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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343000/evidence-for-similar-patterns-of-neural-activity-elicted-by-picture-and-word-based-representations-of-natural-scenes
#1
Manoj Kumar, Kara D Federmeier, Li Fei-Fei, Diane M Beck
A long-standing core question in cognitive science is whether different modalities and representation types (pictures, words, sounds, etc.) access a common store of semantic information. Although different input types have been shown to activate a shared network of brain regions, this does not necessitate that there is a common representation, as the neurons in these regions could still differentially process the different modalities. However, multi-voxel pattern analysis can be used to assess whether, e.g...
March 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342760/correction-of-hirschsprung-associated-mutations-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-via-crispr-cas9-restores-neural-crest-cell-function
#2
Frank Pui-Ling Lai, Sin-Ting Lau, John Kwong-Leong Wong, Hongsheng Gui, Reeson Xu Wang, Tingwen Zhou, Wing Hon Lai, Hung-Fat Tse, Paul Kwong-Hang Tam, Maria-Mercedes Garcia-Barcelo, Elly Sau-Wai Ngan
BACKGROUND & AIM: Hirschsprung disease is caused by failure of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) to fully colonize the bowel, leading to bowel obstruction and megacolon. Heterozygous mutations in the coding region of the RET gene cause a severe form of Hirschsprung disease (total colonic aganglionosis). However, 80% of HSCR patients have short-segment Hirschsprung disease (S-HSCR), which has not been associated with genetic factors. We sought to identify mutations associated S-HSCR, and used the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system to determine how mutations affect ENCC function...
March 22, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337288/which-has-more-stem-cell-characteristics-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-or-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-derived-from-in-vivo-culture-in-neurospheres
#3
Hong-Pei Ji, Yu Xiong, En-Dong Zhang, Wei-Tao Song, Zhao-Lin Gao, Fei Yao, Hong Sun, Rong-Rong Zhou, Xiao-Bo Xia
OBJECTIVE: Müller cells can be acquired from in vitro culture or a neurosphere culture system. Both culture methods yield cells with progenitor-cell characteristics that can differentiate into mature nervous cells. We compared the progenitor-cell traits of Müller cells acquired from each method. METHODS: Primary murine Müller cells were isolated in serum culture media and used to generate Müller cells derived from neurospheres in serum-free culture conditions...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336425/characterizing-object-and-position-dependent-response-profiles-to-uni-and-bilateral-stimulus-configurations-in-human-higher-visual-cortex-a-7t-fmri-study
#4
Joel Reithler, Judith C Peters, Rainer Goebel
Visual scenes are initially processed via segregated neural pathways dedicated to either of the two visual hemifields. Although higher-order visual areas are generally believed to utilize invariant object representations (abstracted away from features such as stimulus position), recent findings suggest they retain more spatial information than previously thought. Here, we assessed the nature of such higher-order object representations in human cortex using high-resolution fMRI at 7T, supported by corroborative 3T data...
March 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334960/neural-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-in-unmedicated-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#5
Marcus Rothkirch, Jonas Tonn, Stephan Köhler, Philipp Sterzer
According to current concepts, major depressive disorder is strongly related to dysfunctional neural processing of motivational information, entailing impairments in reinforcement learning. While computational modelling can reveal the precise nature of neural learning signals, it has not been used to study learning-related neural dysfunctions in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder so far. We thus aimed at comparing the neural coding of reward and punishment prediction errors, representing indicators of neural learning-related processes, between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334830/predicting-the-impact-of-non-coding-variants-on-dna-methylation
#6
Haoyang Zeng, David K Gifford
DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the establishment of tissue-specific gene expression and the regulation of key biological processes. However, our present inability to predict the effect of genome sequence variation on DNA methylation precludes a comprehensive assessment of the consequences of non-coding variation. We introduce CpGenie, a sequence-based framework that learns a regulatory code of DNA methylation using a deep convolutional neural network and uses this network to predict the impact of sequence variation on proximal CpG site DNA methylation...
March 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334187/individual-differences-in-human-auditory-processing-insights-from-single-trial-auditory-midbrain-activity-in-an-animal-model
#7
Travis White-Schwoch, Trent Nicol, Catherine M Warrier, Daniel A Abrams, Nina Kraus
Auditory-evoked potentials are classically defined as the summations of synchronous firing along the auditory neuraxis. Converging evidence supports a model whereby timing jitter in neural coding compromises listening and causes variable scalp-recorded potentials. Yet the intrinsic noise of human scalp recordings precludes a full understanding of the biological origins of individual differences in listening skills. To delineate the mechanisms contributing to these phenomena, in vivo extracellular activity was recorded from inferior colliculus in guinea pigs to speech in quiet and noise...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323209/sox9-a-genomic-view-of-tissue-specific-expression-and-action
#8
Aleisha Symon, Vincent Harley
The SOX9 transcription factor controls cell differentiation of many cell types among vertebrates. The SOX9 gene locus is large and complex and contains various tissue-specific enhancers. Individual enhancers direct specific expression of SOX9 in chondrocytes, Sertoli cells and cranial neural crest cells. Human SOX9 mutations can lead to either the complete Campomelic Dysplasia syndrome, or isolated clinical features, depending upon whether the mutation occurs in the coding region or in regulatory regions. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation has helped to define SOX9 control of target gene expression at the genome wide level in hair follicle stem cells and in chondrocytes where SOX9 binds at super-enhancers...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321286/crispr-cas9-mediated-heterozygous-knockout-of-the-autism-gene-chd8-and-characterization-of-its-transcriptional-networks-in-cerebral-organoids-derived-from-ips-cells
#9
Ping Wang, Ryan Mokhtari, Erika Pedrosa, Michael Kirschenbaum, Can Bayrak, Deyou Zheng, Herbert M Lachman
BACKGROUND: CHD8 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8), which codes for a member of the CHD family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factors, is one of the most commonly mutated genes in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) identified in exome-sequencing studies. Loss of function mutations in the gene have also been found in schizophrenia (SZ) and intellectual disabilities and influence cancer cell proliferation. We previously reported an RNA-seq analysis carried out on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and monolayer neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that were heterozygous for CHD8 knockout (KO) alleles generated using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321182/sparse-and-specific-coding-during-information-transmission-between-co-cultured-dentate-gyrus-and-ca3-hippocampal-networks
#10
Daniele Poli, Srikanth Thiagarajan, Thomas B DeMarse, Bruce C Wheeler, Gregory J Brewer
To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320845/decoding-information-for-grasping-from-the-macaque-dorsomedial-visual-stream
#11
Matteo Filippini, Rossella Breveglieri, M Ali Akhras, Annalisa Bosco, Eris Chinellato, Patrizia Fattori
Neuro-decoders have been developed by researchers mostly to control neuro-prosthetic devices, but also to shed new light on neural functions. In this study, we show that signals representing grip configurations can be reliably decoded from neural data acquired from area V6A of the monkey medial posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Two Macaca fascicularis were trained to perform an instructed-delay reach-to-grasp task in the dark and in the light towards objects of different shapes. Population neural activity was extracted at various time intervals; on vision of the objects, the delay before movement, and grasp execution...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319608/cerebellar-granule-cells-acquire-a-widespread-predictive-feedback-signal-during-motor-learning
#12
Andrea Giovannucci, Aleksandra Badura, Ben Deverett, Farzaneh Najafi, Talmo D Pereira, Zhenyu Gao, Ilker Ozden, Alexander D Kloth, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis, Liam Paninski, Chris I De Zeeuw, Javier F Medina, Samuel S-H Wang
Cerebellar granule cells, which constitute half the brain's neurons, supply Purkinje cells with contextual information necessary for motor learning, but how they encode this information is unknown. Here we show, using two-photon microscopy to track neural activity over multiple days of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice, that granule cell populations acquire a dense representation of the anticipatory eyelid movement. Initially, granule cells responded to neutral visual and somatosensory stimuli as well as periorbital airpuffs used for training...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318193/-neuropsychiatric-phenotype-of-angelman-syndrome-and-clinical-care-report-of-seven-cases
#13
Juan E Cote-Orozco, Paola Del Rocío Mera-Solarte, Eugenia Espinosa-García
Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder caused by a lack or reduction of expression of UBE3A located within chromosome 15, which codes for ubiquitin protein ligase E3A, which has a key role in synaptic development and neural plasticity. Its main features are developmental delay/intellectual disability, lack of speech, a characteristic behavioural profile, and epilepsy. We describe clinical features and management of seven cases with 15q11-13 deletion. Due to their life expectancy, knowing and managing its comorbidities is crucial to improve their quality of life...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316842/neural-energy-supply-consumption-properties-based-on-hodgkin-huxley-model
#14
Yihong Wang, Rubin Wang, Xuying Xu
Electrical activity is the foundation of the neural system. Coding theories that describe neural electrical activity by the roles of action potential timing or frequency have been thoroughly studied. However, an alternative method to study coding questions is the energy method, which is more global and economical. In this study, we clearly defined and calculated neural energy supply and consumption based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model, during firing action potentials and subthreshold activities using ion-counting and power-integral model...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316248/assessing-the-impact-of-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-on-resting-state-function-networks-in-a-military-chronic-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-sample
#15
Dominic E Nathan, Julie F Bellgowan, Louis M French, Jonathan P Wolf, Terry Oakes, Jeannine B Mielke, Elyssa B Sham, Wei Liu, Gerard Riedy
The relationship between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is difficult to discern and poorly understood. An accurate differential diagnosis, assessment and treatment of mTBI and PTSD is challenging due to significant symptom overlap and the absence of clearly established biomarkers. The objective of this work is to examine how post traumatic stress influences task-free brain networks in chronic mTBI subjects. Control subjects (N=44) were compared with chronic mTBI subjects with low (N=58, PCLC total<30), medium (N=124, PCLC total = 31-49) and high (N=105, PCLC total ≥ 60) post traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)...
March 19, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315519/stimulus-background-influences-phase-invariant-coding-by-correlated-neural-activity
#16
Michael G Metzen, Maurice J Chacron
We recently reported that correlations between the activities of peripheral afferents mediate a phase invariant representation of natural communication stimuli that is refined across successive processing stages thereby leading to perception and behavior in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus (Metzen et al., 2016). Here, we explore how phase invariant coding and perception of natural communication stimuli are affected by changes in the sinusoidal background over which they occur. We found that increasing background frequency led to phase locking, which decreased both detectability and phase invariant coding...
March 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301770/imaging-and-optically-manipulating-neuronal-ensembles
#17
Luis Carrillo-Reid, Weijian Yang, Jae-Eun Kang Miller, Darcy S Peterka, Rafael Yuste
The neural code that relates the firing of neurons to the generation of behavior and mental states must be implemented by spatiotemporal patterns of activity across neuronal populations. These patterns engage selective groups of neurons, called neuronal ensembles, which are emergent building blocks of neural circuits. We review optical and computational methods, based on two-photon calcium imaging and two-photon optogenetics, to detect, characterize, and manipulate neuronal ensembles in three dimensions. We review data using these methods in the mammalian cortex that demonstrate the existence of neuronal ensembles in the spontaneous and evoked cortical activity in vitro and in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298703/a-tutorial-on-the-free-energy-framework-for-modelling-perception-and-learning
#18
Rafal Bogacz
This paper provides an easy to follow tutorial on the free-energy framework for modelling perception developed by Friston, which extends the predictive coding model of Rao and Ballard. These models assume that the sensory cortex infers the most likely values of attributes or features of sensory stimuli from the noisy inputs encoding the stimuli. Remarkably, these models describe how this inference could be implemented in a network of very simple computational elements, suggesting that this inference could be performed by biological networks of neurons...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297995/phase-analysis-method-for-burst-onset-prediction
#19
Flavio Stellino, Alberto Mazzoni, Marco Storace
The response of bursting neurons to fluctuating inputs is usually hard to predict, due to their strong nonlinearity. For the same reason, decoding the injected stimulus from the activity of a bursting neuron is generally difficult. In this paper we propose a method describing (for neuron models) a mechanism of phase coding relating the burst onsets with the phase profile of the input current. This relation suggests that burst onset may provide a way for postsynaptic neurons to track the input phase. Moreover, we define a method of phase decoding to solve the inverse problem and estimate the likelihood of burst onset given the input state...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297877/channel-noise-effects-on-first-spike-latency-of-a-stochastic-hodgkin-huxley-neuron
#20
Brenton Maisel, Katja Lindenberg
While it is widely accepted that information is encoded in neurons via action potentials or spikes, it is far less understood what specific features of spiking contain encoded information. Experimental evidence has suggested that the timing of the first spike may be an energy-efficient coding mechanism that contains more neural information than subsequent spikes. Therefore, the biophysical features of neurons that underlie response latency are of considerable interest. Here we examine the effects of channel noise on the first spike latency of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron receiving random input from many other neurons...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
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