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Yongchuan Tang, Deyun Zhou, Miaoyan Zhuang, Xueyi Fang, Chunhe Xie
As an important tool of information fusion, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is widely applied in handling the uncertain information in fault diagnosis. However, an incorrect result may be obtained if the combined evidence is highly conflicting, which may leads to failure in locating the fault. To deal with the problem, an improved evidential-Induced Ordered Weighted Averaging (IOWA) sensor data fusion approach is proposed in the frame of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. In the new method, the IOWA operator is used to determine the weight of different sensor data source, while determining the parameter of the IOWA, both the distance of evidence and the belief entropy are taken into consideration...
September 18, 2017: Sensors
Yongxin Chen, Tryphon Georgiou, Michele Pavon, Allen Tannenbaum
We consider transportation over a strongly connected, directed graph. The scheduling amounts to selecting transition probabilities for a discrete-time Markov evolution which is designed to be consistent with initial and final marginal constraints on mass transport. We address the situation where initially the mass is concentrated on certain nodes and needs to be transported in a certain time period to another set of nodes, possibly disjoint from the first. The random evolution is selected to be closest to a prior measure on paths in the relative entropy sense-such a construction is known as a Schrödinger bridge between the two given marginals...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Jun Zhao, Ruth Nussinov, Buyong Ma
Alzheimers' disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative diseases without effective therapies. Immunotherapy is a promising approach; but amyloidantibody structural information is limited. Here we simulate the recognition of monomeric, oligomeric, and fibril Aβ by three homologous antibodies (solanezumab, crenezumab, and their chimeric CreneFab). Solanezumab only binds the monomer, while crenezumab and CreneFab can recognize different oligomerization states; however, the structural basis for this observation is not understood...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hong Zheng, Kazuhiko Semba, Yoshiaki Nakao, Shigeyoshi Sakaki
Transmetallation between Pd(Br)(PhA)(PCyp3)2 (Ph = phenyl, Cyp = cyclopentyl) and Cu(CaHMePhB)(NHC) (NHC = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolidin-2-ylidene) is an important elementary step in recently reported catalytic cross-coupling reaction by Pd/Cu cooperative system. DFT study discloses that the transmetallation occurs with inversion of the stereochemistry of the CaHMePhB group. In its transition state, the CaHMePhB group has almost planar structure around the Ca atom. That planar geometry is stabilized by conjugation between the π* orbital of the PhB and the 2p orbital of the Ca...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Marisa G Fonseca, Liana O Anderson, Egidio Arai, Yosio E Shimabukuro, Haron A M Xaud, Maristela R Xaud, Nima Madani, Fabien H Wagner, Luiz E O C Aragão
The strong El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event that occurred in 2015/2016 caused extreme drought in the northern Brazilian Amazon, especially in the state of Roraima, increasing fire occurrence. Here we map the extent of precipitation and fire anomalies and quantify the effects of climatic and anthropogenic drivers on fire occurrence during the 2015/2016 dry season (from December 2015 to March 2016) in the state of Roraima. To achieve these objectives we first estimated the spatial pattern of precipitation anomalies, based on long-term data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), and the fire anomaly, based on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) active fire detections during the referred period...
September 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Mariana Sacrini Ayres Ferraz, Hiago Lucas Cardeal Melo-Silva, Alexandre Hiroaki Kihara
Critical dynamics have been postulated as an ideal regime for neuronal networks in the brain, considering optimal dynamic range and information processing. Herein, we focused on how information entropy encoded in spatiotemporal activity patterns may vary in critical networks. We employed branching process based models to investigate how entropy can be embedded in spatiotemporal patterns. We determined that the information capacity of critical networks may vary depending on the manipulation of microscopic parameters...
2017: PloS One
Jose Antonio Urigüen, Begoña García-Zapirain, Julio Artieda, Jorge Iriarte, Miguel Valencia
Idiopathic epilepsy is characterized by generalized seizures with no apparent cause. One of its main problems is the lack of biomarkers to monitor the evolution of patients. The only tools they can use are limited to inspecting the amount of seizures during previous periods of time and assessing the existence of interictal discharges. As a result, there is a need for improving the tools to assist the diagnosis and follow up of these patients. The goal of the present study is to compare and find a way to differentiate between two groups of patients suffering from idiopathic epilepsy, one group that could be followed-up by means of specific electroencephalographic (EEG) signatures (intercritical activity present), and another one that could not due to the absence of these markers...
2017: PloS One
Nico F A van der Vegt, Divya Nayar
Cosolvents modulate aqueous solubility, hydrophobic interactions, and the stability and function of most proteins in the living cell. Our molecular-level understanding of cosolvent effects is incomplete, not only at the level of complex systems such as proteins, but also at the level of very fundamental interactions that underlie the hydrophobic effect. This Feature Article discusses cosolvent effects on the aqueous solubility of nonpolar solutes, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrophobic self-assembly/collapse of aqueous polymers, recently studied with molecular dynamics simulations...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Masahiro Kinoshita, Tomohiko Hayashi
The association of nonpolar solutes is generally believed to be entropy driven, which has been shown to be true for the contact of small molecules, ellipsoids, and plates. However, it has been reported with surprise that a model cavity-ligand binding is entropy opposed. How can these apparently conflicting behaviors be elucidated? Here, we calculate the potential of mean force between hard-sphere solutes with various diameters in water and its entropic and enthalpic components using a statistical-mechanical theory for molecular liquids...
September 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Bruno Cessac, Pierre Kornprobst, Selim Kraria, Hassan Nasser, Daniela Pamplona, Geoffrey Portelli, Thierry Viéville
The retina encodes visual scenes by trains of action potentials that are sent to the brain via the optic nerve. In this paper, we describe a new free access user-end software allowing to better understand this coding. It is called PRANAS (, standing for Platform for Retinal ANalysis And Simulation. PRANAS targets neuroscientists and modelers by providing a unique set of retina-related tools. PRANAS integrates a retina simulator allowing large scale simulations while keeping a strong biological plausibility and a toolbox for the analysis of spike train population statistics...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Mehdi Eslami-Behroozi, Mohammad Javan, Mohammad Reza Raoufy
The complexity of respiratory dynamics is decreased, in association with disease severity, in patients with asthma. However, the pathophysiological basis of decreased complexity of breathing pattern in asthma is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness induced by repeated bronchoconstriction (using methacholine) on breathing pattern in rats with or without allergen-induced sensitization. Entropy analysis of respiratory variability showed decreased irregularity (less complexity) of respiratory rhythm in this rat model of asthma...
September 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Abolfazl Mehranian, Habib Zaidi, Andrew J Reader
With the advent of time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners, joint maximum-likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) maps has recently regained attention for the estimation of PET attenuation maps from emission data. However, the estimated attenuation and activity maps are scaled by unknown scaling factors. We recently demonstrated that in hybrid PET-MR, the scaling issue of this algorithm can be effectively addressed by imposing MR spatial constraints on the estimation of attenuation maps using a penalized MLAA (P-MLAA(+)) algorithm...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
Wei Diao, Min Tang, Shijia Ding, Xinmin Li, Wenbin Cheng, Fei Mo, Xiaoyu Yan, Hongmin Ma, Yurong Yan
Early detection, diagnosis and treatment of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection is the key to reduce acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality. In our research, an innovative surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing strategy has been developed for highly sensitive detection of HIV-related DNA based on entropy-driven strand displacement reactions (ESDRs) and double-layer DNA tetrahedrons (DDTs). ESDRs as enzyme-free and label-free signal amplification circuit can be specifically triggered by target DNA, leading to the cyclic utilization of target DNA and the formation of plentiful double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) products...
September 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Hu Meng, Hong Li, Yan Zheng, Zhenhua Yang, Yun Jia, Suling Bo
New Symmetric Relative Entropy (NSRE) was applied innovatively to analyze the nucleosome sequences in S. cerevisiae, S. pombe and Drosophila. NSRE distributions could well reflect the characteristic differences of nucleosome sequences among three organisms, and the differences indicate a concerted evolution in the sequence usage of nucleosome. Further analysis about the nucleosomes around TSS shows that the constitutive property of +1/-1 nucleosomes in S. cerevisiae is different from that in S. pombe and Drosophila, which indicates that S...
September 13, 2017: Genomics
Maurizio Porfiri, Manuel Ruiz Marín
Since its introduction nearly two decades ago, transfer entropy has contributed to an improved understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in coupled dynamical systems from raw time series. In the context of animal behavior, transfer entropy might help explain the determinants of leadership in social groups and elucidate escape response to predator attacks. Despite its promise, the potential of transfer entropy in animal behavior is yet to be fully tested, and a number of technical challenges in information theory and statistics remain open...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Lucia Bizovska, Miroslav Janura, Zdenek Svoboda, Martin Cerny, Jana Krohova, Maros Smondrk
A wobble board (WB) is a balance rehabilitation tool that is used in physiotherapy to improve strength and stability. The WB tested in this study includes a sensory module for measuring patients' tilt and rotation during stance. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a balance measurement using a WB. Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The participants stood on the WB to simultaneously record the tilt of the WB and the center of pressure data using a force plate...
September 12, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
Yun Tian, Xiaofei Xu, Jianzhong Wu
We report an efficient computational procedure for rapid and accurate prediction of the self-diffusivity of gas molecules in nanoporous materials by implementing the transitional-state theory for inter-cage hopping at infinite dilution with the string method in conjunction with the excess-entropy scaling for predicting gas diffusion at finite loadings. The theoretical procedure has been calibrated with molecular dynamics simulations for the diffusion coefficients of methane and hydrogen gases in representative nanoporous materials including metal organic frameworks and zeolites...
September 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Cintia Ramos Camargo, Ícaro Putinhon Caruso, Stanley Juan Chavez Gutierrez, Marcelo Andres Fossey, José Maria Barbosa Filho, Marinônio Lopes Cornélio
The green Brazilian bay leaf, a spice much prized in local cuisine (Aniba riparia, Lauraceae), contains chemical compounds presenting benzoyl-derivatives named riparins, which have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anxiolytic properties. However, it is unclear what kind of interaction riparins perform with any molecular target. As a profitable target, human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the principal extracellular proteins, with an exceptional capacity to interact with several molecules, and it also plays a crucial role in the transport, distribution, and metabolism of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands...
September 8, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Piotr Konieczny, Robert Pełka, Dominik Czernia, Robert Podgajny
Conventional (MCE) and rotating (RMCE) magnetocaloric effects have been explored in the two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymer {(tetren)H5)0.8Cu(II)4[W(V)(CN)8]4·7.2H2O}n (WCu-t; tetren = tetraethylenepentamine). The unusual magnetostructural properties were exploited, including the bilayered Prussian Blue like coordination skeleton and the XY easy-plane magnetic anisotropy based on the in-plane correlation between W(V) and Cu(II) spins of (1)/2, underlying the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) topological phase transition to the long-range-ordered state at TC = 33 K...
September 15, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Xucheng Luo, Zhi Li, Ganglin Wang, Xuewen He, Xiaoqin Shen, Quanhong Sun, Li Wang, Renye Yue, Nan Ma
The use of cancer-relevant microRNA molecules as endogenous drug release stimuli is promising for personalized cancer treatment yet remains a great challenge because of their low abundance. Herein, we report a new type of microRNA-catalyzed drug release system based on DNA-programmed gold nanoparticle (GNP)-quantum dot (QD) complex. We show that a trace amount of miRNA-21 molecules could specifically catalyze the disassembly of doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded GNP-QDs complex through entropy driven process, during which the Dox-intercalating sites are destructed for drug release...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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