pyramidal cells, and GABAergic interneurons, of the cornu ammonis-1 (CA1) and subiculum (SUB) areas...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807873/neurophysiologically-informed-markers-of-individual-variability-and-pharmacological-manipulation-of-human-cortical-gamma
#11
A D Shaw, R J Moran, S D Muthukumaraswamy, J Brealy, D E Linden, K J Friston, K D Singh
The ability to quantify synaptic function at the level of cortical microcircuits from non-invasive data would be enormously useful in the study of neuronal processing in humans and the pathophysiology that attends many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we provide proof of principle that one can estimate inter-and intra-laminar interactions among specific neuronal populations using induced gamma responses in the visual cortex of human subjects - using dynamic causal modelling based upon the canonical microcircuit (CMC; a simplistic model of a cortical column)...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801086/slowly-progressive-leukodystrophy-in-an-adolescent-male-with-phosphoglycerate-kinase-deficiency
#12
Shimpei Baba, Ayumi Kobayashi, Haruna Yokoyama, Kengo Moriyama, Ayako Kashimada, Jun Oyama, Ayako Owada, Shoichi Oyama, Tomohiro Morio, Masatoshi Takagi
We report the case of an 18-year-old man with a phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency who had slowly progressive leukodystrophy during adolescence. The patient had a history of severe neonatal jaundice, hemolytic crisis with rhabdomyolysis triggered by febrile viral infections, dysarthria, and intellectual disability during early childhood. Clumsiness in walking and writing became obvious at ∼10years of age. Evaluations performed by us on the 18-year-old patient confirmed the presence of pyramidal tract signs, increased muscle tone, and generalized dystonia...
August 8, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792751/transformation-of-structure-electrical-conductivity-and-magnetism-in-aa-fe2o6-%C3%AE-a-sr-ca-and-a-sr
#13
Ram Krishna Hona, Ashfia Huq, Suresh Mulmi, Farshid Ramezanipour
The ability to control electrical properties and magnetism by varying the crystal structure using the effect of the A-site cation in oxygen-deficient perovskites has been studied in AA'Fe2O6-δ, where A = Sr, Ca and A' = Sr. The structure of Sr2Fe2O6-δ, synthesized at 1250 °C in air, contains dimeric units of FeO5 square pyramids separated by FeO6 octahedra. Here we show that this ordering scheme can be transformed by changing the A-site cations from Sr to Ca. This leads to a structure where layers of corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra are separated by chains of FeO4 tetrahedra...
August 9, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791395/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-inhibits-the-damage-of-rat-hippocampal-neurons-by-tlr4-myd88-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#14
Keyan Chen, Yingjie Sun, Yugang Diao, Liu Ji, Dandan Song, Tiezheng Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist on the damage of hippocampal neurons and the expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (Myd88)/nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signal pathway‑associated factors in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham operation (Sham); CPB; CPB + α7nAChR agonist PHA568487 (PHA); CPB + α7nAChR inhibitor MLA (MLA); and CPB + PHA568487 + TLR4 antagonist (CPT)...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791333/combining-theory-model-and-experiment-to-explain-how-intrinsic-theta-rhythms-are-generated-in-an-in-vitro-whole-hippocampus-preparation-without-oscillatory-inputs
#15
Katie A Ferguson, Alexandra P Chatzikalymniou, Frances K Skinner
Scientists have observed local field potential theta rhythms (3-12 Hz) in the hippocampus for decades, but understanding the mechanisms underlying their generation is complicated by their diversity in pharmacological and frequency profiles. In addition, interactions with other brain structures and oscillatory drives to the hippocampus during distinct brain states has made it difficult to identify hippocampus-specific properties directly involved in theta generation. To overcome this, we develop cellular-based network models using a whole hippocampus in vitro preparation that spontaneously generates theta rhythms...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790895/brain-metal-distribution-and-neuro-inflammatory-profiles-after-chronic-vanadium-administration-and-withdrawal-in-mice
#16
Oluwabusayo R Folarin, Amanda M Snyder, Douglas G Peters, Funmilayo Olopade, James R Connor, James O Olopade
Vanadium is a potentially toxic environmental pollutant and induces oxidative damage in biological systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Its deposition in brain tissue may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders which after prolonged exposure can culminate into more severe pathology. Most studies on vanadium neurotoxicity have been done after acute exposure but in reality some populations are exposed for a lifetime. This work was designed to ascertain neurodegenerative consequences of chronic vanadium administration and to investigate the progressive changes in the brain after withdrawal from vanadium treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777576/a-chiral-thiophene-sulfonamide-a-challenge-for-voa-calculations
#17
Joanna E Rode, Jan Cz Dobrowolski, Krzysztof Lyczko, Aleksandra Wasiewicz, Dorota Kaczorek, Robert Kawęcki, Grzegorz Zajac, Malgorzata Baranska
Two enantiomers of 2-methyl-N-(1-thien-2-ylethyl)propane-2-sulfonamide (TSA), were synthesized and their VCD, ROA, IR, and Raman spectra were registered. The solved (S)-TSA X-ray structure shows a disorder connected to the presence of two TSA conformers differing by a slight rotation of the thiophene ring. Two molecules in the units cell of monoclinic P21 crystal form a net of NH∙∙∙OS and C*H∙∙∙OS hydrogen bonds. Out of a series of computational levels tested to interpret the spectra, the B3LYP functional combined with the def2TZVP basis set satisfactorily reproduces the experimental VCD and ROA spectra...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776570/non-canonical-regulation-of-spl-transcription-factors-by-a-human-otub1-like-deubiquitinase-defines-a-new-plant-type-rice-associated-with-higher-grain-yield
#18
Shuansuo Wang, Kun Wu, Qian Qian, Qian Liu, Qi Li, Yajun Pan, Yafeng Ye, Xueying Liu, Jing Wang, Jianqing Zhang, Shan Li, Yuejin Wu, Xiangdong Fu
Achieving increased grain productivity has long been the overriding focus of cereal breeding programs. The ideotype approach has been used to improve rice yield potential at the International Rice Research Institute and in China. However, the genetic basis of yield-related traits in rice remains unclear. Here, we show that a major quantitative trait locus, qNPT1, acts through the determination of a 'new plant type' (NPT) architecture characterized by fewer tillers, sturdier culms and larger panicles, and it encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme with homology to human OTUB1...
August 4, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773094/plasmonic-light-scattering-in-textured-silicon-solar-cells-with-indium-nanoparticles-from-normal-to-non-normal-light-incidence
#19
Wen-Jeng Ho, Jian-Cheng Lin, Jheng-Jie Liu, Chien-Wu Yeh, Hong-Jhang Syu, Ching-Fuh Lin
In this study, we sought to improve the light trapping of textured silicon solar cells using the plasmonic light scattering of indium nanoparticles (In NPs) of various dimensions. The light trapping modes of textured-silicon surfaces with and without In NPs were investigated at an angle of incidence (AOI) ranging from 0° to 75°. The optical reflectance, external quantum efficiency (EQE), and photovoltaic performance were first characterized under an AOI of 0°. We then compared the EQE and photovoltaic current density-voltage (J-V) as a function of AOI in textured silicon solar cells with and without In NPs...
July 1, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772121/cell-type-specific-translation-profiling-reveals-a-novel-strategy-for-treating-fragile-x-syndrome
#20
Sophie R Thomson, Sang S Seo, Stephanie A Barnes, Susana R Louros, Melania Muscas, Owen Dando, Caoimhe Kirby, David J A Wyllie, Giles E Hardingham, Peter C Kind, Emily K Osterweil
Excessive mRNA translation downstream of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5) is a core pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome (FX); however, the differentially translating mRNAs that contribute to altered neural function are not known. We used translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) and RNA-seq to identify mistranslating mRNAs in CA1 pyramidal neurons of the FX mouse model (Fmr1(-/y)) hippocampus, which exhibit exaggerated mGlu1/5-induced long-term synaptic depression (LTD). In these neurons, we find that the Chrm4 transcript encoding muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 4 (M4) is excessively translated, and synthesis of M4 downstream of mGlu5 activation is mimicked and occluded...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
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