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Intestinal alkaline phosphatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920189/effects-of-maize-naturally-contaminated-with-aflatoxin-b1-on-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-and-digestive-physiology-in-ducks
#1
G D Feng, J He, X Ao, D W Chen
This study was conducted to determine the effects of maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, relative digestive organs weight, digestive enzymes activities, and biochemical index of intestinal development in ducks. A total of 640 ducks was blocked on the basis of sex and body weight, and then allocated randomly to 2 treatments with 20 pens per treatment and 16 ducks per pen. The experiment lasted for 5 wk, and dietary treatments included basal diet (CON) and diets with 100% of normal maize replaced by AFB1 contaminated maize...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907877/synthesis-alkaline-phosphatase-inhibition-studies-and-molecular-docking-of-novel-derivatives-of-4-quinolones
#2
Mariia Miliutina, Syeda Abida Ejaz, Shafi Ullah Khan, Viktor O Iaroshenko, Alexander Villinger, Jamshed Iqbal, Peter Langer
New and convenient methods for the functionalization of the 4-quinolone scaffold at positions C-1, C-3 and C-6 were developed. The 4-quinolone derivatives were evaluated for their inhibitory potential on alkaline phosphatase isozymes. Most of the compounds exhibit excellent inhibitory activity and moderate selectivity. The IC50 values on tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) were in the range of 1.34 ± 0.11 to 44.80 ± 2.34 μM, while the values on intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) were in the range of 1...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904927/effects-of-tin-on-enzyme-activity-in-holothuria-grisea-echinodermata-holothuroidea
#3
Tatiana Miura Pereira, Lívia Pôncio Mattar, Edgar Rocha Pereira, Julia Merçon, Ary Gomes da Silva, Zilma Maria Almeida Cruz
This study evaluated the effect of tin exposure on enzyme activity in the sea cucumber (Holothuria grisea Selenka, 1867). After exposure to 0 (control), 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12 mg L(-1) tin, we tested the activities of total cholinesterase in longitudinal muscles, acid phosphatase in gonads and the respiratory tree, as well as alkaline phosphatase in the intestines during a 96-h bioassay. Regression analyses showed that all enzyme activities declined with increasing tin concentrations, except for acid phosphatase in the respiratory tree, which were similarly, inhibited at all tin concentrations...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865621/menaquinone-4-vitamin-k2-up-regulates-expression-of-human-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-caco-2-cells
#4
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Rieko Tanabe, Kanae Nakaoka, Takayuki Hosoi, Masae Goseki-Sone
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) hydrolyzes several monophosphate esters into inorganic acid and alcohol. In humans, 4 kinds of ALP isozymes have been identified: tissue-nonspecific ALP, intestinal ALP, placental ALP, and germ cell ALP. Intestinal ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients, such as lipids, but the physiological function of intestinal ALP has remained elusive. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the posttranslational carboxylation of glutamate residues into γ-carboxy glutamate...
October 14, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858108/effects-of-ranitidine-antacid-food-and-formulation-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-fostamatinib-results-from-five-phase-i-clinical-studies
#5
Talia Flanagan, Paul Martin, Michael Gillen, David Mathews, Eleanor Lisbon, Martin Kruusmägi
PURPOSE: Fostamatinib is an orally dosed phosphate prodrug that is cleaved by intestinal alkaline phosphatase to the active metabolite R406. Clinical studies were performed to assess the effect of food and ranitidine on exposure, to support in vitro-in vivo relationships (IVIVR) understanding and formulation transitions and to investigate absolute oral bioavailability. METHODS: A series of in vitro dissolution and clinical pharmacokinetic studies were performed to support the design and introduction of a new formulation, understand the impact of changes in in vitro dissolution on in vivo performance for two fostamatinib formulations, to characterize the effects of food and ranitidine on exposure, and determine the absolute oral bioavailability...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833747/microbiota-host-interplay-at-the-gut-epithelial-level-health-and-nutrition
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Paul Lallès
Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813594/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-and-sodium-butyrate-may-be-beneficial-in-attenuating-lps-induced-intestinal-inflammation
#7
A D B Melo, H Silveira, C Bortoluzzi, L J Lara, C A P Garbossa, G Preis, L B Costa, M H Rostagno
In this study, we evaluated the effect of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and sodium butyrate (NaBu) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal inflammation. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase and RelA/p65 (NF-κB) gene expressions in porcine jejunum explants were evaluated following exposure to sodium butyrate (NaBu) and essential oil from Brazilian red pepper (EO), alone or in combination with NaBu, as well as exogenous IAP with or without LPS challenge. Five piglets weighing approximately 20 kg each were sacrificed, and their jejunum were extracted...
October 17, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760303/effects-of-a-human-recombinant-alkaline-phosphatase-on-renal-hemodynamics-oxygenation-and-inflammation-in-two-models-of-acute-kidney-injury
#8
Esther Peters, Bülent Ergin, Asli Kandil, Ebru Gurel-Gurevin, Andrea van Elsas, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Peter Pickkers, Can Ince
Two small clinical trials indicated that administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP) improves renal function in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), for which the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of a newly developed human recombinant AP (recAP) on renal oxygenation and hemodynamics and prevention of kidney damage and inflammation in two in vivo AKI models. To induce AKI, male Wistar rats (n=18) were subjected to renal ischemia (30min) and reperfusion (I/R), or sham-operated...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742300/n-acetylcysteine-use-in-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-minimizing-bowel-injury
#9
S H Lauz Medeiros, A de Oliveira Menezes, L Zogbi, E Frasson de Souza Montero
BACKGROUND: The ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) phenomenon can cause the dysfunction of some transplanted organs and other distant organs. Liver surgery success, including transplantations, may depend on the adverse effects of intestinal mucosa injury arising from temporary porta triad occlusion. The study objective was to examine I/R liver effects on the small intestine in rats after N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703131/effects-of-age-on-intestinal-phosphate-transport-and-biochemical-values-of-broiler-chickens
#10
Jianhui Li, Jianmin Yuan, Zhiqiang Miao, Yuming Guo
The objective of this experiment was to characterize the mRNA expression profile of type IIb sodium-inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) and the biochemical values of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium, inorganic phosphorus, tibial ash and minerals of broiler chickens with aging. A total of 56 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were used. Broiler chickens were weighed and samples were collected weekly from day 1. The result showed that before the growth inflection point, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content in the tibia of broiler chickens increased with growth (before 3 weeks of age), although there were no significant differences in chicks at different ages in the later period of the experiment and weight gain rate was relatively slow at this stage (4 to 6 weeks)...
September 27, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683392/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-challenges-in-identifying-clinically-relevant-biomarkers
#11
Kathleen M Gura, Andrew E Mulberg, Paul D Mitchell, John Yap, Clara Y Kim, Minjun Chen, Alexis Potemkin, Mark Puder
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is complex and diagnosed by concurrent use of parenteral nutrition, clinical presentation, and alterations in hepatic biomarkers exclusive of other causes of liver disease. In comparison with individual measures, composite biomarkers may provide a more effective means for assessing disease progression and response to treatment than single parameters. Since IFALD is considered by some to be a type of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), those diagnostic criteria could potentially be used in this population...
September 28, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678541/study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-safety-tolerability-efficacy-and-quality-of-life-of-a-human-recombinant-alkaline-phosphatase-in-patients-with-sepsis-associated-acute-kidney-injury-stop-aki
#12
Esther Peters, Ravindra L Mehta, Patrick T Murray, Jürgen Hummel, Michael Joannidis, John A Kellum, Jacques Arend, Peter Pickkers
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 55-60% of critically ill patients, and sepsis is the most common underlying cause. No pharmacological treatment options are licensed to treat sepsis-associated AKI (SA-AKI); only supportive renal replacement therapy (RRT) is available. One of the limited number of candidate compounds in clinical development to treat SA-AKI is alkaline phosphatase (AP). The renal protective effect of purified bovine intestinal AP has been demonstrated in critically ill sepsis patients...
September 27, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610134/macro-and-microelemental-composition-and-toxicity-of-unsweetened-natural-cocoa-powder-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#13
Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye, Samuel Frimpong-Manso, Benoit Banga N'guessan, Mahmood Abdulai Seidu, Paul Osei-Prempeh, Daniel Kwaku Boamah
Unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP) is a pulverized high-grade powder of compressed solid blocks which remains after extraction. Little scientific data is available concerning its safety despite the presence of potential toxic elements. Elemental composition in UNCP was analyzed with ED-XRF spectroscopy. Single oral high dose toxicity study was conducted on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (150 g) by the limit test method. One group received water and the test group 2000 mg/kg UNCP. All animals were observed for 14 days and then euthanized for haematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598488/-blood-lead-levels-and-markers-of-renal-dysfunction-among-mechanical-workshop-workers
#14
Walter E Cabrera, Geert Behets, Ludwig Lamberts, Patrick D'Haese
UNLABELLED: The role of lead (Pb) as an environmental cause of nephropathy is difficult to ascertain due to the difficulty to determine clinically its exposure. AIM: To assess lead levels and renal function in a group of males working in mechanical workshops. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood and urine samples were obtained from 100 mechanical workshop workers aged 38 ± 16 years and 95 non-exposed office clerks aged 37 ± 17 years. Blood lead and creatinine levels were determined...
June 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589035/isonicotinohydrazones-as-inhibitors-of-alkaline-phosphatase-and-ecto-5-nucleotidase
#15
Pervaiz Ali Channar, Syed Jawad Ali Shah, Sidra Hassan, Zaib Un Nisa, Joanna Lecka, Jean Sévigny, Jürgen Bajorath, Aamer Saeed, Jamshed Iqbal
A series of isonicotinohydrazides derivatives were synthesized and tested against recombinant human and rat ecto-5'-nucleotidases (h-e5'NT & r-e5'NT) and alkaline phosphatase isozymes including both bovine tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (b-TNAP) and tissue specific calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (c-IAP). These enzymes are implicated in vascular calcifications, hypophosphatasia, solid tumors and cancers, such as colon, lung, breast, pancreas and ovary. All tested compounds were active against both enzymes...
September 2, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574828/role-of-dietary-ginger-zingiber-officinale-in-improving-growth-performances-and-immune-functions-of-labeo-rohita-fingerlings
#16
Venkatachalam Sukumaran, Se Chang Park, Sib Sankar Giri
This study evaluated the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a feeding supplement on the growth, skin mucus immune parameters, and cytokine-related gene expression of Labeo rohita, and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing six different concentrations of dried ginger (0% [basal diet], 0.2% [G2], 0.4% [G4], 0.6% [G6], 0.8% [G8], and 1.0% [G10] were fed to fish (average weight: 12.3 g) for 60 days. Growth parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Skin mucosal immune responses and gene expression were examined 60 days post-feeding...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550930/complex-multi-scale-small-intestinal-topography-replicated-in-cellular-growth-substrates-fabricated-via-chemical-vapor-deposition-of-parylene-c
#17
Abigail N Koppes, Megha Kamath, Courtney A Pfluger, Daniel D Burkey, Mehmet Dokmeci, Lin Wang, Rebecca L Carrier
Native small intestine possesses distinct multi-scale structures (e.g., crypts, villi) not included in traditional 2D intestinal culture models for drug delivery and regenerative medicine. The known impact of structure on cell function motivates exploration of the influence of intestinal topography on the phenotype of cultured epithelial cells, but the irregular, macro- to submicron-scale features of native intestine are challenging to precisely replicate in cellular growth substrates. Herein, we utilized chemical vapor deposition of Parylene C on decellularized porcine small intestine to create polymeric intestinal replicas containing biomimetic irregular, multi-scale structures...
2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545286/role-of-phosphate-groups-on-antiviral-activity-of-casein-phosphopeptide-against-feline-calicivirus-as-a-surrogate-for-norovirus
#18
Ntshepisa Lebetwa, Takakazu Mitani, Soichiro Nakamura, Shigeru Katayama
BACKGROUND: Current research on the gastro-intestinal digestion of milk-casein strongly suggests the existence of novel bioactive peptides having antiviral activities that are attributable to their immunostimulatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of casein peptides rich in phosphate groups, such as casein phosphopeptide (CPP-III). RESULTS: We prepared two types of CPP with different phosphorylation levels to clarify the role of the phosphate group...
August 22, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510428/acid-and-alkaline-phosphatase-localization-in-the-digestive-tract-mucosa-of-the-hemisorubim-platyrhynchos
#19
Claudemir Kuhn Faccioli, Renata Alari Chedid, Ricardo Hideo Mori, Antônio Carlos do Amaral, Irene Bastos Franceschini-Vicentini, Carlos Alberto Vicentini
This cytochemical study investigated the acid and alkaline phosphatase of the digestive tract of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos. Acid phosphatase was detected in the lining epithelium throughout the digestive tract, whereas alkaline phosphatase was only observed in the intestine. In the esophagus, an acid phosphatase reaction occurred in the apical cytoplasm of the epithelial cells and was related to epithelial protection and freeing of superficial cells for sloughing. Similar results were also observed in epithelial cells of gastric epithelium...
August 7, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506276/effects-of-dietary-spirulina-platensis-on-growth-performance-humoral-and-mucosal-immune-responses-and-disease-resistance-in-juvenile-great-sturgeon-huso-huso-linnaeus-1754
#20
Milad Adel, Sakineh Yeganeh, Maryam Dadar, Masahiro Sakai, Mahmoud A O Dawood
Dietary supplementation of Spirulina platensis at different levels (0% control, 2.5%, 5% and 10%) was evaluated to find out the effects on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, humoral and skin innate immune responses and disease resistance in the great sturgeon (Huso huso). After 8 weeks of experimental trial, growth parameters, intestinal lactic acid bacteria count, protease and lipase activities were significantly high in 10% S. platensis fed group (P < 0.05). Similarly, in this group, respiratory burst activity of leucocytes and total protein of serum were also significantly high...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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