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Intestinal alkaline phosphatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034530/gene-expression-and-morphological-changes-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-associated-with-increased-permeability-induced-by-short-term-fasting-in-chickens
#1
S Gilani, G S Howarth, G Nattrass, S M Kitessa, R Barekatain, R E A Forder, C D Tran, R J Hughes
Short-term fasting for 4.5 and 9 hr has been demonstrated to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0, 4.5, 9 and 19.5 hr fasting on intestinal gene expression and villus-crypt architecture of enterocytes in jejunal and ileal samples. On day 38, Ross-308 male birds were fasted according to their group and then euthanised. Two separate intestinal sections (each 2 cm long, jejunum and ileum) were collected. One section was utilised for villus height and crypt depth measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985873/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-deficiency-leads-to-dysbiosis-and-bacterial-translocation-in-the-newborn-intestine
#2
Jason Fawley, Shannon Koehler, Susan Cabrera, Vy Lam, Katherine Fredrich, Martin Hessner, Nita Salzman, David Gourlay
BACKGROUND: Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) has been shown to help maintain intestinal homeostasis. Decreased expression of IAP has been linked with pediatric intestinal diseases associated with bacterial overgrowth and subsequent inflammation. We hypothesize that the absence of IAP leads to dysbiosis, with increased inflammation and permeability of the newborn intestine. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley heterozygote IAP cross-matches were bred. Pups were dam fed ad lib and euthanized at weaning...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951843/effect-of-ethanolic-extract-of-chromolaena-odorata-on-the-kidneys-and-intestines-of-healthy-albino-rats
#3
REVIEW
Stanley Anyanwu, Imeobong J Inyang, Enosakhare A Asemota, Okechi O Obioma, Dorathy C Okpokam, Victoria O Agu
BACKGROUND: The use of plants and plant products for medicinal purposes is an age-long practice in traditional communities and is becoming prominent globally. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata on the kidney and intestine of albino rats. METHODS: Twenty growing albino rats with an average weight of 54 g were used in this study. They were grouped into four groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3, known as the test groups, were given 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 250 mg/kg ethanolic extract of C...
September 2017: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944308/titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-ingestion-alters-nutrient-absorption-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-small-intestine
#4
Zhongyuan Guo, Nicole J Martucci, Fabiola Moreno-Olivas, Elad Tako, Gretchen J Mahler
Ingestion of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles from products such as agricultural chemicals, processed food, and nutritional supplements is nearly unavoidable. The gastrointestinal tract serves as a critical interface between the body and the external environment, and is the site of essential nutrient absorption. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of ingesting the 30 nm TiO2 nanoparticles with an in vitro cell culture model of the small intestinal epithelium, and to determine how acute or chronic exposure to nano-TiO2 influences intestinal barrier function, reactive oxygen species generation, proinflammatory signaling, nutrient absorption (iron, zinc, fatty acids), and brush border membrane enzyme function (intestinal alkaline phosphatase)...
January 2017: NanoImpact
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931466/1-alpha-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-up-regulates-the-expression-of-2-types-of-human-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-alternative-splicing-variants-in-caco-2-cells-and-may-be-an-important-regulator-of-their-expression-in-gut-homeostasis
#5
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Kanae Nakaoka, Masae Goseki-Sone
Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation, and development. The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase the absorption of calcium from the intestine, and the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a differentiation marker for intestinal epithelial cells, is regulated by vitamin D. Intestinal-type ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients...
August 4, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926829/continuous-subcutaneous-recombinant-parathyroid-hormone-1-34-infusion-in-the-management-of-childhood-hypoparathyroidism-associated-with-malabsorption
#6
Vrinda Saraff, Anya Rothenbuhler, Wolfgang Högler, Agnès Linglart
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypoparathyroidism associated with malabsorption can be particularly challenging to manage due to limited and erratic intestinal absorption of calcium and vitamin D analogues, resulting in episodes of hypo- or hypercalcaemia. We evaluated the role of continuous subcutaneous recombinant parathyroid hormone (rhPTH 1-34) infusion (CSPI) in children with hypoparathyroidism associated with intestinal malabsorption resistant to conventional therapy. METHOD: Four patients (8-13 years of age), with symptomatic hypocalcaemia resistant to conventional therapy, were started on CSPI (follow-up 3-8 years) in two paediatric endocrinology units in Europe...
September 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913664/supplementation-of-enzyme-treated-soy-protein-saves-dietary-protein-and-promotes-digestive-and-absorptive-ability-referring-to-tor-signaling-in-juvenile-fish
#7
Weiwei Xiao, Weidan Jiang, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Yongan Zhang, Xiaoqiu Zhou
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme-treated soy protein (ETSP) supplementation in the low-protein diet on growth performance, digestive and absorptive capacities, and related signaling molecules' gene expressions in juvenile Jian carp. The results showed that percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed intake (FI) were decreased by reducing dietary protein from 34 to 32% (P < 0.05). Supplying low-protein diet with optimal ETSP increased previously mentioned indices of juvenile Jian carp (P < 0...
December 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900838/comparative-nutritional-value-of-jatropha-curcas-protein-isolate-and-soy-protein-isolate-in-common-carp
#8
Sunil Nepal, Vikas Kumar, Harinder P S Makkar, Timo Stadtlander, Nicholas Romano, Klaus Becker
Jatropha seed cake (JSC) is an excellent source of protein but does contain some antinutritional factors (ANF) that can act as toxins and thus negatively affect the growth and health status of fish. While this can limit the use of JSC, detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJPI) may be a better option. An 8-week study was performed to evaluate dietary DJPI to common carp Cyprinus carpio. Five iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein of 38%) were formulated that consisted of a C ontrol (fish meal (FM) based protein), J 50 or J 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI), and S 50 or S 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate, SPI) and fed to triplicate groups of 75 carp fingerlings (75; av...
September 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882791/effects-of-organic-acids-and-essential-oils-blend-on-growth-gut-microbiota-immune-response-and-disease-resistance-of-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#9
Wangquan He, Samad Rahimnejad, Ling Wang, Kai Song, Kangle Lu, Chunxiao Zhang
An 8-week feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate supplemental effects of AviPlus(®) (AP), a blend of organic acids [citric acid, 25%; sorbic acid, 16.7%] and essential oils [thymol, 1.7%; vanillin, 1.0%], on growth, gut microbiota, innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A basal experimental diet was formulated and supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 g kg(-1) AP to produce five test diets (Con, AP0.3, AP0.6, AP0.9 and AP1...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858525/kinetic-analysis-of-enzymes-immobilized-in-porous-film-arrays
#10
Hector D Neira, Amy E Herr
Measuring the catalytic activity of immobilized enzymes underpins development of biosensing, bioprocessing, and analytical chemistry tools. To expand the range of approaches available for measuring enzymatic activity, we report on a technique to probe activity of enzymes immobilized in porous materials in the absence of confounding mass transport artifacts. We measured reaction kinetics of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) immobilized in benzophenone-modified polyacrylamide (BPMA-PAAm) gel films housed in an array of fluidically isolated chambers...
September 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857707/comparison-of-clinical-findings-between-dogs-with-suspected-anaphylaxis-and-dogs-with-confirmed-sepsis
#11
Andrea M Walters, Mauria A O'Brien, Laura E Selmic, Maureen A McMichael
OBJECTIVE To compare clinical signs, laboratory test results, and imaging findings between dogs with suspected anaphylaxis and dogs with sepsis. DESIGN Retrospective case-case study. ANIMALS 10 dogs with suspected anaphylaxis and 22 dogs with confirmed sepsis that met the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. PROCEDURES Medical records for dogs in each group were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment; reason for hospital admission; physical examination findings; results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, coagulation testing, cytologic examination, and microbial culture; and imaging reports...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817486/overcoming-clopidogrel-resistance-three-promising-novel-antiplatelet-drugs-developed-in-china
#12
Hong-Guang Xie, Yu-Meng Jia, Ting Tai, Jin-Zi Ji
Clopidogrel is one of the most frequently prescribed drugs worldwide; however, the presence of clopidogrel resistance and high susceptibility to genetic variations and drug interactions are facilitating the development of other antiplatelet drugs. To overcome clopidogrel resistance, several promising clopidogrel analogues have been developed in China, such as vicagrel (and its deuterated analogues), PLD-301, and W1. These novel chemical analogues are all characterized by much faster and more efficient bioconversion to clopidogrel thiolactone (or 2-oxo-clopidogrel, the precursor of clopidogrel active metabolite) in the intestine than clopidogrel through bypassing the first-step P450-mediated oxidation of clopidogrel in the liver...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817240/prenatal-presentation-of-mabry-syndrome-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-and-phenotypic-overlap-with-fryns-syndrome
#13
Kara K Reynolds, Jane Juusola, Gregory M Rice, Philip F Giampietro
We report on a family in which initial features were compatible with Fryns syndrome. The first sibling was a stillborn female with a left diaphragmatic hernia (DH). Her clinical features overlapped with Fryns syndrome. The second pregnancy, a male fetus, was followed for polyhydramnios, hypoplastic mandible, mild enlargement of the fetal bladder, hydronephrosis, and rocker bottom foot deformities. He had facial features similar to his sibling and a large cleft of the secondary palate, small jaw, and secundum atrial septal defect...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812170/a-novel-approach-to-utilize-icariin-as-icariin-derived-ecm-on-small-intestinal-submucosa-scaffold-for-bone-repair
#14
Mei Li, Chi Zhang, Yi Zhong, Jiyuan Zhao
Icariin (Ic) has been demonstrated as a potent osteoinductive compound for bone tissue engineering. However, toxic side effects of the drug and poor biocompatibility of drug delivery systems (DDSs) still limit its application for bone repair in the clinic. To overcome these disadvantages and utilize the osteoinductivity of Ic, we developed a novel method to utilize Ic as an Ic-derived osteoinductive extracellular matrix (ECM) on small intestinal submucosa (SIS) (Ic-ECM-SIS). The generated Ic-ECM-SIS scaffolds, as a natural construct, exhibited much better biocompatibility (including cell adhesion, cell survival and cell proliferation) than Ic-SIS scaffolds generated by traditional DDSs...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811708/involvement-of-crf2-signaling-in-enterocyte-differentiation
#15
Benjamin Ducarouge, Marjolaine Pelissier-Rota, Rebecca Powell, Alain Buisson, Bruno Bonaz, Muriel Jacquier-Sarlin
AIM: To determine the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor (CRF2) in epithelial permeability and enterocyte cell differentiation. METHODS: For this purpose, we used rat Sprague Dawley and various colon carcinoma cell lines (SW620, HCT8R, HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines). Expression of CRF2 protein was analyzed by fluorescent immunolabeling in normal rat colon and then by western blot in dissociated colonic epithelial cells and in the lysates of colon carcinoma cell lines or during the early differentiation of HT-29 cells (ten first days)...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781773/the-relationship-between-dietary-methionine-and-growth-digestion-absorption-and-antioxidant-status-in-intestinal-and-hepatopancreatic-tissues-of-sub-adult-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#16
Pei Wu, Ling Tang, Weidan Jiang, Kai Hu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Shengyao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wuneng Tang, Yongan Zhang, Xiaoqiu Zhou, Lin Feng
BACKGROUND: Methionine is an essential amino acid for fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary methionine on growth performance, digestive and absorptive ability, as well as antioxidant capacity in the intestine and hepatopancreas of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). RESULTS: Dietary methionine deficiency significantly decreased percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, as well as activities of hepatopancreatic glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and muscle glutamate-pyruvate transaminase in sub-adult grass carp (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756743/over-expression-characterization-and-modification-of-highly-active-alkaline-phosphatase-from-a-shewanella-genus-bacterium
#17
Hiroshi Aiba, Yoshiaki Nishiya, Yoshihiro Ojima, Masayuki Azuma
We isolated a Shewanella sp. T3-3 bacterium that yielded highly active alkaline phosphatase (APase). We then cloned the APase gene from Shewanella sp. T3-3 (T3-3AP), and expressed and purified the enzyme from Escherichia coli. Recombinant T3-3AP showed high comparative reactivity on colorimetric (pNPP) and luminescent substrates (PPD and ASP-5). Subsequently, we improved the residual activity after maleimide activation by introducing amino acid substitutions of two Lys residues that were located near the active site...
October 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750357/protective-effects-of-wedelolactone-on-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-murine-colitis-partly-through-inhibiting-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-via-ampk-signaling
#18
Wencheng Wei, Meiling Ding, Kai Zhou, Haifeng Xie, Mian Zhang, Chaofeng Zhang
It has been reported that the ethanol extract of Wedelia chinensis attenuates murine colitis. Wedelolactone (WEL), a coumestane-type compound with many pharmacological activities, was isolated from W. chinensis. The present study aims to investigate the beneficial effects and underlying mechanisms of WEL on ulcerative colitis. In a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse model, oral administration of WEL (50mg/kg) significantly attenuated pathological colonic damage and inhibited inflammatory infiltration, myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase activities through MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways, while activating AMPK in colons treated with DSS...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739053/glucomannan-consumption-elevates-colonic-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-by-up-regulating-the-expression-of-iap-i-which-is-associated-with-increased-production-of-protective-factors-for-gut-epithelial-homeostasis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#19
Yukako Okazaki, Tetsuyuki Katayama
We previously reported that consumption of glucomannan-containing food (lily bulb) modulates gut microbiota and increases gut immunoglobulin A (IgA, index of intestinal immune function), mucins (index of intestinal barrier function), and colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Small intestinal ALP has an established protective effect in inflammatory diseases, whereas little is known about the function of colonic ALP activity. We hypothesized that dietary glucomannan would increase colonic ALP activity and the gene expression in rats fed an HF diet...
July 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706419/intestinal-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-ground-cherry-physalis-angulata-l-standardized-co2-phytopharmaceutical-preparation
#20
Luiz Domingues Almeida Junior, Ana Elisa Valencise Quaglio, Celso Acácio Rodrigues de Almeida Costa, Luiz Claudio Di Stasi
AIM: To investigate the effects of Ground Cherry (Physalis angulata L.) standardized supercritical CO2 extract in trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat intestinal inflammation. METHODS: The animals were divided into groups that received vehicle or P. angulata extract (PACO2) orally at the doses 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg daily by 5 d before TNBS damage. Protective effects of PACO2 were assessed by macroscopic analysis, biochemical determinations of the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione and cytokines (such as INF-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α), gene expression evaluation (including Hsp70, heparanase, NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (Mapk) 1, 3, 6 and 9, and the mucins genes Muc 1, 2, 3 and 4) and histopathological studies using optical, and electronic (transmission and scanning) microscopy...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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