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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454224/the-consonant-vowel-pattern-determines-the-structure-of-orthographic-representations-in-the-left-fusiform-gyrus
#1
Fabienne Chetail, Mariagrazia Ranzini, Xavier De Tiège, Vincent Wens, Alain Content
Recent findings demonstrated readers' sensitivity to the distinction between consonant and vowel letters. Especially, the way consonants and vowels are organised within written words determines their perceptual structure. The present work attempted to overcome two limitations of previous studies by examining the neurophysiological correlates of this perceptual structure through magnetoencephalography (MEG). One aim was to establish that the extraction of vowel-centred units takes place during early stages of processing...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447188/comparing-deep-learning-and-concept-extraction-based-methods-for-patient-phenotyping-from-clinical-narratives
#2
Sebastian Gehrmann, Franck Dernoncourt, Yeran Li, Eric T Carlson, Joy T Wu, Jonathan Welt, John Foote, Edward T Moseley, David W Grant, Patrick D Tyler, Leo A Celi
In secondary analysis of electronic health records, a crucial task consists in correctly identifying the patient cohort under investigation. In many cases, the most valuable and relevant information for an accurate classification of medical conditions exist only in clinical narratives. Therefore, it is necessary to use natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract and evaluate these narratives. The most commonly used approach to this problem relies on extracting a number of clinician-defined medical concepts from text and using machine learning techniques to identify whether a particular patient has a certain condition...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444842/task-specific-sensory-coding-strategies-are-matched-to-detection-and-discrimination-performance
#3
K M Allen, G Marsat
The acquisition of sensory information is limited by the neural encoding method used, constraining perceptual abilities. The most relevant aspects of stimuli may change as behavioral context changes, making efficient encoding of information more challenging. Sensory systems must balance rapid detection of a stimulus with perception of fine details that enable discrimination between similar stimuli. We show that in a species of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus , two coding strategies are employed for these separate behavioral tasks...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444427/an-excitatory-neural-assembly-encodes-short-term-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Yonglu Tian, Chaojuan Yang, Yaxuan Cui, Feng Su, Yongjie Wang, Yangzhen Wang, Peijiang Yuan, Shujiang Shang, Hao Li, Jizong Zhao, Desheng Zhu, Shiming Tang, Peng Cao, Yunbo Liu, Xunli Wang, Liecheng Wang, Wenbo Zeng, Haifei Jiang, Fei Zhao, Minhua Luo, Wei Xiong, Zilong Qiu, Xiang-Yao Li, Chen Zhang
Short-term memory (STM) is crucial for animals to hold information for a small period of time. Persistent or recurrent neural activity, together with neural oscillations, is known to encode the STM at the cellular level. However, the coding mechanisms at the microcircuitry level remain a mystery. Here, we performed two-photon imaging on behaving mice to monitor the activity of neuronal microcircuitry. We discovered a neuronal subpopulation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that exhibited emergent properties in a context-dependent manner underlying a STM-like behavior paradigm...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442559/neural-mechanisms-of-navigation-involving-interactions-of-cortical-and-subcortical-structures
#5
James R Hinman, Holger Dannenberg, Andrew Alexander, Michael E Hasselmo
Animals must perform spatial navigation for a range of different behaviors, including selection of trajectories toward goal locations and foraging for food sources. To serve this function, a number of different brain regions play a role in coding different dimensions of sensory input important for spatial behavior, including the entorhinal cortex, the retrosplenial cortex, the hippocampus and the medial septum. This article will review data concerning the coding of the spatial aspects of animal behavior, including location of the animal within an environment, the speed of movement, the trajectory of movement, the direction of the head in the environment, and the position of barriers and objects both relative to the animal's head direction (egocentric) and relative to the layout of the environment (allocentric)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437158/dataset-of-human-medial-temporal-lobe-single-neuron-activity-during-declarative-memory-encoding-and-recognition
#6
Mailys C M Faraut, April A Carlson, Shannon Sullivan, Oana Tudusciuc, Ian Ross, Chrystal M Reed, Jeffrey M Chung, Adam N Mamelak, Ueli Rutishauser
We present a dataset of 1,576 single neurons recorded from the human amygdala and hippocampus in 65 sessions from 42 patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for localization of epileptic seizures. Subjects performed a recognition memory task with pictures as stimuli. Subjects were asked to identify whether they had seen a particular image the first time ('new') or second time ('old') on a 1-6 confidence scale. This comprehensive dataset includes the spike times of all neurons and their extracellular waveforms, behavior, electrode locations determined from post-operative MRI scans, demographics, and the stimuli shown...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435954/large-scale-exploration-of-neuronal-morphologies-using-deep-learning-and-augmented-reality
#7
Zhongyu Li, Erik Butler, Kang Li, Aidong Lu, Shuiwang Ji, Shaoting Zhang
Recently released large-scale neuron morphological data has greatly facilitated the research in neuroinformatics. However, the sheer volume and complexity of these data pose significant challenges for efficient and accurate neuron exploration. In this paper, we propose an effective retrieval framework to address these problems, based on frontier techniques of deep learning and binary coding. For the first time, we develop a deep learning based feature representation method for the neuron morphological data, where the 3D neurons are first projected into binary images and then learned features using an unsupervised deep neural network, i...
February 12, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435081/long-non-coding-rna-ccat2-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-involving-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-cells
#8
Beidi Wang, Meimei Liu, Rujin Zhuang, Jing Jiang, Jiayin Gao, Hao Wang, He Chen, Zongfeng Zhang, Ye Kuang, Peiling Li
Long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) is dysregulated in a variety of types of human cancer. However, the role of CCAT2 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of CCAT2 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and related molecular mechanisms in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. In the current paper, we found that CCAT2 was significantly upregulated in EOC SKOV3, A2780 and HO8910 cell lines compared with the normal ovarian epithelial HUM-CELL-0088 cell line...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433432/predictors-of-breast-cancer-cell-types-and-their-prognostic-power-in-breast-cancer-patients
#9
Fan Wang, Zachariah Dohogne, Jin Yang, Yu Liu, Benjamin Soibam
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive understanding of intratumor heterogeneity requires identification of molecular markers, which are capable of differentiating different subpopulations and which also have clinical significance. One important tool that has been addressing this issue is single cell RNA-Sequencing (scRNASeq) that allows the quantification of expression profiles of transcripts in individual cells in a population of cancer cells. Using the expression profiles from scRNASeq, current studies conduct analysis to group cells into different subpopulations using clustering algorithms...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431275/burst-spinal-cord-stimulation-review-of-preclinical-studies-and-comments-on-clinical-outcomes
#10
REVIEW
Krishnan Chakravarthy, Alexander R Kent, Adil Raza, Fang Xing, Thomas M Kinfe
BACKGROUND: Burst spinal cord stimulation (SCS) technology uses a novel waveform that consists of closely packed high-frequency electrical impulses followed by a quiescent period. Within the growing field of neuromodulation, burst stimulation is unique in that it mimics the natural burst firing of the nervous system, in particular the thalamo-cingulate rhythmicity, resulting in modulation of the affective and attentional components of pain processing (e.g., medial thalamic pathways). STUDY DESIGN: A review of preclinical and clinical studies regarding burst SCS for various chronic pain states...
February 12, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428901/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-participates-in-non-coding-rna-pathways
#11
En-Hui Li, Xin Zhao, Ce Zhang, Wei Liu
Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by mutations of the Fragile X mental retardation 1(FMR1) gene, resulting in either the loss or abnormal expression of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Recent research showed that FMRP participates in non-coding RNA pathways and plays various important roles in physiology, thereby extending our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the Fragile X syndrome. Initial studies showed that the Drosophila FMRP participates in siRNA and miRNA pathways by interacting with Dicer, Ago1 and Ago2, involved in neural activity and the fate determination of the germline stem cells...
February 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423651/genetic-and-functional-analysis-of-shroom1-4-in-a-chinese-neural-tube-defect-cohort
#12
Zhongzhong Chen, Lele Kuang, Richard H Finnell, Hongyan Wang
Neural tube defects (NTDs), which include spina bifida and anencephaly, are the second most common form of human structural congenital malformations. While it is well established that SHROOM3 plays a pivotal role in the complex morphogenetic processes involved in neural tube closure (NTC), the underlying genetic contributions of SHROOM gene family members in the etiology of human NTDs remain poorly understood. Herein, we systematically investigated the mutation patterns of SHROOM1-4 in a Chinese population composed of 343 NTD cases and 206 controls, using targeted next-generation sequencing...
February 8, 2018: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423241/novel-rare-variations-in-genes-that-regulate-developmental-change-in-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Akane Yoshikawa, Fumichika Nishimura, Aya Inai, Yosuke Eriguchi, Masaki Nishioka, Atsuhiko Takaya, Mamoru Tochigi, Yoshiya Kawamura, Tadashi Umekage, Kayoko Kato, Tsukasa Sasaki, Kiyoto Kasai, Chihiro Kakiuchi
The mechanism underlying the vulnerability to developing schizophrenia (SCZ) during adolescence remains elusive. Hypofunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of SCZ. During development, the composition of synaptic NMDARs dramatically changes from NR2B-containing NMDARs to NR2A-containing NMDARs through the phosphorylation of NR2B S1480 or Y1472 by CDK5, CSNK2A1, and EphB2, which plays a pivotal role in the maturation of neural circuits. We hypothesized that the dysregulation of developmental change in NMDARs could be involved in the onset of SCZ...
2018: Human Genome Variation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415191/training-and-spontaneous-reinforcement-of-neuronal-assemblies-by-spike-timing-plasticity
#14
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Brent Doiron
The synaptic connectivity of cortex is plastic, with experience shaping the ongoing interactions between neurons. Theoretical studies of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) have focused on either just pairs of neurons or large-scale simulations. A simple analytic account for how fast spike time correlations affect both microscopic and macroscopic network structure is lacking. We develop a low-dimensional mean field theory for STDP in recurrent networks and show the emergence of assemblies of strongly coupled neurons with shared stimulus preferences...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414533/a-border-ownership-model-based-on-computational-electromagnetism
#15
Zaem Arif Zainal, Shunji Satoh
The mathematical relation between a vector electric field and its corresponding scalar potential field is useful to formulate computational problems of lower/middle-order visual processing, specifically related to the assignment of borders to the side of the object: so-called border ownership (BO). BO coding is a key process for extracting the objects from the background, allowing one to organize a cluttered scene. We propose that the problem is solvable simultaneously by application of a theorem of electromagnetism, i...
January 10, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412776/50-years-of-microneurography-learning-the-language-of-the-peripheral-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-humans
#16
J Kevin Shoemaker, Mark B Badrov, Stephen A Klassen, Paul J Fadel
As a primary component of homeostasis, the sympathetic nervous system enables rapid adjustments to stress through its ability to communicate messages among organs and cause targeted and graded end organ responses. Key in this communication model is the pattern of neural signals emanating from the central to peripheral components of the sympathetic nervous system. But what is the communication strategy employed in peripheral sympathetic nerve activity (SNA)? Can we develop and interpret the system of coding in SNA that improves our understanding of the neural control of the circulation? In 1968, Hagbarth and Vallbo reported the first use of microneurographic methods to record sympathetic discharges in peripheral nerves of conscious humans, allowing quantification of SNA at rest and sympathetic responsiveness to physiological stressors in health and disease...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412137/salient-experiences-are-represented-by-unique-transcriptional-signatures-in-the-mouse-brain
#17
Diptendu Mukherjee, Bogna Marta Ignatowska-Jankowska, Eyal Itskovits, Ben Jerry Gonzales, Hagit Turm, Liz Izakson, Doron Haritan, Noa Bleistein, Chen Cohen, Ido Amit, Tal Shay, Brad Grueter, Alon Zaslaver, Ami Citri
It is well established that inducible transcription is essential for the consolidation of salient experiences into long-term memory. However, whether inducible transcription relays information about the identity and affective attributes of the experience being encoded, has not been explored. To this end, we analyzed transcription induced by a variety of rewarding and aversive experiences, across multiple brain regions. Our results describe the existence of robust transcriptional signatures uniquely representing distinct experiences, enabling near-perfect decoding of recent experiences...
February 7, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408930/interpretation-of-correlated-neural-variability-from-models-of-feed-forward-and-recurrent-circuits
#18
Volker Pernice, Rava Azeredo da Silveira
Neural populations respond to the repeated presentations of a sensory stimulus with correlated variability. These correlations have been studied in detail, with respect to their mechanistic origin, as well as their influence on stimulus discrimination and on the performance of population codes. A number of theoretical studies have endeavored to link network architecture to the nature of the correlations in neural activity. Here, we contribute to this effort: in models of circuits of stochastic neurons, we elucidate the implications of various network architectures-recurrent connections, shared feed-forward projections, and shared gain fluctuations-on the stimulus dependence in correlations...
February 6, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408160/ten-year-prediction-of-suicide-death-using-cox-regression-and-machine-learning-in-a-nationwide-retrospective-cohort-study-in-south-korea
#19
Soo Beom Choi, Wanhyung Lee, Jin-Ha Yoon, Jong-Uk Won, Deok Won Kim
BACKGROUND: Death by suicide is a preventable public health concern worldwide. The aim of this study is to investigate the probability of suicide death using baseline characteristics and simple medical facility visit history data using Cox regression, support vector machines (SVMs), and deep neural networks (DNNs). METHOD: This study included 819,951 subjects in the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-Cohort Sample Database from 2004 to 2013. The dataset was divided randomly into two independent training and validation groups...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404850/mabal-a-novel-deep-learning-architecture-for-machine-assisted-bone-age-labeling
#20
Simukayi Mutasa, Peter D Chang, Carrie Ruzal-Shapiro, Rama Ayyala
Bone age assessment (BAA) is a commonly performed diagnostic study in pediatric radiology to assess skeletal maturity. The most commonly utilized method for assessment of BAA is the Greulich and Pyle method (Pediatr Radiol 46.9:1269-1274, 2016; Arch Dis Child 81.2:172-173, 1999) atlas. The evaluation of BAA can be a tedious and time-consuming process for the radiologist. As such, several computer-assisted detection/diagnosis (CAD) methods have been proposed for automation of BAA. Classical CAD tools have traditionally relied on hard-coded algorithmic features for BAA which suffer from a variety of drawbacks...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
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