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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346927/microbiota-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-infancy-implications-for-management
#1
Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard Y Wu, Philip M Sherman
The complex and diverse intestinal microbiome is recognized as important in promoting human health. An altered gut microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as having an etiologic role in a variety of conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders: colic in infants and irritable bowel syndrome in older children. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, if ingested in sufficient amounts, restore microbial homeostasis and have a benefit on health. Randomized controlled trials indicate that probiotics can be effective in a variety of intestinal conditions, including colic and irritable bowel syndrome...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346903/the-oceanus-statue-of-the-fontana-di-trevi-rome-the-analysis-of-black-crust-as-a-tool-to-investigate-the-urban-air-pollution-and-its-impact-on-the-stone-degradation
#2
Mauro F La Russa, Paola Fermo, Valeria Comite, Cristina M Belfiore, Donatella Barca, Annamaria Cerioni, Marina De Santis, Lorena Francesca Barbagallo, Michela Ricca, Silvestro A Ruffolo
This paper deals with the analysis of black crust coming from the statue of Oceanus belonging to the Fontana di Trevi (Rome). This monument is undoubtedly one of the main touristic attractions of Rome. During the restoration held between 2014 and 2015, some diagnostic analyses had been carried out. It has been highlighted that the sheltered surfaces suffer the formation of black crust, especially on the marble statues. The possibility to sample those degradation products, together with the unaltered substrate, represented an excellent opportunity to characterize the marble itself, to assess the impact of the urban air pollution on the stone material, and to detect the pollutant on a precise timescale...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346809/malat1-promotes-osteosarcoma-development-by-regulation-of-hmgb1-via-mir-142-3p-and-mir-129-5p
#3
Ke Liu, Jun Huang, Jiangdong Ni, Deye Song, Muliang Ding, Junjie Wang, Xianzhe Huang, Wenzhao Li
Recently, emerging evidence has demonstrated that metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), contributes to the initiation and development of tumors, including osteosarcoma (OS). Multiple studies have suggested an oncogenic role of MALAT1 and high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in OS tumorigenesis and metastasis, but the effects and mechanisms are not unanimous. Here, we showed that MALAT1 and HMGB1 were significantly increased in human OS cell lines and knockdown of MALAT1 reduced HMGB1 expression...
March 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346808/patient-reported-outcomes-1-year-after-immediate-breast-reconstruction-results-of-the-mastectomy-reconstruction-outcomes-consortium-study
#4
Andrea L Pusic, Evan Matros, Neil Fine, Edward Buchel, Gayle M Gordillo, Jennifer B Hamill, Hyungjin M Kim, Ji Qi, Claudia Albornoz, Anne F Klassen, Edwin G Wilkins
Purpose The goals of immediate postmastectomy breast reconstruction are to minimize deformity and optimize quality of life as perceived by patients. We prospectively evaluated patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in women undergoing immediate implant-based or autologous reconstruction. Methods Women undergoing immediate postmastectomy reconstruction for invasive cancer and/or carcinoma in situ were enrolled at 11 sites. Women underwent implant-based or autologous tissue reconstruction. Patients completed the BREAST-Q, a condition-specific PRO measure for breast surgery patients, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-29, a generic PRO measure, before and 1 year after surgery...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346707/periurethral-muscle-derived-mononuclear-cell-injection-improves-urethral-sphincter-restoration-in-rats
#5
Marcelo Pitelli Turco, Alex Balduino de Souza, Isida de Campos Sousa, Paula Fratini, Mariana Matera Veras, Marcio Nogueira Rodrigues, José de Bessa, Marina Pandolphi Brolio, Katia Ramos Moreira Leite, Homero Bruschini, Miguel Srougi, Maria Angélica Miglino, Cristiano Mendes Gomes
AIMS: Investigate the effect of a novel cell-based therapy with skeletal muscle-derived mononuclear cells (SMDMCs) in a rat model of stress urinary incontinence. METHODS: Male Wistar-Kyoto rats' hind limb muscles were enzymatically dissociated, and SMDMCs were isolated without needing expansion. The cell population was characterized. Twenty female rats underwent urethrolysis. One week later, 10 rats received periurethral injection of 10(6) cells (SMDMC group), and 10 rats received saline injections (Saline group)...
March 27, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346511/is-manure-an-alternative-to-topsoil-in-road-embankment-restoration
#6
Begoña Peco, Desirée Rivera, Pablo García-Palacios, Berta M Jauregui
One of the main steps in road and railway embankment restoration is the spreading of previously removed topsoil, which provides an input of seeds, organic matter and microorganisms and encourages the establishment of a vegetation cover, essential to stabilise the embankment and blend it with the landscape. However, topsoil is a scarce resource, prompting the search for economic alternatives with similar results. The present study compares the results of spreading topsoil with an organic amendment (manure) for the soil's physico-chemical properties, erosion resistance and microbial activity, floristic richness and composition, and bare soil cover...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346462/wnt-tcf1-pathway-restricts-embryonic-stem-cell-cycle-through-activation-of-the-ink4-arf-locus
#7
Anchel De Jaime-Soguero, Francesco Aulicino, Gokhan Ertaylan, Anna Griego, Aniello Cerrato, Aravind Tallam, Antonio Del Sol, Maria Pia Cosma, Frederic Lluis
Understanding the mechanisms regulating cell cycle, proliferation and potency of pluripotent stem cells guarantees their safe use in the clinic. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) present a fast cell cycle with a short G1 phase. This is due to the lack of expression of cell cycle inhibitors, which ultimately determines naïve pluripotency by holding back differentiation. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway controls mESC pluripotency via the Wnt-effector Tcf3. However, if the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin controls the cell cycle of mESCs remains unknown...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346441/altering-the-threshold-of-an-excitable-signal-transduction-network-changes-cell-migratory-modes
#8
Yuchuan Miao, Sayak Bhattacharya, Marc Edwards, Huaqing Cai, Takanari Inoue, Pablo A Iglesias, Peter N Devreotes
The diverse migratory modes displayed by different cell types are generally believed to be idiosyncratic. Here we show that the migratory behaviour of Dictyostelium was switched from amoeboid to keratocyte-like and oscillatory modes by synthetically decreasing phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate levels or increasing Ras/Rap-related activities. The perturbations at these key nodes of an excitable signal transduction network initiated a causal chain of events: the threshold for network activation was lowered, the speed and range of propagating waves of signal transduction activity increased, actin-driven cellular protrusions expanded and, consequently, the cell migratory mode transitions ensued...
March 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346404/chemical-screening-identifies-atm-as-a-target-for-alleviating-senescence
#9
Hyun Tae Kang, Joon Tae Park, Kobong Choi, Yongsub Kim, Hyo Jei Claudia Choi, Chul Won Jung, Young-Sam Lee, Sang Chul Park
Senescence, defined as irreversible cell-cycle arrest, is the main driving force of aging and age-related diseases. Here, we performed high-throughput screening to identify compounds that alleviate senescence and identified the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitor KU-60019 as an effective agent. To elucidate the mechanism underlying ATM's role in senescence, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and found that ATM interacted with the vacuolar ATPase V1 subunits ATP6V1E1 and ATP6V1G1. Specifically, ATM decreased E-G dimerization through direct phosphorylation of ATP6V1G1...
March 27, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346137/histone-gene-replacement-reveals-a-post-transcriptional-role-for-h3k36-in-maintaining-metazoan-transcriptome-fidelity
#10
Michael P Meers, Telmo Henriques, Christopher A Lavender, Daniel J McKay, Brian D Strahl, Robert J Duronio, Karen Adelman, A Gregory Matera
Histone H3 lysine 36 methylation (H3K36me) is thought to participate in a host of co-transcriptional regulatory events. To study the function of this residue independent from the enzymes that modify it, we used a 'histone replacement' system in Drosophila to generate a non-modifiable H3K36 lysine-to-arginine (H3K36R) mutant. We observed global dysregulation of mRNA levels in H3K36R animals that correlates with the incidence of H3K36me3. Similar to previous studies, we found that mutation of H3K36 also resulted in H4 hyperacetylation...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346090/identifying-inhibitors-of-the-hsp90-aha1-protein-complex-a-potential-target-to-drug-cystic-fibrosis-by-alpha-technology
#11
Verena Ihrig, Wolfgang M J Obermann
Deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 of the protein CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), a chloride channel in lung epithelium, is the most common cause for cystic fibrosis. As a consequence, folding of the CFTRΔF508 protein and delivery to the cell surface are compromised, resulting in degradation of the polypeptide. Accordingly, decreased surface presence of CFTRΔF508 causes impaired chloride ion conductivity and is associated with mucus accumulation, a hallmark of cystic fibrosis...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345925/metal-insertion-in-a-methylamine-functionalized-zirconium-metal-organic-framework-for-enhanced-carbon-dioxide-capture
#12
A Paulina Gómora-Figueroa, Jarad A Mason, Miguel I Gonzalez, Eric D Bloch, Katie R Meihaus
The reaction of ZrCl4 with 2',3',5',6'-tetramethylamino-p-terphenyl-4,4″-dicarboxylic acid (H2tpdc-4CH2NH2·3HCl) in the presence of NaF affords Zr6O4(OH)2.1F1.9(tpdc-4CH2NH2·3HCl)6 (1), which is a new member of the Zr6O4(OH)4(dicarboxylate linker)12 or UiO-68 family, and exhibits high porosity with BET and Langmuir surface areas of 1910 m(2)/g and 2220 m(2)/g, respectively. Remarkably, fluoride ion incorporation in the zirconium clusters results in increased thermal stability, marking the first example of enhancement in the stability of a UiO framework by this defect-restoration approach...
March 27, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345919/photocontrol-of-clustering-retaining-and-releasing-of-microbeads-concomitant-with-phototransformation-of-supramolecular-architecture-of-amphiphilic-diarylethene
#13
Akira Sakaguchi, Kenji Higashiguchi, Hajime Yotsuji, Kenji Matsuda
Photoinduced clustering of polystyrene microbeads and photocontrol of their diffusion was achieved in water with the assistance of photoinduced transformation of supramolecular architecture of amphiphilic diarylethene between sphere and fiber states. When a suspension of polystyrene beads containing the sphere state of diarylethene was UV-irradiated from beneath, clustering of the polystyrene beads by thermal convection was observed. The velocity of clustering was dependent on the amount of photogenerated nanofibers that determines the viscosity of the water...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345812/reduced-expression-of-let-7f-activates-tgf-%C3%AE-alk5-pathway-and-leads-to-impaired-ischaemia-induced-neovascularization-after-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#14
Wahiba Dhahri, Sylvie Dussault, Paola Haddad, Julie Turgeon, Sophie Tremblay, Kevin Rolland, Michel Desjarlais, Katia Y Cáceres-Gorriti, Raphael Mathieu, Alain Rivard
This study sought to determine the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke on angiogenesis and neovascularization. Using large-scale miRNA profiling and qRT-PCR analyses, we identified let-7f as a pro-angiogenic miRNA which expression is significantly reduced in HUVECs treated with cigarette smoke extracts (CSE), and in the ischemic muscles of mice that are exposed to cigarette smoke (MES). In a mouse model of hindlimb ischaemia, intramuscular injection of let-7f mimic restored ischaemia-induced neovascularization in MES...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345790/metabolic-responses-to-exogenous-ghrelin-in-obesity-and-early-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-in-humans
#15
Robyn A Tamboli, Joseph Antoun, Reem M Sidani, B Austin Clements, Emily A Eckert, Pam Marks-Shulman, Bruce D Gaylinn, D Brandon Williams, Ronald H Clements, Vance L Albaugh, Naji N Abumrad
AIMS: Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and has a multi-faceted role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, including glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin concentrations are modulated in response to nutritional status, but responses to ghrelin in altered metabolic states are poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic effects of ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed central and peripheral metabolic responses to acyl ghrelin infusion (1 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) ) in healthy, lean subjects (n = 9) and non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 9) before and two weeks after RYGB...
March 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345663/nuclear-localization-of-beclin-1-promotes-radiation-induced-dna-damage-repair-independent-of-autophagy
#16
Fei Xu, Yixuan Fang, Lili Yan, Lan Xu, Suping Zhang, Yan Cao, Li Xu, Xiaoying Zhang, Jialing Xie, Gaoyue Jiang, Chaorong Ge, Ni An, Daohong Zhou, Na Yuan, Jianrong Wang
Beclin 1 is a well-established core mammalian autophagy protein that is embryonically indispensable and has been presumed to suppress oncogenesis via an autophagy-mediated mechanism. Here, we show that Beclin 1 is a prenatal primary cytoplasmic protein but rapidly relocated into the nucleus during postnatal development in mice. Surprisingly, deletion of beclin1 in in vitro human cells did not block an autophagy response, but attenuated the expression of several DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair proteins and formation of repair complexes, and reduced an ability to repair DNA in the cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR)...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345572/late-dislocation-of-in-the-bag-intraocular-lenses-in-uveitic-eyes-an-analysis-of-management-and-complications
#17
Sudha K Ganesh, Parveen Sen, Hitesh R Sharma
AIM: An analysis of late in-the-bag dislocation of intraocular lenses (IOL), in uveitic eyes. SETTING: Referral uveitis clinic. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All case records of eyes with chronic uveitis that had phacoemulsification with IOL implantation, at a referral uveitis clinic between February 1997 and January 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. Only those eyes with no documented intraoperative complication and no predisposing risks to IOL dislocation, such as pseudoexfoliation, high myopia, trauma, and prior VR surgery were included in this study...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345537/hyperuniformity-variation-with-quasicrystal-local-isomorphism-class
#18
Chaney Lin, Paul Steinhardt, Salvatore Torquato
Hyperuniformity is the suppression of long-wavelength density fluctuations, relative to typical structurally disordered systems. In this paper, we examine how the degree of hyperuniformity (Lambda_Bar) in quasicrystals depends on the local isomorphism class. By studying the continuum of pentagonal quasicrystal tilings obtained by direct projection from a five-dimensional hypercubic lattice, we find that Lambda_bar is dominantly determined by the local distribution of vertex environments (e.g., as measured by Voronoi cells) but also exhibits a non-negligible dependence on the restorability...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345530/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-methods-of-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-other-diseases
#19
Klaudia Juszczuk, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek
Clostridium difficile is a serious epidemiological problem and particularly dangerous microorganism causing hospital infections. Currently, the treatment of C. difficile infections is the use of metronidazole or vancomycin. However, in some patients, recurrent infection difficult to treat occurs. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new method used to treat the recurrent CDI. FMT consists in the infusion of the fecal suspension from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient with CDI to restore the natural intestinal microflora...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345465/demethoxycurcumin-inhibited-human-epithelia-ovarian-cancer-cells-growth-via-up-regulating-mir-551a
#20
Zhenhua Du, Xianqun Sha
Curcumin is a natural agent that has ability to dampen tumor cells' growth. However, the natural form of curcumin is prone to degrade and unstable in vitro. Here, we demonstrated that demethoxycurcumin (a curcumin-related demethoxy compound) could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, IRS2/PI3K/Akt axis was inactivated in cells treated with demethoxycurcumin. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that miR-551a was down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and ovarian cancer cell lines...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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