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Intestinal alkaline phosphatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089895/effects-of-fulvic-acid-on-growth-performance-and-intestinal-health-of-juvenile-loach-paramisgurnus-dabryanus-sauvage
#1
Yang Gao, Jie He, Zhuliu He, Zhiwei Li, Bo Zhao, Yi Mu, Jeong-Yeol Lee, Zhangjie Chu
A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary fulvic acid supplements on intestinal digestive activity (enzymatic analysis), antioxidant activity, immune enzyme activity and microflora composition of juvenile loach (initial weight of 6.2 ± 0.1 g) reared in experimental aquaria. Five test diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2% fulvic acid were randomly assigned to three aquaria, respectively. Elevated growth performance including final weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in loaches that were fed fulvic acid...
January 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039309/tissue-nonspecific-alkaline-phosphatase-expression-is-needed-for-the-full-stimulation-of-t-cells-and-t-cell-dependent-colitis
#2
Cristina Hernández-Chirlaque, Reyes Gámez-Belmonte, Borja Ocón, Patricia Martínez-Moya, Stefan Wirtz, Fermín Sánchez de Medina, Olga Martínez-Augustin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Two alkaline phosphatase isoforms, intestinal (IAP) and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), are coexpressed in mouse colon, with the latter predominating in colitis. We aimed to examine the role of TNAP in T lymphocytes using heterozygous TNAP(+/-) mice (as TNAP(-/-) mice are nonviable). METHODS: In vitro primary cultures and in vivo T cell models using TNAP(+/-) mice were used. RESULTS: Stimulated splenocytes (lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A) and T lymphocytes (concanavalin A and a-CD3/a-CD28) showed a decreased cytokine production and expression when compared with WT cells...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002514/lectin-purification-from-carp-roe-cyprinus-carpio-l-investigation-of-its-carbohydrate-specificity-and-application-in-histochemistry
#3
Rostyslav Antonyuk, Alexander Lutsyk, Volodymyr Antonyuk
A method of lectin purification from carp roe (CCRA) was elaborated, which includes affinity chromatography on cross-linked ovomucoid and copolymers of polyvinyl alcohol and blood group-specific substances. That allowed obtaining lectin with electrophoretic purity and yielding of ˜ 42 mg÷kg roe. Electrophoresis in 15% polyacrylamide gel in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol showed one band with molecular mass ˜ 15 kDa, whereas in the absence of β-mercaptoethanol, CCRA exposed band with molecular mass ˜ 60 kDa...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997218/inhibition-of-the-gut-enzyme-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-may-explain-how-aspartame-promotes-glucose-intolerance-and-obesity-in-mice
#4
Sarah S Gul, A Rebecca L Hamilton, Alexander R Munoz, Tanit Phupitakphol, Wei Liu, Sanjiv K Hyoju, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Sara Morrison, Dong Hu, Weifeng Zhang, Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi, Haizhong Huo, Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Richard A Hodin
Diet soda consumption has not been associated with tangible weight loss. Aspartame (ASP) commonly substitutes sugar and one of its breakdown products is phenylalanine (PHE), a known inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a gut enzyme shown to prevent metabolic syndrome in mice. We hypothesized that ASP consumption might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome based on PHE's inhibition of endogenous IAP. The design of the study was such that for the in vitro model, IAP was added to diet and regular soda, and IAP activity was measured...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993220/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-decreases-intraperitoneal-adhesion-formation
#5
Sanjiv K Hyoju, Sara Morrison, Sarah Gul, Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi, Mohamed Mussa, Mehran Najibi, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Richard A Hodin
BACKGROUND: Damage to the peritoneum initiates an inflammatory response leading to the formation of adhesions, which subsequently cause significant morbidity in some patients. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is a gut enzyme capable of detoxifying various inflammatory mediators such as lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, CpG DNA, and adenosine triphosphate. In this study, we aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of IAP on postoperative adhesions in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a midline laparotomy and then six musculoperitoneal buttons (MPBs) were created by pinching and ligating the peritoneum and underlying muscle...
February 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942900/developmental-changes-in-digestive-enzyme-activity-in-american-shad-alosa-sapidissima-during-early-ontogeny
#6
Xiao-Qiang Gao, Zhi-Feng Liu, Chang-Tao Guan, Bin Huang, Ji-Lin Lei, Juan Li, Zheng-Long Guo, Yao-Hui Wang, Lei Hong
In order to assess the digestive physiological capacity of the American shad Alosa sapidissima and to establish feeding protocols that match larval nutritional requirements, we investigated the ontogenesis of digestive enzymes (trypsin, amylase, lipase, pepsin, alkaline phosphatase, and leucine aminopeptidase) in larvae, from hatching to 45 days after hatching (DAH). We found that all of the target enzymes were present at hatching, except pepsin, which indicated an initial ability to digest nutrients and precocious digestive system development...
December 9, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939968/goblet-cells-and-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-expression-iap-during-the-development-of-the-rat-small-intestine
#7
José Rosa Gomes, Laís Costa Ayub, Camila Audrey Dos Reis, Miriam Joice Machado, Jéssica da Silva, Nádia Fayez Omar, Maria Albertina de Miranda Soares
This study aimed to evaluate the temporal and spacial distribution of the mucins produced by goblet cells and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) expression during the development of the small intestine of the rat. Intestines were removed from rats on the 15th, 17th and 18th days of intratuterine life (i.u.) and on the 3rd, 10th, 17th and 25th days after birth (a.b.). Intestines were processed for routine histological procedures and sections were submitted to histochemistry using PAS to stain neutral glycoproteins and Alcian blue for acidic glycoproteins, as well as immunohistochemistry to detect IAP...
January 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927266/enzymatically-modified-starch-up-regulates-expression-of-incretins-and-sodium-coupled-monocarboxylate-transporter-in-jejunum-of-growing-pigs
#8
B U Metzler-Zebeli, R Ertl, D Grüll, T Molnar, Q Zebeli
Dietary effects on the host are mediated via modulation of the intestinal mucosal responses. The present study investigated the effect of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) product on the mucosal expression of genes related to starch digestion, sugar and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption and incretins in the jejunum and cecum in growing pigs. Moreover, the impact of the EMS on hepatic expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and postprandial serum metabolites were assessed. Barrows (n=12/diet; initial BW 29 kg) were individually fed three times daily with free access to a diet containing either EMS or waxy corn starch as control (CON) for 10 days...
December 8, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920189/effects-of-maize-naturally-contaminated-with-aflatoxin-b1-on-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-and-digestive-physiology-in-ducks
#9
G D Feng, J He, X Ao, D W Chen
This study was conducted to determine the effects of maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, relative digestive organs weight, digestive enzymes activities, and biochemical index of intestinal development in ducks. A total of 640 ducks was blocked on the basis of sex and body weight, and then allocated randomly to 2 treatments with 20 pens per treatment and 16 ducks per pen. The experiment lasted for 5 wk, and dietary treatments included basal diet (CON) and diets with 100% of normal maize replaced by AFB1 contaminated maize...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907877/synthesis-alkaline-phosphatase-inhibition-studies-and-molecular-docking-of-novel-derivatives-of-4-quinolones
#10
Mariia Miliutina, Syeda Abida Ejaz, Shafi Ullah Khan, Viktor O Iaroshenko, Alexander Villinger, Jamshed Iqbal, Peter Langer
New and convenient methods for the functionalization of the 4-quinolone scaffold at positions C-1, C-3 and C-6 were developed. The 4-quinolone derivatives were evaluated for their inhibitory potential on alkaline phosphatase isozymes. Most of the compounds exhibit excellent inhibitory activity and moderate selectivity. The IC50 values on tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) were in the range of 1.34 ± 0.11 to 44.80 ± 2.34 μM, while the values on intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) were in the range of 1...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904927/effects-of-tin-on-enzyme-activity-in-holothuria-grisea-echinodermata-holothuroidea
#11
Tatiana Miura Pereira, Lívia Pôncio Mattar, Edgar Rocha Pereira, Julia Merçon, Ary Gomes da Silva, Zilma Maria Almeida Cruz
This study evaluated the effect of tin exposure on enzyme activity in the sea cucumber (Holothuria grisea Selenka, 1867). After exposure to 0 (control), 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12 mg L(-1) tin, we tested the activities of total cholinesterase in longitudinal muscles, acid phosphatase in gonads and the respiratory tree, as well as alkaline phosphatase in the intestines during a 96-h bioassay. Regression analyses showed that all enzyme activities declined with increasing tin concentrations, except for acid phosphatase in the respiratory tree, which were similarly, inhibited at all tin concentrations...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865621/menaquinone-4-vitamin-k2-up-regulates-expression-of-human-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-caco-2-cells
#12
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Rieko Tanabe, Kanae Nakaoka, Takayuki Hosoi, Masae Goseki-Sone
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) hydrolyzes several monophosphate esters into inorganic acid and alcohol. In humans, 4 kinds of ALP isozymes have been identified: tissue-nonspecific ALP, intestinal ALP, placental ALP, and germ cell ALP. Intestinal ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients, such as lipids, but the physiological function of intestinal ALP has remained elusive. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the posttranslational carboxylation of glutamate residues into γ-carboxy glutamate...
November 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858108/effects-of-ranitidine-antacid-food-and-formulation-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-fostamatinib-results-from-five-phase-i-clinical-studies
#13
Talia Flanagan, Paul Martin, Michael Gillen, David Mathews, Eleanor Lisbon, Martin Kruusmägi
PURPOSE: Fostamatinib is an orally dosed phosphate prodrug that is cleaved by intestinal alkaline phosphatase to the active metabolite R406. Clinical studies were performed to assess the effect of food and ranitidine on exposure, to support in vitro-in vivo relationships (IVIVR) understanding and formulation transitions and to investigate absolute oral bioavailability. METHODS: A series of in vitro dissolution and clinical pharmacokinetic studies were performed to support the design and introduction of a new formulation, understand the impact of changes in in vitro dissolution on in vivo performance for two fostamatinib formulations, to characterize the effects of food and ranitidine on exposure, and determine the absolute oral bioavailability...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833747/microbiota-host-interplay-at-the-gut-epithelial-level-health-and-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Paul Lallès
Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813594/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-and-sodium-butyrate-may-be-beneficial-in-attenuating-lps-induced-intestinal-inflammation
#15
A D B Melo, H Silveira, C Bortoluzzi, L J Lara, C A P Garbossa, G Preis, L B Costa, M H Rostagno
In this study, we evaluated the effect of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and sodium butyrate (NaBu) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal inflammation. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase and RelA/p65 (NF-κB) gene expressions in porcine jejunum explants were evaluated following exposure to sodium butyrate (NaBu) and essential oil from Brazilian red pepper (EO), alone or in combination with NaBu, as well as exogenous IAP with or without LPS challenge. Five piglets weighing approximately 20 kg each were sacrificed, and their jejunum were extracted...
October 17, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760303/effects-of-a-human-recombinant-alkaline-phosphatase-on-renal-hemodynamics-oxygenation-and-inflammation-in-two-models-of-acute-kidney-injury
#16
Esther Peters, Bülent Ergin, Asli Kandil, Ebru Gurel-Gurevin, Andrea van Elsas, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Peter Pickkers, Can Ince
Two small clinical trials indicated that administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP) improves renal function in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), for which the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of a newly developed human recombinant AP (recAP) on renal oxygenation and hemodynamics and prevention of kidney damage and inflammation in two in vivo AKI models. To induce AKI, male Wistar rats (n=18) were subjected to renal ischemia (30min) and reperfusion (I/R), or sham-operated...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742300/n-acetylcysteine-use-in-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-minimizing-bowel-injury
#17
S H Lauz Medeiros, A de Oliveira Menezes, L Zogbi, E Frasson de Souza Montero
BACKGROUND: The ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) phenomenon can cause the dysfunction of some transplanted organs and other distant organs. Liver surgery success, including transplantations, may depend on the adverse effects of intestinal mucosa injury arising from temporary porta triad occlusion. The study objective was to examine I/R liver effects on the small intestine in rats after N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703131/effects-of-age-on-intestinal-phosphate-transport-and-biochemical-values-of-broiler-chickens
#18
Jianhui Li, Jianmin Yuan, Zhiqiang Miao, Yuming Guo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this experiment was to characterize the mRNA expression profile of type IIb sodium-inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) and the biochemical values of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium, inorganic phosphorus, tibial ash and minerals of broiler chickens with aging. METHODS: A total of 56 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were used. Broiler chickens were weighed and samples were collected weekly from day 1. RESULTS: The result showed that before the growth inflection point, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content in the tibia of broiler chickens increased with growth (before 3 weeks of age), although there were no significant differences in chicks at different ages in the later period of the experiment and weight gain rate was relatively slow at this stage (4 to 6 weeks)...
February 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683392/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-challenges-in-identifying-clinically-relevant-biomarkers
#19
Kathleen M Gura, Andrew E Mulberg, Paul D Mitchell, John Yap, Clara Y Kim, Minjun Chen, Alexis Potemkin, Mark Puder
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is complex and diagnosed by concurrent use of parenteral nutrition, clinical presentation, and alterations in hepatic biomarkers exclusive of other causes of liver disease. In comparison with individual measures, composite biomarkers may provide a more effective means for assessing disease progression and response to treatment than single parameters. Since IFALD is considered by some to be a type of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), those diagnostic criteria could potentially be used in this population...
September 28, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678541/study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-safety-tolerability-efficacy-and-quality-of-life-of-a-human-recombinant-alkaline-phosphatase-in-patients-with-sepsis-associated-acute-kidney-injury-stop-aki
#20
Esther Peters, Ravindra L Mehta, Patrick T Murray, Jürgen Hummel, Michael Joannidis, John A Kellum, Jacques Arend, Peter Pickkers
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 55-60% of critically ill patients, and sepsis is the most common underlying cause. No pharmacological treatment options are licensed to treat sepsis-associated AKI (SA-AKI); only supportive renal replacement therapy (RRT) is available. One of the limited number of candidate compounds in clinical development to treat SA-AKI is alkaline phosphatase (AP). The renal protective effect of purified bovine intestinal AP has been demonstrated in critically ill sepsis patients...
September 27, 2016: BMJ Open
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