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Fakir M Amirul Islam, Jahar L Bhowmik, Silvia Z Islam, Andre M N Renzaho, Janet E Hiller
BACKGROUND: To assess factors associated with disability in a rural district of Bangladesh. METHODS: Using a population-based systematic sampling technique, data were collected from 3104 adults aged ≥ 30 years from the Banshgram union of Narail district. Data collected included an interviewer administered questionnaire to report physical disabilities including impairment that prevents engagement with paid work, visual, hearing, and mobility as well as mental disabilities...
2016: PloS One
Lynn W Sun, Ryan D Johnson, Vesper Williams, Phyllis Summerfelt, Alfredo Dubra, David V Weinberg, Kimberly E Stepien, Gerald A Fishman, Joseph Carroll
PURPOSE: Choroideremia is a progressive X-linked recessive dystrophy, characterized by degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choroid, choriocapillaris, and photoreceptors. We examined photoreceptor structure in a series of subjects with choroideremia with particular attention to areas bordering atrophic lesions. METHODS: Twelve males with clinically-diagnosed choroideremia and confirmed hemizygous mutations in the CHM gene were examined. High-resolution images of the retina were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and both confocal and non-confocal split-detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) techniques...
2016: PloS One
Jarlath E Nally, Zbigniew Arent, Darrell O Bayles, Richard L Hornsby, Colm Gilmore, Siobhan Regan, Allan D McDevitt, Jon Yearsley, Séamus Fanning, Barry J McMahon
The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kushol Gupta, Vesa Turkki, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Young Hwang, Grant Eilers, Louis Taylor, Charlene McDanal, Ping Wang, David Temelkoff, Robert T Nolte, Emile Velthuisen, Jerry Jeffrey, Gregory D Van Duyne, Frederic D Bushman
The allosteric inhibitors of integrase (termed ALLINIs) interfere with HIV replication by binding to the viral-encoded integrase (IN) protein. Surprisingly, ALLINIs interfere not with DNA integration but with viral particle assembly late during HIV replication. To investigate the ALLINI inhibitory mechanism, we crystallized full-length HIV-1 IN bound to the ALLINI GSK1264 and determined the structure of the complex at 4.4 Å resolution. The structure shows GSK1264 buried between the IN C-terminal domain (CTD) and the catalytic core domain...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
Duenpen Unjaroen, Marcel Swart, Wesley R Browne
Phenolato moieties impart redox flexibility to metal complexes due their accessible (oxidative) redox chemistry and have been proposed as functional ligand moieties in redox non-innocent ligand based transition metal catalysis. Here, the electro- and spectroelectrochemistry of phenolato based μ-oxo-diiron(III) complexes [(L(1))Fe(μ-O)Fe(L(1))](2+) (1) and [(L(2))Fe(μ-O)Fe(L(2))](2+) (2), where L(1) = 2-(((di(pyridin-2-yl)methyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)phenol and L(2) = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-(((di(pyridin-2-yl)methyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)phenol, is described...
December 9, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Shentang Wang, Xiaohui Gao, Xinxin Hang, Xiaofei Zhu, Haitao Han, Wuping Liao, Wei Chen
To obtain stable and ultrafine Pt nanoclusters, a trigonal prismatic coordination cage with the sulfur atoms on the edges was solvothermally synthesized to confine them. In the structure of {Ni24(TC4A-SO2)6(TDC)12 (H2O)6} (H4TC4A-SO2 = p-tert-butylsulfonylcalix[4]arene; H2TDC = 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid), three Ni4-(TC4A-SO2) SBUs are bridged by three TDC ligands into a triangle and two such triangles are pillared by three pairs of TDC ligands to form a trigonal prism. The cage cavity has 12 sulfur atoms on the surface...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Udi Bonshtein, Moshe Torem
This article presents a modification of the affect bridge technique. The Forward Affect Bridge enables practitioners to create and maintain hope when it is missing. Hope is relevant for diminishing avoidance and being involved with necessary activities. The main idea is to build up a positive atmosphere in the here and now (relying on rapport), to amplify it, and to project it forward. By using clinical vignettes, the authors illustrate these techniques.
January 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Gregor Lang, Benedikt Richard Neugirg, Daniel Kluge, Andreas Fery, Thomas Scheibel
Spider dragline silk shows the highest toughness in comparison to all other known natural or man-made fibers. Despite a broad experimental foundation concerning the macroscopic silk thread properties as well as a thorough simulation-based molecular understanding, the impact of the mesoscale building blocks, namely nano-/submicron-sized filaments, on the mechanical properties of the threads remains the missing link. Here, we illustrate the function of these meso-scaled building blocks using electrospun fibers made of a recombinant spider silk protein and show the impact of β-sheet content and fiber hydration on their mechanical performance...
December 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Madhavan Narayanan, Vijay R Singh, Goutham Kodali, Kimberly Jacoby, Katarina Moravcevic, Robert J Stanley
Reduced anionic flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH-) is the critical cofactor in DNA photolyase (PL) for the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in UV-damaged DNA. The initial step involves photoinduced electron transfer from *FADH- to the CPD. The adenine (Ade) moiety is nearly stacked with the flavin ring, an unusual conformation compared to other FAD-dependent proteins. The role of this proximity has not been unequivocally elucidated. Some studies suggest that Ade is a radical intermediate, but others conclude that Ade modulates the electron transfer rate constant (kET) through superexchange...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Zoi G Lada, Amaia Soto Beobide, Aikaterini Savvidou, Catherine P Raptopoulou, Vassilis Psycharis, George A Voyiatzis, Mark M Turnbull, Spyros P Perlepes
The reactions of copper(ii) carboxylate sources with acetylacetone dioxime (acacdoH2) in Me2CO have been studied and a novel, metal ion-assisted ligand transformation has been discovered. The reaction of [Cu2(diba)4(dibaH)2] and acacdoH2 (1 : 1.5) in Me2CO has provided access to the complex {[Cu2(diba)4(qunx)]}n (1) in low yield (25-30%), where dibaH is 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid and qunx is quinoxaline. The [Cu2(piv)4(pivH)2]/acacdoH2 (1 : 1.5) reaction system in warm Me2CO, where pivH is pivalic acid, gave the analogous complex {[Cu2(piv)4(qunx)]}n (2) in moderate yield (∼50%)...
December 9, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Xinhui Zhou, Qianqian Chen, Baolin Liu, Liang Li, Tao Yang, Wei Huang
Nine coordination polymers (CPs) [Mn(H3L)(H2L)0.5(phen)]n (1), [Ni2L(phen)2(μ2-H2O)]n (2), {[Mn2L(phen)2]·(DMA)(H2O)}n (3), {[Co2L(μ2-H2O)(μ2-DMA)]·DMF}n (4), [CoL0.5(H2O)(phen)]n (5), {[Ni2L(μ2-H2O)(μ2-DMA)]·DMA}n (6), {[Co2L(μ2-H2O)(μ2-DMA)]·DMA}n (7), {[Ni2L(μ2-H2O)(H2O)2(DMF)2]·(H2O)2(DMF)}n (8), and {[Ni4L2(μ2-H2O)4(H2O)2]·(H2O)2(NMP)}n (9) (H4L = 1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',4,4'',5'-tetracarboxylic acid, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamine, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide, NMP = N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and structurally characterized...
December 9, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Katie J Denby, Jeffrey Iwig, Claudine Bisson, Jodie Westwood, Matthew D Rolfe, Svetlana E Sedelnikova, Khadine Higgins, Michael J Maroney, Patrick J Baker, Peter T Chivers, Jeffrey Green
Most organisms are exposed to the genotoxic chemical formaldehyde, either from endogenous or environmental sources. Therefore, biology has evolved systems to perceive and detoxify formaldehyde. The frmRA(B) operon that is present in many bacteria represents one such system. The FrmR protein is a transcriptional repressor that is specifically inactivated in the presence of formaldehyde, permitting expression of the formaldehyde detoxification machinery (FrmA and FrmB, when the latter is present). The X-ray structure of the formaldehyde-treated Escherichia coli FrmR (EcFrmR) protein reveals the formation of methylene bridges that link adjacent Pro2 and Cys35 residues in the EcFrmR tetramer...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gregory A Moyerbrailean, Allison L Richards, Daniel Kurtz, Cynthia A Kalita, Gordon O Davis, Chris T Harvey, Adnan Alazizi, Donovan Watza, Yoram Sorokin, Nancy Hauff, Xiang Zhou, Xiaoquan Wen, Roger Pique-Regi, Francesca Luca
Gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions determine common disease risk factors and biomedically relevant complex traits. However, quantifying how the environment modulates genetic effects on human quantitative phenotypes presents unique challenges. Environmental covariates are complex and difficult to measure and control at the organismal level, as found in GWAS and epidemiological studies. An alternative approach focuses on the cellular environment using in vitro treatments as a proxy for the organismal environment...
December 2016: Genome Research
Andy Sparks, Emily Williams, Amy Robinson, Peter Miller, David J Bentley, Craig Bridge, Lars R Mc Naughton
This study determined variability in time-to-peak pH after consumption of 300 mg kg(-)(1) of sodium bicarbonate. Seventeen participants (mean ± SD: age 21.38 ± 1.5 years; mass 75.8 ± 5.8 kg; height 176.8 ± 7.6 cm) reported to the laboratory where a resting capillary sample was taken. Then, 300 mg kg(-1) of NaHCO3 in 450 ml of flavoured water was ingested. Participants rested for 90 min and repeated blood samples were procured at 10 min intervals for 60 min and then every 5 min until 90 min...
December 9, 2016: Research in Sports Medicine
Zhan-Yong Wang, Ya-Li Ding, Shi-Ning Li, Ying Cheng
The chiral triazole carbene and Ti(OPr-i)4 cocatalyzed reaction between α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and 2-(aroylvinyl)benzaldehydes was systematically studied. A divergence in reaction pathways was observed under different reaction conditions. In benzene solvent and at ambient temperature, the reaction produced 4,5-dihydro-1,4-methanobenzo[c]oxepin-3-ones, the bridged caprolactones, as the major products in moderate yields with excellent enantioselectivity. The same reaction in dichloroethane and at 50 °C, however, gave 2,8-dihydrocyclopenta[a]indenes as the major products in most cases...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Sören Arlt, Jörg Harloff, Axel Schulz, Alrik Stoffers, Alexander Villinger
The reaction of in situ generated E(CN)3 (E = Sb, Bi) with different amounts of [Ph4P]CN and [PPN]CN ([PPN](+) = [Ph3P-N-PPh3](+)) was studied, affording salts bearing the novel ions [E(CN)5](2-), [Bi2(CN)11](5-), and [Bi(CN)6](3-). The valence lone pair of electrons on the central atom of antimony and bismuth(III) compounds can be either sterically active in an unsymmetric fashion (three shorter bonds + x longer bonds) or symmetric (with rather long averaged bonds). In the presence of weakly coordinating cations (e...
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Rong-Jia Wei, Takuya Shiga, Graham N Newton, David Robinson, Sadamu Takeda, Hiroki Oshio
A cage complex, H2O@[Co5Fe4], was found to encapsulate two water molecules during its self-assembly. The complex exhibited remarkable multifunctionality, combining magnetic switching from the thermal electron-transfer-coupled spin transition of the cage host and dipolar reorientational motion of the confined water, as evidenced by permittivity measurements, density functional theory calculations, and solid-state (2)H NMR spectra.
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Mohd Asif Ansari, Abhishek Mandal, Alexa Paretzki, Katharina Beyer, Wolfgang Kaim, Goutam Kumar Lahiri
5,7,12,14-Tetraazapentacene-6,13-quinone (L) reacts with 2 equiv of [Ru(acac)2(CH3CN)2] to form two linkage isomeric bis(chelate) compounds, [{Ru(II)(acac)2}2(μ-L)], blue 1, with 5,6;12,13 coordination and violet 2 with 5,6;13,14 coordination. The linkage isomers could be separated, structurally characterized in crystals as rac diastereomers (ΔΔ/ΛΛ), and studied by voltammetry (CV, DPV), EPR, and UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry (meso-1, rac-2). DFT and TD-DFT calculations support the structural and spectroscopic results and suggest a slight energy preference (ΔE = 263 cm(-1)) for the rac-isomer 1 as compared to 2...
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Chihiro Maeda, Mototsugu Takata, Asami Honsho, Tadashi Ema
The Glaser coupling reaction of ethynyl-substituted carbazole-based isophlorins provided butadiyne-bridged dimers, which were transformed into the thiophene-bridged dimers via the annulation reaction. Oxidation of these isophlorin dimers afforded carbazole-based diporphyrins. Notable electronic interactions in the diporphyrins have been confirmed by means of UV/vis-near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations.
December 2, 2016: Organic Letters
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