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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644763/methyltransferase-g9a-regulates-osteogenesis-via-twist-gene-repression
#1
N Higashihori, B Lehnertz, A Sampaio, T M Underhill, F Rossi, J M Richman
Here we investigate the role of epigenetic factors in controlling the timing of cranial neural crest cell differentiation. The gene coding for histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase G9A was conditionally deleted in neural crest cells with Wnt1-Cre. The majority of homozygous-null animals survived to birth but thereafter failed to thrive. Phenotypic analysis of postnatal animals revealed that the mutants displayed incomplete ossification and 20% shorter jaws as compared to their wild-type littermates. At E13...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642285/state-dependent-tms-reveals-representation-of-affective-body-movements-in-the-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#2
Noemi Mazzoni, Christianne Jacobs, Paola Venuti, Juha Silvanto, Luigi Cattaneo
In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal suclus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641239/automatic-recognition-of-fmri-derived-functional-networks-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#3
Yu Zhao, Qinglin Dong, Shu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Hanbo Chen, Xi Jiang, Lei Guo, Xintao Hu, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu
Current fMRI data modeling techniques such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Coding methods can effectively reconstruct dozens or hundreds of concurrent interacting functional brain networks simultaneously from the whole brain fMRI signals. However, such reconstructed networks have no correspondences across different subjects. Thus, automatic, effective and accurate classification and recognition of these large numbers of fMRI-derived functional brain networks are very important for subsequent steps of functional brain analysis in cognitive and clinical neuroscience applications...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638121/neural-coding-face-values
#4
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634436/dual-coding-theory-explains-biphasic-collective-computation-in-neural-decision-making
#5
Bryan C Daniels, Jessica C Flack, David C Krakauer
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634307/prefrontal-neurons-encode-a-solution-to-the-credit-assignment-problem
#6
Wael F Asaad, Peter M Lauro, János A Perge, Emad N Eskandar
To adapt successfully to our environments, we must use the outcomes of our choices to guide future behavior. Critically, we must be able to correctly assign credit for any particular outcome to the causal features which preceded it. In some cases, the causal features may be immediately evident, whereas in others they may be separated in time or intermingled with irrelevant environmental stimuli, creating a potentially nontrivial credit assignment problem. We examined the neuronal representation of information relevant for credit assignment in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dPFC) of two male rhesus macaques performing a task that elicited key aspects of this problem...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634306/representations-of-time-varying-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#7
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
Electrical stimulation of the auditory periphery organ by cochlear implant (CI) generates highly synchronized inputs to the auditory system. It has long been thought such inputs would lead to highly synchronized neural firing along the ascending auditory pathway. However, neurophysiological studies with hearing animals have shown that the central auditory system progressively converts temporal representations of time-varying sounds to firing rate-based representations. It is not clear whether this coding principle also applies to highly synchronized CI inputs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630880/prominent-lateral-spread-of-imaged-evoked-activity-beyond-cortical-columns-in-barrel-cortex-provides-foundation-for-coding-whisker-identity
#8
Nathan S Jacobs, Ron D Frostig
The posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF) of a rat primary somatosensory cortex exquisitely demonstrates topography and columnar organization, defining features of sensory cortices in the mammalian brain. Optical imaging and neuronal recordings in rat PMBSF demonstrate how evoked cortical activity following single whisker stimulation also rapidly spreads laterally into surrounding cortices, disregarding columnar and modality boundaries. The current study quantifies the spatial prominence of such lateral activity spreads by demonstrating that functional connectivity between laterally spaced cortical locations is actually stronger than between vertically spaced cortical locations...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628647/an-efficient-coding-theory-for-a-dynamic-trajectory-predicts-non-uniform-allocation-of-entorhinal-grid-cells-to-modules
#9
Noga Mosheiff, Haggai Agmon, Avraham Moriel, Yoram Burak
Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex encode the position of an animal in its environment with spatially periodic tuning curves with different periodicities. Recent experiments established that these cells are functionally organized in discrete modules with uniform grid spacing. Here we develop a theory for efficient coding of position, which takes into account the temporal statistics of the animal's motion. The theory predicts a sharp decrease of module population sizes with grid spacing, in agreement with the trend seen in the experimental data...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625487/distinct-feedforward-and-feedback-effects-of-microstimulation-in-visual-cortex-reveal-neural-mechanisms-of-texture-segregation
#10
P Christiaan Klink, Bruno Dagnino, Marie-Alice Gariel-Mathis, Pieter R Roelfsema
The visual cortex is hierarchically organized, with low-level areas coding for simple features and higher areas for complex ones. Feedforward and feedback connections propagate information between areas in opposite directions, but their functional roles are only partially understood. We used electrical microstimulation to perturb the propagation of neuronal activity between areas V1 and V4 in monkeys performing a texture-segregation task. In both areas, microstimulation locally caused a brief phase of excitation, followed by inhibition...
June 9, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625485/motor-cortical-visuomotor-feedback-activity-is-initially-isolated-from-downstream-targets-in-output-null-neural-state-space-dimensions
#11
Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
Neural circuits must transform new inputs into outputs without prematurely affecting downstream circuits while still maintaining other ongoing communication with these targets. We investigated how this isolation is achieved in the motor cortex when macaques received visual feedback signaling a movement perturbation. To overcome limitations in estimating the mapping from cortex to arm movements, we also conducted brain-machine interface (BMI) experiments where we could definitively identify neural firing patterns as output-null or output-potent...
June 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623718/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-reveals-a-dissociation-between-snarc-and-marc-effects-implication-for-the-polarity-correspondence-account
#12
Elisa Di Rosa, Lara Bardi, Carlo Umiltà, Fabio Masina, Margherita Forgione, Daniela Mapelli
The concept of stimulus response compatibility (SRC) refers to the existence of a privileged association between a specific stimulus feature and a specific response feature. Two examples of SRC are the Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) and the Markedness Association of Response Codes (MARC) effects. According to the polarity correspondence principle, these two SRC effects occur because of a match between the most salient dimensions of stimulus and response. Specifically, the SNARC effect would be caused by a match between right-sided responses and large numbers, while a match between right-sided responses and even numbers would give rise to the MARC effect...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623428/quantitative-measurement-of-pard3-copy-number-variations-in-human-neural-tube-defects
#13
Yonghui Gao, Jianhua Wang, Shaofang Shangguan, Yihua Bao, Xiaoli Lu, Jizhen Zou, Yaohua Dai, Junling Liu, Ting Zhang
Although more than 200 genes are known to be related to neural tube defects (NTDs), the exact molecular basis is still unclear. Evaluating the contribution of copy number variation (CNV) might be a priority because CNV involves changes in the copy number of large segments of DNA, leading to phenotypic traits and disease susceptibility. Recent studies have documented that the polarity protein partitioning defective 3 homolog (Pard3) plays an essential role in the process of neural tube closure. The aim of this study was to assess the role of PARD3 CNVs in the etiology of human NTDs...
June 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619657/low-frequency-oscillations-employ-a-general-coding-of-the-spatio-temporal-similarity-of-dynamic-faces
#14
Nicholas Furl, Michael Lohse, Francesca Pizzorni-Ferrarese
Brain networks use neural oscillations as information transfer mechanisms. Although the face perception network in occipitotemporal cortex is well-studied, contributions of oscillations to face representation remain an open question. We tested for links between oscillatory responses that encode facial dimensions and the theoretical proposal that faces are encoded in similarity-based "face spaces". We quantified similarity-based encoding of dynamic faces in magnetoencephalographic sensor-level oscillatory power for identity, expression, physical and perceptual similarity of facial form and motion...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619529/on-the-partnership-between-neural-representations-of-object-categories-and-visual-features-in-the-ventral-visual-pathway
#15
Stefania Bracci, J Brendan Ritchie, Hans Op de Beeck
A dominant view in the cognitive neuroscience of object vision is that regions of the ventral visual pathway exhibit some degree of category selectivity. However, recent findings obtained with multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA) suggest that apparent category selectivity in these regions is dependent on more basic visual features of stimuli. In which case a rethinking of the function and organization of the ventral pathway may be in order. We suggest that addressing this issue of functional specificity requires clear coding hypotheses, about object category and visual features, which make contrasting predictions about neuroimaging results in ventral pathway regions...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617798/robust-transmission-of-rate-coding-in-the-inhibitory-purkinje-cell-to-cerebellar-nuclei-pathway-in-awake-mice
#16
Samira Abbasi, Amber E Hudson, Selva K Maran, Ying Cao, Ataollah Abbasi, Detlef H Heck, Dieter Jaeger
Neural coding through inhibitory projection pathways remains poorly understood. We analyze the transmission properties of the Purkinje cell (PC) to cerebellar nucleus (CN) pathway in a modeling study using a data set recorded in awake mice containing respiratory rate modulation. We find that inhibitory transmission from tonically active PCs can transmit a behavioral rate code with high fidelity. We parameterized the required population code in PC activity and determined that 20% of PC inputs to a full compartmental CN neuron model need to be rate-comodulated for transmission of a rate code...
June 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616858/intensity-dependence-in-high-level-facial-expression-adaptation-aftereffect
#17
Sang Wook Hong, K Lira Yoon
Perception of a facial expression can be altered or biased by a prolonged viewing of other facial expressions, known as the facial expression adaptation aftereffect (FEAA). Recent studies using antiexpressions have demonstrated a monotonic relation between the magnitude of the FEAA and adaptor extremity, suggesting that facial expressions are opponent coded and represented continuously from one expression to its antiexpression. However, it is unclear whether the opponent-coding scheme can account for the FEAA between two facial expressions...
June 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607486/a-retinal-code-for-motion-along-the-gravitational-and-body-axes
#18
Shai Sabbah, John A Gemmer, Ananya Bhatia-Lin, Gabrielle Manoff, Gabriel Castro, Jesse K Siegel, Nathan Jeffery, David M Berson
Self-motion triggers complementary visual and vestibular reflexes supporting image-stabilization and balance. Translation through space produces one global pattern of retinal image motion (optic flow), rotation another. We examined the direction preferences of direction-sensitive ganglion cells (DSGCs) in flattened mouse retinas in vitro. Here we show that for each subtype of DSGC, direction preference varies topographically so as to align with specific translatory optic flow fields, creating a neural ensemble tuned for a specific direction of motion through space...
June 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605383/quadruple-immunostaining-of-the-olfactory-bulb-for-visualization-of-olfactory-sensory-axon-molecular-identity-codes
#19
Naoki Ihara, Yuji Ikegaya, Haruki Takeuchi
The mouse olfactory system is often used to study mechanisms of neural circuit formation because of its simple anatomical structure. An Olfactory Sensory Neuron (OSN) is a bipolar cell with a single dendrite and a single unbranched axon. An OSN expresses only one Olfactory Receptor (OR) gene, OSNs expressing a given type of OR converge their axons to a few sets of invariant glomeruli in the Olfactory Bulb (OB). A remarkable feature of OSN projection is that the expressed ORs play instructive roles in axonal projection...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599113/implementing-a-bayes-filter-in-a-neural-circuit-the-case-of-unknown-stimulus-dynamics
#20
Sacha Sokoloski
In order to interact intelligently with objects in the world, animals must first transform neural population responses into estimates of the dynamic, unknown stimuli that caused them. The Bayesian solution to this problem is known as a Bayes filter, which applies Bayes' rule to combine population responses with the predictions of an internal model. The internal model of the Bayes filter is based on the true stimulus dynamics, and in this note, we present a method for training a theoretical neural circuit to approximately implement a Bayes filter when the stimulus dynamics are unknown...
June 9, 2017: Neural Computation
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