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Intestinal alkaline phosphatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817486/overcoming-clopidogrel-resistance-three-promising-novel-antiplatelet-drugs-developed-in-china
#1
Hong-Guang Xie, Yu-Meng Jia, Ting Tai, Jin-Zi Ji
Clopidogrel is one of the most frequently prescribed drugs worldwide; however, the presence of clopidogrel resistance and high susceptibility to genetic variations and drug interactions are facilitating the development of other antiplatelet drugs. To overcome clopidogrel resistance, several promising clopidogrel analogues have been developed in China, such as vicagrel (and its deuterated analogues), PLD-301, and W1. These novel chemical analogues are all characterized by much faster and more efficient bioconversion to clopidogrel thiolactone (or 2-oxo-clopidogrel, the precursor of clopidogrel active metabolite) in the intestine than clopidogrel through bypassing the first-step P450-mediated oxidation of clopidogrel in the liver...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817240/prenatal-presentation-of-mabry-syndrome-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-and-phenotypic-overlap-with-fryns-syndrome
#2
Kara K Reynolds, Jane Juusola, Gregory M Rice, Philip F Giampietro
We report on a family in which initial features were compatible with Fryns syndrome. The first sibling was a stillborn female with a left diaphragmatic hernia (DH). Her clinical features overlapped with Fryns syndrome. The second pregnancy, a male fetus, was followed for polyhydramnios, hypoplastic mandible, mild enlargement of the fetal bladder, hydronephrosis, and rocker bottom foot deformities. He had facial features similar to his sibling and a large cleft of the secondary palate, small jaw, and secundum atrial septal defect...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812170/a-novel-approach-to-utilize-icariin-as-icariin-derived-ecm-on-small-intestinal-submucosa-scaffold-for-bone-repair
#3
Mei Li, Chi Zhang, Yi Zhong, Jiyuan Zhao
Icariin (Ic) has been demonstrated as a potent osteoinductive compound for bone tissue engineering. However, toxic side effects of the drug and poor biocompatibility of drug delivery systems (DDSs) still limit its application for bone repair in the clinic. To overcome these disadvantages and utilize the osteoinductivity of Ic, we developed a novel method to utilize Ic as an Ic-derived osteoinductive extracellular matrix (ECM) on small intestinal submucosa (SIS) (Ic-ECM-SIS). The generated Ic-ECM-SIS scaffolds, as a natural construct, exhibited much better biocompatibility (including cell adhesion, cell survival and cell proliferation) than Ic-SIS scaffolds generated by traditional DDSs...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811708/involvement-of-crf2-signaling-in-enterocyte-differentiation
#4
Benjamin Ducarouge, Marjolaine Pelissier-Rota, Rebecca Powell, Alain Buisson, Bruno Bonaz, Muriel Jacquier-Sarlin
AIM: To determine the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor (CRF2) in epithelial permeability and enterocyte cell differentiation. METHODS: For this purpose, we used rat Sprague Dawley and various colon carcinoma cell lines (SW620, HCT8R, HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines). Expression of CRF2 protein was analyzed by fluorescent immunolabeling in normal rat colon and then by western blot in dissociated colonic epithelial cells and in the lysates of colon carcinoma cell lines or during the early differentiation of HT-29 cells (ten first days)...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781773/the-relationship-between-dietary-methionine-and-growth-digestion-absorption-and-antioxidant-status-in-intestinal-and-hepatopancreatic-tissues-of-sub-adult-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#5
Pei Wu, Ling Tang, Weidan Jiang, Kai Hu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Shengyao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wuneng Tang, Yongan Zhang, Xiaoqiu Zhou, Lin Feng
BACKGROUND: Methionine is an essential amino acid for fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary methionine on growth performance, digestive and absorptive ability, as well as antioxidant capacity in the intestine and hepatopancreas of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). RESULTS: Dietary methionine deficiency significantly decreased percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, as well as activities of hepatopancreatic glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and muscle glutamate-pyruvate transaminase in sub-adult grass carp (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756743/over-expression-characterization-and-modification-of-highly-active-alkaline-phosphatase-from-a-shewanella-genus-bacterium
#6
Hiroshi Aiba, Yoshiaki Nishiya, Yoshihiro Ojima, Masayuki Azuma
We isolated a Shewanella sp. T3-3 bacterium that yielded highly active alkaline phosphatase (APase). We then cloned the APase gene from Shewanella sp. T3-3 (T3-3AP), and expressed and purified the enzyme from Escherichia coli. Recombinant T3-3AP showed high comparative reactivity on colorimetric (pNPP) and luminescent substrates (PPD and ASP-5). Subsequently, we improved the residual activity after maleimide activation by introducing amino acid substitutions of two Lys residues that were located near the active site...
July 31, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750357/protective-effects-of-wedelolactone-on-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-murine-colitis-partly-through-inhibiting-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-via-ampk-signaling
#7
Wencheng Wei, Meiling Ding, Kai Zhou, Haifeng Xie, Mian Zhang, Chaofeng Zhang
It has been reported that the ethanol extract of Wedelia chinensis attenuates murine colitis. Wedelolactone (WEL), a coumestane-type compound with many pharmacological activities, was isolated from W. chinensis. The present study aims to investigate the beneficial effects and underlying mechanisms of WEL on ulcerative colitis. In a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse model, oral administration of WEL (50mg/kg) significantly attenuated pathological colonic damage and inhibited inflammatory infiltration, myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase activities through MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways, while activating AMPK in colons treated with DSS...
July 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739053/glucomannan-consumption-elevates-colonic-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-by-up-regulating-the-expression-of-iap-i-which-is-associated-with-increased-production-of-protective-factors-for-gut-epithelial-homeostasis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#8
Yukako Okazaki, Tetsuyuki Katayama
We previously reported that consumption of glucomannan-containing food (lily bulb) modulates gut microbiota and increases gut immunoglobulin A (IgA, index of intestinal immune function), mucins (index of intestinal barrier function), and colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Small intestinal ALP has an established protective effect in inflammatory diseases, whereas little is known about the function of colonic ALP activity. We hypothesized that dietary glucomannan would increase colonic ALP activity and the gene expression in rats fed an HF diet...
July 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706419/intestinal-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-ground-cherry-physalis-angulata-l-standardized-co2-phytopharmaceutical-preparation
#9
Luiz Domingues Almeida Junior, Ana Elisa Valencise Quaglio, Celso Acácio Rodrigues de Almeida Costa, Luiz Claudio Di Stasi
AIM: To investigate the effects of Ground Cherry (Physalis angulata L.) standardized supercritical CO2 extract in trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat intestinal inflammation. METHODS: The animals were divided into groups that received vehicle or P. angulata extract (PACO2) orally at the doses 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg daily by 5 d before TNBS damage. Protective effects of PACO2 were assessed by macroscopic analysis, biochemical determinations of the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione and cytokines (such as INF-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α), gene expression evaluation (including Hsp70, heparanase, NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (Mapk) 1, 3, 6 and 9, and the mucins genes Muc 1, 2, 3 and 4) and histopathological studies using optical, and electronic (transmission and scanning) microscopy...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688911/evaluation-of-dietary-hybanthus-enneaspermus-linn-f-muell-as-a-growth-and-haemato-immunological-modulator-in-labeo-rohita
#10
Sib Sankar Giri, Jun Woo Jun, Venkatachalam Sukumaran, Se Chang Park
This study evaluated the effects of Hybanthus enneaspermus aqueous extract (HEE) as a feed supplement on growth, immune responses, haematological, and biochemical parameters of Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing five variable concentrations of HEE (g kg(-1)) (0 [basal diet], 1.0 [H1], 2.0 [H2], 3.0 [H3], and 4.0 [H4]) were fed to fish (average weight: 17.2 ± 0.21 g) for 6 weeks. Growth parameters, immune parameters, and haemato-biochemical parameters were examined 6 weeks post-feeding...
July 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684278/zeta-potential-changing-self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-systems-containing-phosphorylated-polysaccharides
#11
Janine Griesser, Stephanie Burtscher, Saskia Köllner, Isabelle Nardin, Felix Prüfert, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
AIM: The aim of the study was to develop novel zeta potential changing self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) containing phosphorylated polysaccharides. METHODS: Starch and hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) were phosphorylated by utilizing phosphorus pentoxide. The modified starches, starch phosphate (SP) and hydroxypropyl starch phosphate (HPSP), were loaded into SEDDS and investigated regarding particle size, zeta potential, stability and cell viability. The release of immobilized phosphate by intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) was analyzed via malachite green assay...
July 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627188/effect-of-glutamine-on-liver-injuries-induced-by-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#12
Renata Hartmann, Francielli Licks, Elizângela Gonçalves Schemitt, Josieli Raskopf Colares, Juliana Da Silva, Rosa Maria Moura, Gilmara Pandolfo Zabot, Henrique Sarubbi Fillmann, Norma Possa Marroni
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may cause cell and tissue damage, reaching also other organs such as the liver. Because of the involvement of free radicals in I/R injury, treatment options with antioxidants have been studied and tested. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of glutamine (Gln) in the liver of animals with intestinal I/R injury. METHODS: We used 20 male Wistar rats divided into four groups: sham-operated (SO); glutamine + sham-operated (G+SO); intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R); glutamine + intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (G+I/R)...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622357/protective-effect-of-aplysin-on-liver-tissue-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-alcohol-fed-rats
#13
Meilan Xue, Ying Liu, Rui Lyu, Na Ge, Man Liu, Yan Ma, Hui Liang
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the protective effect of aplysin on the liver and its influence on inflammation and the gut microbiota in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an alcohol-containing liquid diet, control liquid diet or treatment with aplysin for 8 weeks. Hepatic and intestinal histopathological analysis was performed, and cytokine levels and the intestinal mucosal barrier were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606239/-effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-on-mrna-expression-of-tight-junction-protein-zo-1-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-after-escherichia-coli-lf82-infection
#14
Li-Jun Hao, Yan Lin, Wei Zhang, Jiao Tian, Ya Wang, Peng-De Chen, Chong-Kang Hu, Ling-Chao Zeng, Jie Yang, Bao-Xi Wang, Xun Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection. METHODS: The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E...
June 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595380/effects-of-stocking-density-on-growth-performance-feather-growth-intestinal-development-and-serum-parameters-of-geese
#15
L Y Yin, Z Y Wang, H M Yang, L Xu, J Zhang, H Xing
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density on the growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese. In total, 336 healthy, 28-day-old, male Yangzhou goslings were randomly allotted to 30 plastic wire-floor pens according to 5 stocking densities (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 birds/m2). The results showed that with the stocking density increased from 2 birds/m2 to 6 birds/m2, the body weights of geese at 42 d (P < 0.001) and 70 d (P < 0.001) were reduced by 10...
June 8, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552875/egg-white-hydrolysate-can-be-a-low-allergenic-food-material-to-suppress-ectopic-fat-accumulation-in-rats-fed-an-equicaloric-diet
#16
Masaru Ochiai, Kohei Misaki, Toshiki Takeuchi, Ryoyo Narumi, Yoshiyuki Azuma, Tatsuhiro Matsuo
Egg white (EW) is known as a nutritional protein but can induce allergic reactions in humans. We investigated the dietary effects of EW and its hydrolysate (EWH), which contains less allergen, on body fat accumulation in Wistar rats fed an equicaloric high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 8 wk (Exp A). The pair-feeding of EW and equicaloric-feeding of EWH increased fecal fat excretion and suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver and muscles but not in the abdominal adipose tissues, carcass, or total body. Dietary EWH also suppressed the serum glucose level and alkaline phosphatase activity...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551866/sequence-and-functional-analysis-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-from-lateolabrax-maculatus
#17
Minglin Wu, Jiaqi Wang, Zhipeng Wang, Jinliang Zhao, Yuting Hu, Xiaowu Chen
Alkaline phosphatases (Alps) belong to a class of phosphate transferases that dephosphorylate lipopolysaccharide (LPS), adenosine triphosphate, and nucleotides. In this study, a 1874-base pair (bp) intestinal alp cDNA sequence was cloned from Lateolabrax maculatus and designated as Lm-alpi. It contained a 1611 bp open reading frame which encoded a protein with 537 amino acids. Protein sequence alignment showed that Lm-AlpI shared 29.8-79.8% identity with its homologs. Lm-AlpI catalytic sites contained three metal ion sites (two Zn(2+) and one Mg(2+)), referring to D73, H184, D348, H349, H352, H464, D389, and H390 residues, which are essential for enzymatic activity and conservation in different organisms...
May 28, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547997/effect-of-purine-nucleosides-on-growth-performance-gut-morphology-digestive-enzymes-serum-profile-and-immune-response-in-broiler-chickens
#18
A Daneshmand, Hassan Kermanshahi, M Danesh Mesgaran, A J King, S A Ibrahim
1. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of purine nucleosides on performance, gut morphology, intestinal enzymes and immunity functions in broiler chickens from 0 to 21 d of age. 2. A total of 360 1-d-old male chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replications. Experimental diets consisted of a control without any additives and diets containing 0.1% pure adenosine, 0.1% pure guanosine and 0.1% equal aliquots of pure adenosine and guanosine. Two birds per cage (12 birds per treatment) were killed on d 11 and 21 in order to obtain serum samples for lipid profile, jejunal samples for morphology and mucosal immunity, digestive enzymes for epithelial maturation, and bursa and spleen samples for relative weight of immune organs to live body weight...
June 12, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503900/effects-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-development-of-digestive-organs-intestinal-function-and-post-hatch-performance-of-broiler-embryos-and-hatchlings
#19
T Gao, M M Zhao, Y J Li, L Zhang, J L Li, L L Yu, F Gao, G H Zhou
This study was to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) L-arginine (Arg) solution on the development of digestive organs, the duodenal mucosa of broiler embryos and hatchlings, and the growth performance of chicks during the first week post-hatch. A total of 720 fertilized eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to three groups, consisting of eight replicates of 30 eggs each. Three treatments were arranged as non-injected control, diluent-injected (0.75% NaCl solution) group and Arg solution-injected group containing 1% Arg, dissolved in diluent...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502983/alkaline-phosphatase-a-novel-treatment-target-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-ckd
#20
REVIEW
Mathias Haarhaus, Vincent Brandenburg, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Peter Stenvinkel, Per Magnusson
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of early death in the settings of chronic kidney disease (CKD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and ageing. Cardiovascular events can be caused by an imbalance between promoters and inhibitors of mineralization, which leads to vascular calcification. This process is akin to skeletal mineralization, which is carefully regulated and in which isozymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have a crucial role. Four genes encode ALP isozymes in humans. Intestinal, placental and germ cell ALPs are tissue-specific, whereas the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of ALP (TNALP) is present in several tissues, including bone, liver and kidney...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
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