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Milena Vesković, Milica Labudović-Borović, Ivan Zaletel, Jelena Rakočević, Dušan Mladenović, Bojan Jorgačević, Danijela Vučević, Tatjana Radosavljević
The effects of betaine on hepatocytes chromatin architecture changes were examined by using fractal and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis in methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into groups: (1) Control: standard diet; (2) BET: standard diet and betaine supplementation through drinking water (solution 1.5%); (3) MCD group: MCD diet for 6 weeks; (4) MCD+BET: fed with MCD diet + betaine for 6 weeks. Liver tissue was collected for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and determination of fractal dimension and GLCM parameters...
January 19, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Parul Jain, Dipanshu Bansal, Gyaneshwar Sharma, Anupam Bhattacharya, Babita Ingale, Olivier Delaire, Ratnamala Chatterjee
The low temperature magnetic behaviour of the multiferroic quadruple perovskite CaMn7O12 is investigated. The magneto-caloric effect in this material is presented for the first time. Along with the established magnetic transitions, T N1 ~ 90 K and T N2 ~ 45 K, an anomaly at 20 K is observed in our dc magnetization, ac susceptibility and dielectric measurements; below which, an inverse magnetocaloric effect is also observed in our  -ΔS M (T) plots. The neutron scattering measurements show minimal change between 10 K and 30 K in static correlations, but a clear change in energy and linewidth of the magnetic excitations is evident...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Matthias Mulsow, André Melzer
The phase transition of finite Yukawa balls (ordered systems of microspheres in a gaseous plasma environment) with less than 100 particles is studied experimentally by means of configurational entropies. We have developed cylindrical two- and three-particle-correlation functions to measure these entropies for multiple cluster sizes over a wide temperature range. The cluster temperature is finely tuned using a stochastic laser heating setup. It is shown that the correlation functions give a detailed insight into the structural properties of the cluster...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
John D Ramshaw
Patra et al. [Int. J. Bifurcat. Chaos 26, 1650089 (2016)IJBEE40218-127410.1142/S0218127416500899] recently showed that the time-averaged rates of entropy production and phase-space volume contraction are equal for several different molecular dynamics methods used to simulate nonequilibrium steady states in Hamiltonian systems with thermostated temperature gradients. This equality is a plausible statistical analog of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we show that those two rates are identically equal in a wide class of methods in which the thermostat variables z are determined by ordinary differential equations of motion (i...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Sebastian Deffner
If a system is driven at finite rate through a phase transition by varying an intensive parameter, the order parameter shatters into finite domains. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts the typical size of these domains, which are governed only by the rate of driving and the spatial and dynamical critical exponents. We show that also the irreversible entropy production fulfills a universal behavior, which however is determined by an additional critical exponent corresponding to the intensive control parameter...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Alexandre Rosas, Christian Van den Broeck, Katja Lindenberg
We present the stochastic thermodynamic analysis of a time-periodic single-particle pump, including explicit results for flux, thermodynamic force, entropy production, work, heat, and efficiency. These results are valid far from equilibrium. The deviations from the linear (Onsager) regime are discussed.
November 2017: Physical Review. E
M K Hassan, D Alam, Z I Jitu, M M Rahman
We investigate percolation, a probabilistic model for continuous phase transition, on square and weighted planar stochastic lattices. In its thermal counterpart, entropy is minimally low where order parameter (OP) is maximally high and vice versa. In addition, specific heat, OP, and susceptibility exhibit power law when approaching the critical point and the corresponding critical exponents α,β,γ respectably obey the Rushbrooke inequality (RI) α+2β+γ≥2. Their analogs in percolation, however, remain elusive...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
A V Zakharov, P V Maslennikov
The thermally excited vortical flow in a microsized liquid crystal (LC) volume with a free LC-air interface has been investigated theoretically based on the nonlinear extension of the Ericksen-Leslie theory, with accounting the entropy balance equation. Analysis of the numerical results show that due to interaction between the gradients of the director field ∇n[over ̂] and temperature field ∇T, caused by the focused heating, the thermally excited vortical fluid flow is maintained in the vicinity of the heat source...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Mihail Mintchev, Luca Santoni, Paul Sorba
The quantum fluctuations of the entropy production for fermionic systems in the Landauer-Büttiker nonequilibrium steady state are investigated. The probability distribution, governing these fluctuations, is explicitly derived by means of quantum field theory methods and analyzed in the zero frequency limit. It turns out that microscopic processes with positive, vanishing and negative entropy production occur in the system with nonvanishing probability. In spite of this fact, we show that all odd moments (in particular, the mean value of the entropy production) of the above distribution are non-negative...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
David B Saakian
We write a master equation for the distributions related to hidden Markov processes (HMPs) and solve it using a functional equation. Thus the solution of HMPs is mapped exactly to the solution of the functional equation. For a general case the latter can be solved only numerically. We derive an exact expression for the entropy of HMPs. Our expression for the entropy is an alternative to the ones given before by the solution of integral equations. The exact solution is possible because actually the model can be considered as a generalized random walk on a one-dimensional strip...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Kazushi Takagi, Hiroshi Gotoda, Isao T Tokuda, Takaya Miyano
We conduct a numerical study on the dynamic behavior of a buoyancy-induced turbulent fire from the viewpoints of symbolic dynamics, complex networks, and statistical complexity. Here, we consider two classes of entropies: the permutation entropy and network entropy in ε-recurrence networks, both of which evaluate the degree of randomness in the underlying dynamics. These entropies enable us to capture the significant changes in the dynamic behavior of flow velocity fluctuations. The possible presence of two important dynamics, low-dimensional deterministic chaos in the near field dominated by the motion of large-scale vortices and high-dimensional chaos in the far field forming a well-developed turbulent plume, is clearly identified by the multiscale complexity-entropy causality plane...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Somrita Ray, Andre C Barato
Periodic driving is used to operate machines that go from standard macroscopic engines to small nonequilibrium microsized systems. Two classes of such systems are small heat engines driven by periodic temperature variations, and molecular pumps driven by external stimuli. Well-known results that are valid for nonequilibrium steady states of systems driven by fixed thermodynamic forces, instead of an external periodic driving, have been generalized to periodically driven heat engines only recently. These results include a general expression for entropy production in terms of currents and affinities, and symmetry relations for the Onsager coefficients from linear-response theory...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Chuandong Lin, Aiguo Xu, Guangcai Zhang, Kai Hong Luo, Yingjun Li
A discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) is proposed to probe the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in two-component compressible flows. Each species has a flexible specific-heat ratio and is described by one discrete Boltzmann equation (DBE). Independent discrete velocities are adopted for the two DBEs. The collision and force terms in the DBE account for the molecular collision and external force, respectively. Two types of force terms are exploited. In addition to recovering the modified Navier-Stokes equations in the hydrodynamic limit, the DBM has the capability of capturing detailed nonequilibrium effects...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
M A F Dos Santos, E K Lenzi
We use the H theorem to establish the entropy and the entropic additivity law for a system composed of subsystems, with the dynamics governed by the Klein-Kramers equations, by considering relations among the dynamics of these subsystems and their entropies. We start considering the subsystems governed by linear Klein-Kramers equations and verify that the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy is appropriated to this dynamics, leading us to the standard entropic additivity, S_{BG}^{(1∪2)}=S_{BG}^{1}+S_{BG}^{2}, consistent with the fact that the distributions of the subsystem are independent...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Wen Zhang, Peiqing Liu, Hao Guo, Jinjun Wang
The permutation entropy and the statistical complexity are employed to study the boundary-layer transition induced by the surface roughness. The velocity signals measured in the transition process are analyzed with these symbolic quantifiers, as well as the complexity-entropy causality plane, and the chaotic nature of the instability fluctuations is identified. The frequency of the dominant fluctuations has been found according to the time scales corresponding to the extreme values of the symbolic quantifiers...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Na Xu, Kai-Hsin Wu, Shanon J Rubin, Ying-Jer Kao, Anders W Sandvik
We carry out simulated annealing and employ a generalized Kibble-Zurek scaling hypothesis to study the two-dimensional Ising spin glass with normal-distributed couplings. The system has an equilibrium glass transition at temperature T=0. From a scaling analysis when T→0 at different annealing velocities v, we find power-law scaling in the system size for the velocity required in order to relax toward the ground state, v∼L^{-(z+1/ν)}, the Kibble-Zurek ansatz where z is the dynamic critical exponent and ν the previously known correlation-length exponent, ν≈3...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Thomas Oikonomou, G Baris Bagci
Plastino et al. [Plastino et al., Phys. Rev. E 94, 012145 (2016)1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.94.012145] recently stated that the Rényi entropy is not suitable for thermodynamics by using functional calculus, since it leads to anomalous results unlike the Tsallis entropy. We first show that the Tsallis entropy also leads to such anomalous behaviors if one adopts the same functional calculus approach. Second, we note that one of the Lagrange multipliers is set in an ad hoc manner in the functional calculus approach of Plastino et al...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Felipe Barra, Cristóbal Lledó
We study stochastic thermodynamics for a quantum system of interest whose dynamics is described by a completely positive trace-preserving (CPTP) map as a result of its interaction with a thermal bath. We define CPTP maps with equilibrium as CPTP maps with an invariant state such that the entropy production due to the action of the map on the invariant state vanishes. Thermal maps are a subgroup of CPTP maps with equilibrium. In general, for CPTP maps, the thermodynamic quantities, such as the entropy production or work performed on the system, depend on the combined state of the system plus its environment...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
E Jurčišinová, M Jurčišin
We investigate in detail the process of adiabatic cooling in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of the external magnetic field on an approximate lattice with pyrochlore structure. The behavior of the entropy of the model is studied and exact values of the residual entropies of all ground states are found. The temperature variation of the system under adiabatic (de)magnetization is investigated and the central role of the macroscopically degenerated ground states in cooling processes is explicitly demonstrated...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Jannik Ehrich, Andreas Engel
Systems with interacting degrees of freedom play a prominent role in stochastic thermodynamics. Our aim is to use the concept of detached path probabilities and detached entropy production for bipartite Markov processes and elaborate on a series of special cases including measurement-feedback systems, sensors, and hidden Markov models. For these special cases we show that fluctuation theorems involving the detached entropy production recover known results which have been obtained separately before. Additionally, we show that the fluctuation relation for the detached entropy production can be used in model selection for data stemming from a hidden Markov model...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
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