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Intestinal alkaline phosphatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677587/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-cadmium-and-temperature-alone-or-combined-on-the-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus-interest-of-digestive-enzymes-as-biomarkers
#1
Younes Mohamed Ismail Hani, Cyril Turies, Olivier Palluel, Laurence Delahaut, Véronique Gaillet, Anne Bado-Nilles, Jean-Marc Porcher, Alain Geffard, Odile Dedourge-Geffard
The development of predictive, sensitive and reliable biomarkers is of crucial importance for aquatic biomonitoring to assess the effects of chemical substances on aquatic organisms, especially when it comes to combined effects with other stressors (e.g. temperature). The first purpose of the present study was to evaluate the single and combined effects of 90 days of exposure to an environmental cadmium concentration (0.5 μg L-1 ) and two water temperatures (16 and 21 °C) on different parameters. These parameters are involved in (i) the antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase activity -SOD- and total glutathione levels -GSH-), (ii) the energy metabolism, i...
April 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670890/correlations-between-microbial-communities-in-stool-and-clinical-indicators-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Lang Lin, Zai-Bo Wen, Dong-Jiao Lin, Jiang-Ting Dong, Jie Jin, Fei Meng
AIM: To analyze the bacterial community structure and distribution of intestinal microflora in people with and without metabolic syndrome and combined these data with clinical indicators to determine relationships between selected bacteria and metabolic diseases. METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from 20 patients with metabolic syndrome and 16 controls at Cangnan People's Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China. DNA was extracted and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified for high throughput sequencing...
April 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668341/silicon-dioxide-nanoparticle-exposure-affects-small-intestine-function-in-an-in-vitro-model
#3
Zhongyuan Guo, Nicole J Martucci, Yizhong Liu, Eusoo Yoo, Elad Tako, Gretchen J Mahler
The use of nanomaterials to enhance properties of food and improve delivery of orally administered drugs has become common, but the potential health effects of these ingested nanomaterials remain unknown. The goal of this study is to characterize the properties of silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) nanoparticles (NP) that are commonly used in food and food packaging, and to investigate the effects of physiologically realistic doses of SiO2 NP on gastrointestinal (GI) health and function. In this work, an in vitro model composed of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX co-cultures, which represent absorptive and goblet cells, was used...
April 18, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664834/alkaline-phosphatase-activity-and-endotoxemia-after-infant-cardiothoracic-surgery
#4
Jesse A Davidson, Tracy T Urban, Suhong Tong, Aline Maddux, Gerald Hill, Benjamin S Frank, John D Watson, James Jaggers, Eric A F Simões, Paul Wischmeyer
OBJECTIVE: Infant cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) increases intestinal permeability leading to endotoxemia. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) reduces endotoxin toxicity in vitro but its effects on endotoxemia in human disease are poorly understood. We assessed the association between serum AP activity and endotoxemia in infants undergoing CPB and determined the effect of ex vivo addition of AP on endotoxemia. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 62 infants ≤120 days of age undergoing CPB...
April 16, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660095/effect-of-dietary-bacillus-coagulans-supplementation-on-growth-performance-and-immune-responses-of-broiler-chickens-challenged-by-salmonella-enteritidis
#5
Wenrui Zhen, Yujing Shao, Xiuyan Gong, Yuanyuan Wu, Yanqiang Geng, Zhong Wang, Yuming Guo
This study was conducted to evaluate the protective efficacy of dietary Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) supplementation in birds receiving Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments with 2 levels of dietary B. coagulans (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 levels of SE challenge (0 or 1 × 109 SE between d 9 to 11). Results showed that SE infection did not affect growth performance, but caused intestinal inflammation and barrier function impairment by reducing intestinal goblet cells and beneficial bacteria numbers, increasing cecal Salmonella colonization and liver Salmonella invasion, downregulating jejunal mucin-2 (at 7 and 17 d post-infection, DPI), TLR2 (at 7 and 17 DPI), TLR4 (at 17 DPI), TNFSF15 (at 7 and 17 DPI) gene mRNA levels, and upregulating jejunal IFN-γ mRNA levels (at 17 DPI) compared to uninfected birds...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614133/digestive-enzymes-and-gut-morphometric-parameters-of-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus-influence-of-body-size-and-temperature
#6
Younes Mohamed Ismail Hani, Adrien Marchand, Cyril Turies, Elodie Kerambrun, Olivier Palluel, Anne Bado-Nilles, Rémy Beaudouin, Jean-Marc Porcher, Alain Geffard, Odile Dedourge-Geffard
Determining digestive enzyme activity is of potential interest to obtain and understand valuable information about fish digestive physiology, since digestion is an elementary process of fish metabolism. We described for the first time (i) three digestive enzymes: amylase, trypsin and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), and (ii) three gut morphometric parameters: relative gut length (RGL), relative gut mass (RGM) and Zihler's index (ZI) in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and we studied the effect of temperature and body size on these parameters...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608420/influence-of-long-term-feeding-antibiotics-on-the-gut-health-of-zebrafish
#7
Li Zhou, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Fang Qiao, Zhen-Yu Du, Meiling Zhang
The use of antibiotics for anti-infection and growth promotion has caused the overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture. However, the benefit or risk of the long-term use of antibiotics on fish growth or health has not been fully addressed. In the present study, zebrafish were fed with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) or oxytetracycline (OTC) at the therapeutic concentrations (100 and 80 mg/kg body weight per day, respectively) for 6 weeks to mimic the long-term use of antibiotics. The digestive enzyme activities were higher in both antibiotic treatments, and higher oxygen consumption rate was found in OTC treated group...
April 2, 2018: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605778/cirrhosis-following-single-anastomosis-duodeno-ileal-switch-a-case-report
#8
Vincent Kirkpatrick, Rena C Moon, Andre F Teixeira, Muhammad A Jawad
INTRODUCTION: Single anastomosis duodeno-ileal switch (SADI-S) involves a single, loop duodeno-ileal anastomosis with omission of the traditional Roux-en-Y distal ileo-ileal anastomosis. Not much has been published on the complications of SADI-S. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The patient is a 40 year-old male who underwent robot-assisted SADI-S three years prior. At the time of surgery, his body mass index (BMI) was 69 kg/m2 . His BMI was 31 kg/m2 at the time of presentation...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580009/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-diabetic-and-anti-hyperlipidemic-effects-of-protein-hydrolysates-from-octopus-vulgaris-in-alloxanic-rats
#9
Rabeb Ben Slama-Ben Salem, Naourez Ktari, Intidhar Bkhairia, Rim Nasri, Leticia Mora, Rim Kallel, Safa Hamdi, Kamel Jamoussi, Tahia Boudaouara, Abdelfettah El-Feki, Fidel Toldrá, Moncef Nasri
This study aims to examine the effects of non-hydrolyzed octopus (Octopus vulgaris) muscle proteins (NHOPs) and their hydrolysates (OPHs) on alloxan induced diabetes in Wistar rats (AIDR). Animals were allocated into seven groups of six rats each: control group (C), diabetic group (D) and diabetic rats treated with acarbose (D + Acar), non-hydrolyzed octopus proteins (D + NHOPs) and octopus proteins hydrolysates (D + OPHs) groups. The diabetic rats presented a significant increase in glycemic status such as α-amylase activity (in plasma, pancreas and intestine), hepatic glycogen, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, as well as a significant decrease in the levels of plasma insulin and total hemoglobin compared to control group...
April 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579096/comparative-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-assessment-of-transdermal-berberine-and-dihydroberberine
#10
Beth Buchanan, Qingfang Meng, Mathieu-Marc Poulin, Jonathan Zuccolo, Chike Godwin Azike, Joseph Gabriele, David Charles Baranowski
The natural alkaloid berberine has been ascribed numerous health benefits including lipid and cholesterol reduction and improved insulin sensitivity in diabetics. However, oral (PO) administration of berberine is hindered by poor bioavailability and increasing dose often elicits gastro-intestinal side effects. To overcome the caveats associated with oral berberine, we developed transdermal (TD) formulations of berberine (BBR) and the berberine precursor dihydroberberine (DHB). These formulations were compared to oral BBR using pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and general safety studies in vivo...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567797/human-alpi-deficiency-causes-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-highlights-a-key-mechanism-of-gut-homeostasis
#11
Marianna Parlato, Fabienne Charbit-Henrion, Jie Pan, Claudio Romano, Rémi Duclaux-Loras, Marie-Helene Le Du, Neil Warner, Paola Francalanci, Julie Bruneau, Marc Bras, Mohammed Zarhrate, Bernadette Bègue, Nicolas Guegan, Sabine Rakotobe, Nathalie Kapel, Paola De Angelis, Anne M Griffiths, Karoline Fiedler, Eileen Crowley, Frank Ruemmele, Aleixo M Muise, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan
Herein, we report the first identification of biallelic-inherited mutations in ALPI as a Mendelian cause of inflammatory bowel disease in two unrelated patients. ALPI encodes for intestinal phosphatase alkaline, a brush border metalloenzyme that hydrolyses phosphate from the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides and thereby drastically reduces Toll-like receptor 4 agonist activity. Prediction tools and structural modelling indicate that all mutations affect critical residues or inter-subunit interactions, and heterologous expression in HEK293T cells demonstrated that all ALPI mutations were loss of function...
March 22, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562339/dietary-chlorogenic-acid-improves-growth-performance-of-weaned-pigs-through-maintaining-antioxidant-capacity-and-intestinal-digestion-and-absorption-function
#12
Jiali Chen, Yan Li, Bing Yu, Daiwen Chen, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Junqiu Luo, Jun He
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural phenolic acid, which is an important component of biologically active dietary phenols isolated from various species. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CGA on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, nutrient digestibility, diarrhea incidence, intestinal digestion and absorption function, and the expression levels of intestinal digestion and absorption-related genes in weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 200 weaned pigs were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg CGA, respectively, in a 14-d trial...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557438/bioactive-peptide-isolated-from-casein-phosphopeptides-promotes-calcium-uptake-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Guo Liu, Shengwei Sun, Baoyan Guo, Benchun Miao, Zhen Luo, Zumeng Xia, Danyang Ying, Fei Liu, Bin Guo, Jian Tang, Yong Cao, Jianyin Miao
Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) have been demonstrated to be calcium chelators. Unfortunately, few studies have been reported on the effects of CPPs on the mechanism of the uptake and absorption of Ca2+ and bone metabolism. In this study, a monomeric peptide fraction isolated by RP-HPLC (F6-1) that possessed high calcium transport capacity in Caco-2 cell monolayers was separated and characterized. The effects of F6-1 on the absorption mechanisms of Ca2+ in a Caco-2 monolayer model and bone metabolism in rats were investigated...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541817/the-effects-of-sub-lethal-dietary-mercury-on-growth-performance-bioaccumulation-and-activities-of-antioxidant-enzymes-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#14
Zequn Li, Tongjun Ren, Yuzhe Han, Zhiqiang Jiang, Yanan Hu, Zhuoan Bai, Lianshun Wang, Jingyun Ding
Triplicate groups of sea cucumbers (4.83 ± 0.15 g) were exposed to one of the four nominal concentrations of dietary mercury [0 (control), 67.6, 338, and 676 mg/kg dry weight, and actually total mercury were 17.55, 87.00, 275.50, 468.50 mg/kg, respectively; Table 3] for 21 days. Mercury accumulation in the intestine showed the greatest mercury burden (77.96 ± 1.20 mg Hg/kg tissue wet weight basis). However, survival rate (SR) was not affected. Body weight gain after the 676 mg Hg/kg treatment was significantly lower than the control group...
March 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540534/morpho-functional-properties-of-a-differentiated-caco2-ht-29-co-culture-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-human-intestinal-epithelium
#15
Anita Ferraretto, Michela Bottani, Paola De Luca, Laura Cornaghi, Francesca Arnaboldi, Margherita Maggioni, Amelia Fiorilli, Elena Donetti
An intestinal 70/30 Caco2/HT-29 co-culture was set up starting from the parental populations of differentiated cells to mimic the human intestinal epithelium. Co-culture was harvested at confluence 0 (T0) and at 3, 6, 10 and 14 days of post-confluence after plating (T3, T6, T10 and T14, respectively) for morphological and functional analysis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed different features from T0 to T14: microvilli and a complete junctional apparatus from T6, mucus granules from T3, as also confirmed by PAS/Alcian Blue staining...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504398/biomimetic-virus-like-and-charge-reversible-nanoparticles-to-sequentially-overcome-mucus-and-epithelial-barriers-for-oral-insulin-delivery
#16
Jiawei Wu, Yaxian Zheng, Min Liu, Wei Shan, Zhirong Zhang, Yuan Huang
Nanoparticles (NPs) for oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs are largely limited due to the co-existence of intestinal mucus and epithelial barriers. Sequentially overcoming these two barriers is intractable to realize in single nanovehicle because it needs different or even contradictory surface properties of NPs. To solve this dilemma, a biomimetic mucus penetrating virus-inspired NPs meanwhile with charge reversal ability (P-R8-Pho NPs) were developed by densely coating PLGA NPs with cationic octa-arginine (R8) peptide and specific anionic phosphoserine (Pho)...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494892/evaluating-the-probiotic-potential-and-technological-characteristics-of-yeasts-implicated-in-cv-kalamata-natural-black-olive-fermentation
#17
Stamatoula Bonatsou, Marina Karamouza, Georgia Zoumpopoulou, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Dimitris Kletsas, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Effie Tsakalidou, George-John E Nychas, Efstathios Ζ Panagou
In the present study, 49 yeast strains previously isolated from cv. Kalamata table olive fermentation were assessed for their probiotic potential and technological characteristics. The probiotic assays included the in vitro survival in simulated gastric and pancreatic digestions, surface adhesion to the intestinal cell line Caco-2, hydrophobicity, autoaggregation and haemolytic activity. The technological features of the strains were also elucidated in terms of enzymatic activity and susceptibility to diverse salt levels (0-250 g/L) and pH values (3...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493670/zno-nanoparticles-affect-intestinal-function-in-an-in-vitro-model
#18
Fabiola Moreno-Olivas, Elad Tako, Gretchen J Mahler
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) may be present in food packaging, which would put consumers at risk of NP ingestion. There is little information on the amount of ZnO NP that are present in food packaging and the effects of ZnO exposure on intestinal function. To estimate physiologically relevant ZnO exposures, foods that are naturally low in zinc (Zn), but are commonly packaged with ZnO NP, such as tuna, corn, and asparagus, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It was found that the Zn present in a serving of these foods is approximately one hundred times higher than the recommended dietary allowance...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493020/effects-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-on-the-egg-quality-immune-response-zinc-retention-and-blood-parameters-of-laying-hens-in-the-late-phase-of-production
#19
M Abedini, F Shariatmadari, M A Karimi Torshizi, H Ahmadi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on the performance, egg quality, Zn retention, immunity responses, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), egg malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and serum parameters in laying hens in the late phase of production. A total of 288 laying hens at 64 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replicates, and 12 birds within each group. Experimental diets included a corn-soybean meal-based diet (without Zn supplementation) and a basal diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg of Zn-oxide, ZnO-NPs, and Zn-methionine...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446750/copaiba-oil-decreases-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-but-not-colon-damage-in-rats-with-tnbs-induced-colitis
#20
Maiara Morseli Coelho Barbosa, Fernando Augusto Vicentini, Cristiane Vizioli Castro-Ghizoni, Osmar Alves Lameira, Anacharis Babeto Sa-Nakanishi, Livia Bracht, Rosane Marina Peralta, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Adelar Bracht, Jurandir Fernando Comar
BACKGROUND: TNBS-induced colitis is an experimental immunopathology in rats that shares many features with human inflammatory bowel diseases. Copaiba oleoresin is extracted from plants of the genus Copaifera and is shown to reduce inflammation. OBJECTIVE: to investigate the action of copaiba oil (C. reticulata Ducke) on inflammation and oxidative status in the distal colon of colitic rats. METHODS: Acute and subchronic colitis were induced in Wistar rats by an intracolonic enema with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)...
February 14, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
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