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Intestinal alkaline phosphatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234952/increased-calcium-uptake-and-improved-trabecular-bone-properties-in-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-knockout-mice
#1
Lucas R Brun, M Lombarte, S Roma, F Perez, J L Millán, A Rigalli
Previous studies have demonstrated a negative correlation between intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity and calcium (Ca) absorption in the gut, as IAP acts as a protective mechanism inhibiting high Ca entry into enterocytes, preventing Ca overload. Here we evaluated Ca absorption and bone properties in knockout mice (KO) completely devoid of duodenal IAP (Akp3 -/- mice). Female C57BL/6 control mice (WT, n = 7) and KO mice (n = 10) were used to determine Ca absorption in vivo and by in situ isolated duodenal loops followed by histomorphometric analysis of duodenal villi and crypts...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201570/impacts-of-diarrhea-on-the-immune-system-intestinal-environment-and-expression-of-pgrps-in-new-zealand-rabbits
#2
Yang Chen, Bohao Zhao, Yuwei Wu, Shuaishuai Hu, Lin Mu, Cigen Zhu, Yulai Pan, Xinsheng Wu
Diarrhea is a syndrome of digestive disorders in young rabbits and may lead to secondary infections resulting in reduced immunity and higher mortality in baby rabbits, with serious impacts on rabbit farming. In this study, we investigated the effects of diarrhea on the health of baby rabbits in terms of intestinal mucosal development, immune function, and intestinal microbial diversity. We found that the duodenal villus length and the villus/crypt ratio in rabbits with diarrhea were significantly reduced compared with those in healthy rabbits (P < 0...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144270/alkaline-phosphatase-in-infant-cardiopulmonary-bypass-kinetics-and-relationship-to-organ-injury-and-major-cardiovascular-events
#3
Jesse A Davidson, Tracy T Urban, Christine Baird, Suhong Tong, Alan Woodruff, Mark Twite, James Jaggers, Eric A F Simões, Paul Wischmeyer
OBJECTIVES: To determine the kinetics of alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and concentration after infant cardiopulmonary bypass, including isoform-specific changes, and to measure the association between postoperative AP activity and major postoperative cardiovascular events, organ injury/dysfunction, and postoperative support requirements STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of 120 infants ≤120 days of age undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. AP total and isoform-specific activity was assessed at 6 time points (preoperation, rewarming, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours postoperation)...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139124/histochemical-distribution-of-four-types-of-enzymes-and-mucous-cells-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-reared-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#4
Y Z Wang, J F Sun, A J Lv, S L Zhang, Y Y Sung, H Y Shi, X C Hu, S J Chen, K Z Xing
The histochemical distribution of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), non-specific esterase (NSE), peroxidase (POD) and mucous-cell types was evaluated in the gastrointestinal tract of the half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis. The enzymes were detected in the entire stretch of the gastrointestinal tract. ACP activity was found in the supranuclear region of enterocytes and the lamina propria of the intestine, as well as the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the stomach. The staining intensity of ACP in the anterior and posterior intestines was stronger than in the stomach...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134690/faecal-calcium-excretion-does-not-decrease-during-long-term-feeding-of-a-low-calcium-diet-in-adult-dogs
#5
S Schmitt, J Mack, E Kienzle, L G Alexander, P J Morris, A Colyer, B Dobenecker
According to a previous meta-analysis, adult dogs do not notably increase calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract when calcium intake is decreased. This results in a negative calcium balance even with a moderate calcium reduction. In this study we wanted to verify (i) whether a negative calcium balance occurs at a calcium intake equivalent to NRC (2006) (Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats, 2006, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC) minimal requirements, and if so (ii) whether the negative calcium balance will persist for up to 6 months on a low-calcium diet...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127028/effects-of-dietary-panax-notoginseng-extract-on-growth-performance-fish-composition-immune-responses-intestinal-histology-and-immune-related-genes-expression-of-hybrid-grouper-epinephelus-lanceolatus-%C3%A2-%C3%A3-epinephelus-fuscoguttatus-%C3%A2-fed-high-lipid-diets
#6
Zhenzhu Sun, Xiaohong Tan, Huaqun Ye, Cuiyun Zou, Chaoxia Ye, Anli Wang
Growth, plasma biochemical parameters, fish composition, immune parameters, intestinal histology, and expressions of immune-related genes were examined in hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂ × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀) that fed respectively six diets containing Panax notoginseng extract (PNE) at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 10 g kg(-1) after 8 weeks. Results indicated that dietary PNE significantly improved growth, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and protein deposit rate, and significantly increased crude protein and crude lipid levels of whole body and crude protein level of muscle...
November 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121938/effects-of-soybean-meal-fermented-by-l-plantarum-b-subtilis-and-s-cerevisieae-on-growth-immune-function-and-intestinal-morphology-in-weaned-piglets
#7
Jiajia Zhu, Mingxing Gao, Ruili Zhang, Zhuojian Sun, Chunmei Wang, Fenfang Yang, Tingting Huang, Shaoqi Qu, Li Zhao, Yuwen Li, Zhihui Hao
BACKGROUND: The present study compared the effects of soybean meal fermented by three different probiotics organisms with non-fermented soybean meal on growth performance, serum parameters, immune chemistry and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. METHODS: One hundred and forty-four 35-day old crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) piglets were randomly allocated into four different dietary treatments (n = 36 per group) containing 0, 5, 10 and 15% fermented soybean meal...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118977/mycotoxin-binder-improves-growth-rate-in-piglets-associated-with-reduction-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-increase-of-tight-junction-protein-gene-expression-in-gut-mucosa
#8
Linghong Jin, Wei Wang, Jeroen Degroote, Noémie Van Noten, Honglin Yan, Maryam Majdeddin, Mario Van Poucke, Luc Peelman, Anne Goderis, Kurt Van De Mierop, Ronny Mombaerts, Stefaan De Smet, Joris Michiels
Background: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species in the field, commonly found in cereal grains, which negatively affects performances and health of animals. Mycotoxin binders are supposed to reduce the toxicity of mycotoxins. Method: The effect of a mycotoxin binder (containing acid-activated bentonite, clinoptilolite, yeast cell walls and organic acids) on growth performance and gut health was studied. Hundred and twenty weaning piglets were allocated to 4 treatments, with 5 pens of 6 piglets each, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design: control diet; control diet with 1 kg/t binder; control diet with DON; and control diet with DON and 1 kg/t binder...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099090/a-new-proposal-for-the-pathogenic-mechanism-of-non-coeliac-non-allergic-gluten-wheat-sensitivity-piecing-together-the-puzzle-of-recent-scientific-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Valentina Leccioli, Mara Oliveri, Marcello Romeo, Massimiliano Berretta, Paola Rossi
Non-coeliac/non-allergic gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) is a gluten-related disorder, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear. Recently, the involvement of an increased intestinal permeability has been recognized in the onset of this clinical condition. However, mechanisms through which it takes place are still unclear. In this review, we attempt to uncover these mechanisms by providing, for the first time, an integrated vision of recent scientific literature, resulting in a new hypothesis about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in NCG/WS...
November 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098470/lysine-and-methionine-supplementation-ameliorates-high-inclusion-of-soybean-meal-inducing-intestinal-oxidative-injury-and-digestive-and-antioxidant-capacity-decrease-of-yellow-catfish
#10
Jun Jiang, Shangxiao Xu, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Weidan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yan Wang, Ye Zhao, Xiaoqiu Zhou
The yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco with initial average weight 16.6 ± 0.17 g were fed three extruded diets for 56 days. Fish meal (FM) diet was formulated as the normal control with 380 g FM and 200 g soybean meal (SBM) kg(-1) diet. The SBM diet was prepared with 220 g FM and 360 g SBM kg(-1) diet without Lys or Met supplementation. The SBM supplement (SBMS) diet was similar to SBM diet and supplemented with Lys and Met to ensure their levels similar to FM diet. The results showed fish fed SBM diet had lower percent weight gain and specific growth rate than the other two groups (P < 0...
November 2, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034530/gene-expression-and-morphological-changes-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-associated-with-increased-permeability-induced-by-short-term-fasting-in-chickens
#11
S Gilani, G S Howarth, G Nattrass, S M Kitessa, R Barekatain, R E A Forder, C D Tran, R J Hughes
Short-term fasting for 4.5 and 9 hr has been demonstrated to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0, 4.5, 9 and 19.5 hr fasting on intestinal gene expression and villus-crypt architecture of enterocytes in jejunal and ileal samples. On day 38, Ross-308 male birds were fasted according to their group and then euthanised. Two separate intestinal sections (each 2 cm long, jejunum and ileum) were collected. One section was utilised for villus height and crypt depth measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985873/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-deficiency-leads-to-dysbiosis-and-bacterial-translocation-in-the-newborn-intestine
#12
Jason Fawley, Shannon Koehler, Susan Cabrera, Vy Lam, Katherine Fredrich, Martin Hessner, Nita Salzman, David Gourlay
BACKGROUND: Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) has been shown to help maintain intestinal homeostasis. Decreased expression of IAP has been linked with pediatric intestinal diseases associated with bacterial overgrowth and subsequent inflammation. We hypothesize that the absence of IAP leads to dysbiosis, with increased inflammation and permeability of the newborn intestine. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley heterozygote IAP cross-matches were bred. Pups were dam fed ad lib and euthanized at weaning...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951843/effect-of-ethanolic-extract-of-chromolaena-odorata-on-the-kidneys-and-intestines-of-healthy-albino-rats
#13
REVIEW
Stanley Anyanwu, Imeobong J Inyang, Enosakhare A Asemota, Okechi O Obioma, Dorathy C Okpokam, Victoria O Agu
BACKGROUND: The use of plants and plant products for medicinal purposes is an age-long practice in traditional communities and is becoming prominent globally. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata on the kidney and intestine of albino rats. METHODS: Twenty growing albino rats with an average weight of 54 g were used in this study. They were grouped into four groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3, known as the test groups, were given 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 250 mg/kg ethanolic extract of C...
September 2017: Integrative Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944308/titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-ingestion-alters-nutrient-absorption-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-small-intestine
#14
Zhongyuan Guo, Nicole J Martucci, Fabiola Moreno-Olivas, Elad Tako, Gretchen J Mahler
Ingestion of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles from products such as agricultural chemicals, processed food, and nutritional supplements is nearly unavoidable. The gastrointestinal tract serves as a critical interface between the body and the external environment, and is the site of essential nutrient absorption. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of ingesting the 30 nm TiO2 nanoparticles with an in vitro cell culture model of the small intestinal epithelium, and to determine how acute or chronic exposure to nano-TiO2 influences intestinal barrier function, reactive oxygen species generation, proinflammatory signaling, nutrient absorption (iron, zinc, fatty acids), and brush border membrane enzyme function (intestinal alkaline phosphatase)...
January 2017: NanoImpact
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931466/1-alpha-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-up-regulates-the-expression-of-2-types-of-human-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-alternative-splicing-variants-in-caco-2-cells-and-may-be-an-important-regulator-of-their-expression-in-gut-homeostasis
#15
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Kanae Nakaoka, Masae Goseki-Sone
Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation, and development. The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase the absorption of calcium from the intestine, and the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a differentiation marker for intestinal epithelial cells, is regulated by vitamin D. Intestinal-type ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients...
August 4, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926829/continuous-subcutaneous-recombinant-parathyroid-hormone-1-34-infusion-in-the-management-of-childhood-hypoparathyroidism-associated-with-malabsorption
#16
Vrinda Saraff, Anya Rothenbuhler, Wolfgang Högler, Agnès Linglart
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypoparathyroidism associated with malabsorption can be particularly challenging to manage due to limited and erratic intestinal absorption of calcium and vitamin D analogues, resulting in episodes of hypo- or hypercalcaemia. We evaluated the role of continuous subcutaneous recombinant parathyroid hormone (rhPTH 1-34) infusion (CSPI) in children with hypoparathyroidism associated with intestinal malabsorption resistant to conventional therapy. METHOD: Four patients (8-13 years of age), with symptomatic hypocalcaemia resistant to conventional therapy, were started on CSPI (follow-up 3-8 years) in two paediatric endocrinology units in Europe...
September 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913664/supplementation-of-enzyme-treated-soy-protein-saves-dietary-protein-and-promotes-digestive-and-absorptive-ability-referring-to-tor-signaling-in-juvenile-fish
#17
Weiwei Xiao, Weidan Jiang, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Yongan Zhang, Xiaoqiu Zhou
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme-treated soy protein (ETSP) supplementation in the low-protein diet on growth performance, digestive and absorptive capacities, and related signaling molecules' gene expressions in juvenile Jian carp. The results showed that percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed intake (FI) were decreased by reducing dietary protein from 34 to 32% (P < 0.05). Supplying low-protein diet with optimal ETSP increased previously mentioned indices of juvenile Jian carp (P < 0...
December 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900838/comparative-nutritional-value-of-jatropha-curcas-protein-isolate-and-soy-protein-isolate-in-common-carp
#18
Sunil Nepal, Vikas Kumar, Harinder P S Makkar, Timo Stadtlander, Nicholas Romano, Klaus Becker
Jatropha seed cake (JSC) is an excellent source of protein but does contain some antinutritional factors (ANF) that can act as toxins and thus negatively affect the growth and health status of fish. While this can limit the use of JSC, detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJPI) may be a better option. An 8-week study was performed to evaluate dietary DJPI to common carp Cyprinus carpio. Five iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein of 38%) were formulated that consisted of a C ontrol (fish meal (FM) based protein), J 50 or J 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI), and S 50 or S 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate, SPI) and fed to triplicate groups of 75 carp fingerlings (75; av...
September 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882791/effects-of-organic-acids-and-essential-oils-blend-on-growth-gut-microbiota-immune-response-and-disease-resistance-of-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#19
Wangquan He, Samad Rahimnejad, Ling Wang, Kai Song, Kangle Lu, Chunxiao Zhang
An 8-week feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate supplemental effects of AviPlus(®) (AP), a blend of organic acids [citric acid, 25%; sorbic acid, 16.7%] and essential oils [thymol, 1.7%; vanillin, 1.0%], on growth, gut microbiota, innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A basal experimental diet was formulated and supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 g kg(-1) AP to produce five test diets (Con, AP0.3, AP0.6, AP0.9 and AP1...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858525/kinetic-analysis-of-enzymes-immobilized-in-porous-film-arrays
#20
Hector D Neira, Amy E Herr
Measuring the catalytic activity of immobilized enzymes underpins development of biosensing, bioprocessing, and analytical chemistry tools. To expand the range of approaches available for measuring enzymatic activity, we report on a technique to probe activity of enzymes immobilized in porous materials in the absence of confounding mass transport artifacts. We measured reaction kinetics of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) immobilized in benzophenone-modified polyacrylamide (BPMA-PAAm) gel films housed in an array of fluidically isolated chambers...
September 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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