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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725181/impact-of-proestrus-on-gene-expression-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-mice
#1
Csaba Vastagh, Zsolt Liposits
The antero-ventral periventricular zone (AVPV) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) have been recognized as gonadal hormone receptive regions of the rodent brain that-via wiring to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons-contribute to orchestration of the preovulatory GnRH surge. We hypothesized that neural genes regulating the induction of GnRH surge show altered expression in proestrus. Therefore, we compared the expression of 48 genes obtained from intact proestrous and metestrous mice, respectively, by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720713/sensory-processing-of-deep-tissue-nociception-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-and-thalamic-ventrobasal-complex
#2
Shafaq Sikandar, Steven J West, Stephen B McMahon, David L Bennett, Anthony H Dickenson
Sensory processing of deep somatic tissue constitutes an important component of the nociceptive system, yet associated central processing pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we provide a novel electrophysiological characterization and immunohistochemical analysis of neural activation in the lateral spinal nucleus (LSN). These neurons show evoked activity to deep, but not cutaneous, stimulation. The evoked responses of neurons in the LSN can be sensitized to somatosensory stimulation following intramuscular hypertonic saline, an acute model of muscle pain, suggesting this is an important spinal relay site for the processing of deep tissue nociceptive inputs...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719640/short-lived-long-non-coding-rnas-as-surrogate-indicators-for-chemical-exposure-and-linc00152-and-malat1-modulate-their-neighboring-genes
#3
Hidenori Tani, Sayaka Okuda, Kaoru Nakamura, Motohide Aoki, Tomonari Umemura
Whole transcriptome analyses have revealed a large number of novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although accumulating evidence demonstrates that lncRNAs play important roles in regulating gene expression, the detailed mechanisms of action of most lncRNAs remain unclear. We previously reported that a novel class of lncRNAs with a short half-life (t1/2 < 4 h) in HeLa cells, termed short-lived non-coding transcripts (SLiTs), are closely associated with physiological and pathological functions. In this study, we focused on 26 SLiTs and nuclear-enriched abundant lncRNA, MALAT1(t1/2 of 7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717877/temporal-envelope-coding-by-inferior-colliculus-neurons-with-cochlear-implant-stimulation
#4
Kenneth E Hancock, Yoojin Chung, Martin F McKinney, Bertrand Delgutte
Modulations in temporal envelopes are a ubiquitous property of natural sounds and are especially important for hearing with cochlear implants (CIs) because these devices typically discard temporal fine structure information. With few exceptions, neural temporal envelope processing has been studied in both normal hearing (NH) and CI animals using only pure sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) which poorly represents the diversity of envelope shapes contained in natural sounds because it confounds repetition rate and the width of each modulation cycle...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714584/oscillations-during-observations-dynamic-oscillatory-networks-serving-visuospatial-attention
#5
Alex I Wiesman, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Amy L Proskovec, Timothy J McDermott, Tony W Wilson
The dynamic allocation of neural resources to discrete features within a visual scene enables us to react quickly and accurately to salient environmental circumstances. A network of bilateral cortical regions is known to subserve such visuospatial attention functions; however the oscillatory and functional connectivity dynamics of information coding within this network are not fully understood. Particularly, the coding of information within prototypical attention-network hubs and the subsecond functional connections formed between these hubs have not been adequately characterized...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714388/the-prospective-role-of-micrornas-in-depression
#6
Zhiying Hu, Yuting Jiang, Xue Huo, Yang Yang, Henry Davies, Benson O A Botchway, Marong Fang
Depression is a debilitating disease that is affecting a growing number of patients both physically and mentally. In addition to the mood changes, depression causes cognitive impairment, including learning and memory dysfunction. Although depression studies have been going on for decades, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of small non-coding RNAs, predominantly control the expression of their target mRNAs to exert their functions. Some evidence has revealed the importance of miRNAs in the mechanism of depression though the studies are still in their infancy...
July 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713933/mir%C3%A2-146b%C3%A2-5p-promotes-the-neural-conversion-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-targeting-smad4
#7
Nianping Zhang, Ying Lyu, Xuebing Pan, Liping Xu, Aiguo Xuan, Xiaosong He, Wandan Huang, Dahong Long
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are regarded as potential sources that provide specific neural cells for cell therapy in some nervous system diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the neural differentiation of PSCs remain largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a class of small non‑pro-tein-coding RNAs that act as critical regulatory molecules in many cellular processes. In this study, we found that miR‑146b‑5p expression was markedly increased following the neural induction of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced PSCs (iPSCs)...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713244/regulatory-roles-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-associated-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Zhenzhen Quan, Da Zheng, Hong Qing
Accumulating studies have revealed that the human genome encodes tens of thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which participate in multiple biological networks modulating gene expression via transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Strikingly, a large fraction of tissue-specific lncRNAs are expressed in the Central Nervous System (CNS) with precisely regulated temporal and spatial expression patterns. These brain-specific lncRNAs are also featured with the cell-type specificity, the highest signals of evolutionary conservation, and their preferential location adjacent to brain-expressed protein-coding genes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705766/patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-exhibit-reduced-reward-size-coding-in-the-striatum
#9
Masahiro Takamura, Yasumasa Okamoto, Go Okada, Shigeru Toki, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Naho Ichikawa, Asako Mori, Hideaki Minagawa, Yoshiyuki Takaishi, Yasutaka Fujii, Yoko Kaichi, Yuji Akiyama, Kazuo Awai, Shigeto Yamawaki
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). While recent evidence suggests that reduced motivation for reward may be a core feature of anhedonia, the abnormalities in modulatory neural responses to variable reward amounts in MDD patients remain unclear. We investigated whether MDD patients' ability to represent variable-sized monetary rewards in the striatum is disrupted. METHODS: Twelve MDD patients and 12 healthy volunteers completed an assessment of psychometric status and participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task that involved the anticipation of financial reward (monetary incentive delay task)...
July 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704421/transcriptional-role-of-androgen-receptor-in-the-expression-of-long-non-coding-rna-sox2ot-in-neurogenesis
#10
Valentina Tosetti, Jenny Sassone, Anna L M Ferri, Michela Taiana, Gloria Bedini, Sara Nava, Greta Brenna, Chiara Di Resta, Davide Pareyson, Anna Maria Di Giulio, Stephana Carelli, Eugenio A Parati, Alfredo Gorio
The complex architecture of adult brain derives from tightly regulated migration and differentiation of precursor cells generated during embryonic neurogenesis. Changes at transcriptional level of genes that regulate migration and differentiation may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is already expressed during early embryonic days. However, AR role in the regulation of gene expression at early embryonic stage is yet to be determinate. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Sox2 overlapping transcript (Sox2OT) plays a crucial role in gene expression control during development but its transcriptional regulation is still to be clearly defined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701910/the-impact-of-ecological-niche-on-adaptive-flexibility-of-sensory-circuitry
#11
REVIEW
Sarah L Pallas
Evolution and development are interdependent, particularly with regard to the construction of the nervous system and its position as the machine that produces behavior. On the one hand, the processes directing development and plasticity of the brain provide avenues through which natural selection can sculpt neural cell fate and connectivity, and on the other hand, they are themselves subject to selection pressure. For example, mutations that produce heritable perturbations in neuronal birth and death rates, transcription factor expression, or availability of axon guidance factors within sensory pathways can markedly affect the development of form and thus the function of stimulus decoding circuitry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695279/epigenetic-regulation-of-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-towards-spinal-cord-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Tomonori Kameda, Takuya Imamura, Kinichi Nakashima
Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to almost complete neural cell loss at the injured site, causing the irreversible disruption of neuronal circuits. The transplantation of neural stem or precursor cells (NS/PCs) has been regarded as potentially effective for SCI treatment because NS/PCs can compensate for the injured sites by differentiating into neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the proliferation, fate specification and maturation of NS/PCs and their progeny would facilitate the establishment of better therapeutic strategies for regeneration after SCI...
July 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694336/magnified-neural-envelope-coding-predicts-deficits-in-speech-perception-in-noise
#13
Rebecca E Millman, Sven L Mattys, André D Gouws, Garreth Prendergast
Verbal communication in noisy backgrounds is challenging. Understanding speech in background noise that fluctuates in intensity over time is particularly difficult for hearing-impaired listeners with a sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The reduction in fast-acting cochlear compression associated with SNHL exaggerates the perceived fluctuations in intensity in amplitude-modulated sounds. SNHL-induced changes in the coding of amplitude-modulated sounds may have a detrimental effect on the ability of SNHL listeners to understand speech in the presence of modulated background noise...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692962/bilinear-convolutional-neural-networks-for-fine-grained-visual-recognition
#14
Tsung-Yu Lin, Aruni RoyChowdhury, Subhransu Maji
We present a simple and effective architecture for fine-grained recognition called Bilinear Convolutional Neural Networks (B-CNNs). These networks represent an image as a pooled outer product of features derived from two CNNs and capture localized feature interactions in a translationally invariant manner. B-CNNs are related to orderless texture representations built on deep features but can be trained in an end-to-end manner. Our most accurate model obtains 84.1%, 79.4%, 84.5% and 91.3% per-image accuracy on the Caltech-UCSD birds [66], NABirds [63], FGVC aircraft [42], and Stanford cars [33] dataset respectively and runs at 30 frames-per-second on a NVIDIA Titan X GPU...
July 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690114/maintenance-of-miranda-localization-in-drosophila-neuroblasts-involves-interaction-with-the-cognate-mrna
#15
Anne Ramat, Matthew Hannaford, Jens Januschke
How cells position their proteins is a key problem in cell biology. Targeting mRNAs to distinct regions of the cytoplasm contributes to protein localization by providing local control over translation. Here, we reveal that an interdependence of a protein and cognate mRNA maintains asymmetric protein distribution in mitotic Drosophila neural stem cells. We tagged endogenous mRNA or protein products of the gene miranda that is required for fate determination with GFP. We find that the mRNA localizes like the protein it encodes in a basal crescent in mitosis...
July 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686801/exposure-to-complex-environments-results-in-more-sparse-representations-of-space-in-the-hippocampus
#16
David K Bilkey, Kirsten R Cheyne, Michael J Eckert, Xiaodong Lu, Shoaib Chowdhury, Paul F Worley, James E Crandall, Wickliffe C Abraham
The neural circuitry mediating sensory and motor representations is adaptively tuned by an animal's interaction with its environment. Similarly, higher order representations such as spatial memories can be modified by exposure to a complex environment (CE), but in this case the changes in brain circuitry that mediate the effect are less well understood. Here we show that prolonged CE exposure was associated with increased selectivity of CA1 "place cells" to a particular recording arena compared to a social control (SC) group...
July 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686139/neural-mechanisms-underlying-risk-and-ambiguity-attitudes
#17
Neeltje E Blankenstein, Jiska S Peper, Eveline A Crone, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde
Individual differences in attitudes to risk (a taste for risk, known probabilities) and ambiguity (a tolerance for uncertainty, unknown probabilities) differentially influence risky decision-making. However, it is not well understood whether risk and ambiguity are coded differently within individuals. Here, we tested whether individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes were reflected in distinct neural correlates during choice and outcome processing of risky and ambiguous gambles. To these ends, we developed a neuroimaging task in which participants ( N = 50) chose between a sure gain and a gamble, which was either risky or ambiguous, and presented decision outcomes (gains, no gains)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682266/convolutional-sparse-autoencoders-for-image-classification
#18
Wei Luo, Jun Li, Jian Yang, Wei Xu, Jian Zhang
Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) can model local connections between image content and reduce the code redundancy when compared with patch-based sparse coding. However, CSC needs a complicated optimization procedure to infer the codes (i.e., feature maps). In this brief, we proposed a convolutional sparse auto-encoder (CSAE), which leverages the structure of the convolutional AE and incorporates the max-pooling to heuristically sparsify the feature maps for feature learning. Together with competition over feature channels, this simple sparsifying strategy makes the stochastic gradient descent algorithm work efficiently for the CSAE training; thus, no complicated optimization procedure is involved...
June 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680507/bndf-methylation-in-mothers-and-newborns-is-associated-with-maternal-exposure-to-war-trauma
#19
Darlene A Kertes, Samarth S Bhatt, Hayley S Kamin, David A Hughes, Nicole C Rodney, Connie J Mulligan
BACKGROUND: The BDNF gene codes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a growth factor involved in neural development, cell differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. Present in both the brain and periphery, BDNF plays critical roles throughout the body and is essential for placental and fetal development. Rodent studies show that early life stress, including prenatal stress, broadly alters BDNF methylation, with presumed changes in gene expression. No studies have assessed prenatal exposure to maternal traumatic stress and BDNF methylation in humans...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676924/the-p2x7-receptor
#20
Ronald Sluyter
The P2X7 receptor is a trimeric ion channel gated by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate. The receptor is present on an increasing number of different cells types including stem, blood, glial, neural, ocular, bone, dental, exocrine, endothelial, muscle, renal and skin cells. The P2X7 receptor induces various downstream events in a cell-specific manner, including inflammatory molecule release, cell proliferation and death, metabolic events, and phagocytosis. As such this receptor plays important roles in heath and disease...
July 5, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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