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Intestinal alkaline phosphatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627188/effect-of-glutamine-on-liver-injuries-induced-by-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#1
Renata Hartmann, Francielli Licks, Elizângela Gonçalves Schemitt, Josieli Raskopf Colares, Juliana Da Silva, Rosa Maria Moura, Gilmara Pandolfo Zabot, Henrique Sarubbi Fillmann, Norma Possa Marroni
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may cause cell and tissue damage, reaching also other organs such as the liver. Because of the involvement of free radicals in I/R injury, treatment options with antioxidants have been studied and tested. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of glutamine (Gln) in the liver of animals with intestinal I/R injury. METHODS: We used 20 male Wistar rats divided into four groups: sham-operated (SO); glutamine + sham-operated (G+SO); intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R); glutamine + intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (G+I/R)...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622357/protective-effect-of-aplysin-on-liver-tissue-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-alcohol-fed-rats
#2
Meilan Xue, Ying Liu, Rui Lyu, Na Ge, Man Liu, Yan Ma, Hui Liang
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the protective effect of aplysin on the liver and its influence on inflammation and the gut microbiota in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an alcohol-containing liquid diet, control liquid diet or treatment with aplysin for 8 weeks. Hepatic and intestinal histopathological analysis was performed, and cytokine levels and the intestinal mucosal barrier were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606239/-effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-on-mrna-expression-of-tight-junction-protein-zo-1-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-after-escherichia-coli-lf82-infection
#3
Li-Jun Hao, Yan Lin, Wei Zhang, Jiao Tian, Ya Wang, Peng-De Chen, Chong-Kang Hu, Ling-Chao Zeng, Jie Yang, Bao-Xi Wang, Xun Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection. METHODS: The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E...
June 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595380/effects-of-stocking-density-on-growth-performance-feather-growth-intestinal-development-and-serum-parameters-of-geese
#4
L Y Yin, Z Y Wang, H M Yang, L Xu, J Zhang, H Xing
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density on the growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese. In total, 336 healthy, 28-day-old, male Yangzhou goslings were randomly allotted to 30 plastic wire-floor pens according to 5 stocking densities (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 birds/m2). The results showed that with the stocking density increased from 2 birds/m2 to 6 birds/m2, the body weights of geese at 42 d (P < 0.001) and 70 d (P < 0.001) were reduced by 10...
June 8, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552875/egg-white-hydrolysate-can-be-a-low-allergenic-food-material-to-suppress-ectopic-fat-accumulation-in-rats-fed-an-equicaloric-diet
#5
Masaru Ochiai, Kohei Misaki, Toshiki Takeuchi, Ryoyo Narumi, Yoshiyuki Azuma, Tatsuhiro Matsuo
Egg white (EW) is known as a nutritional protein but can induce allergic reactions in humans. We investigated the dietary effects of EW and its hydrolysate (EWH), which contains less allergen, on body fat accumulation in Wistar rats fed an equicaloric high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 8 wk (Exp A). The pair-feeding of EW and equicaloric-feeding of EWH increased fecal fat excretion and suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver and muscles but not in the abdominal adipose tissues, carcass, or total body. Dietary EWH also suppressed the serum glucose level and alkaline phosphatase activity...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551866/sequence-and-functional-analysis-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-from-lateolabrax-maculatus
#6
Minglin Wu, Jiaqi Wang, Zhipeng Wang, Jinliang Zhao, Yuting Hu, Xiaowu Chen
Alkaline phosphatases (Alps) belong to a class of phosphate transferases that dephosphorylate lipopolysaccharide (LPS), adenosine triphosphate, and nucleotides. In this study, a 1874-base pair (bp) intestinal alp cDNA sequence was cloned from Lateolabrax maculatus and designated as Lm-alpi. It contained a 1611 bp open reading frame which encoded a protein with 537 amino acids. Protein sequence alignment showed that Lm-AlpI shared 29.8-79.8% identity with its homologs. Lm-AlpI catalytic sites contained three metal ion sites (two Zn(2+) and one Mg(2+)), referring to D73, H184, D348, H349, H352, H464, D389, and H390 residues, which are essential for enzymatic activity and conservation in different organisms...
May 28, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547997/effect-of-purine-nucleosides-on-growth-performance-gut-morphology-digestive-enzymes-serum-profile-and-immune-response-in-broiler-chickens
#7
A Daneshmand, Hassan Kermanshahi, M Danesh Mesgaran, A J King, S A Ibrahim
1. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of purine nucleosides on performance, gut morphology, intestinal enzymes and immunity functions in broiler chickens from 0 to 21 d of age. 2. A total of 360 1-d-old male chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replications. Experimental diets consisted of a control without any additives and diets containing 0.1% pure adenosine, 0.1% pure guanosine and 0.1% equal aliquots of pure adenosine and guanosine. Two birds per cage (12 birds per treatment) were killed on d 11 and 21 in order to obtain serum samples for lipid profile, jejunal samples for morphology and mucosal immunity, digestive enzymes for epithelial maturation, and bursa and spleen samples for relative weight of immune organs to live body weight...
June 12, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503900/effects-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-development-of-digestive-organs-intestinal-function-and-post-hatch-performance-of-broiler-embryos-and-hatchlings
#8
T Gao, M M Zhao, Y J Li, L Zhang, J L Li, L L Yu, F Gao, G H Zhou
This study was to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) L-arginine (Arg) solution on the development of digestive organs, the duodenal mucosa of broiler embryos and hatchlings, and the growth performance of chicks during the first week post-hatch. A total of 720 fertilized eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to three groups, consisting of eight replicates of 30 eggs each. Three treatments were arranged as non-injected control, diluent-injected (0.75% NaCl solution) group and Arg solution-injected group containing 1% Arg, dissolved in diluent...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502983/alkaline-phosphatase-a-novel-treatment-target-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-ckd
#9
REVIEW
Mathias Haarhaus, Vincent Brandenburg, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Peter Stenvinkel, Per Magnusson
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of early death in the settings of chronic kidney disease (CKD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and ageing. Cardiovascular events can be caused by an imbalance between promoters and inhibitors of mineralization, which leads to vascular calcification. This process is akin to skeletal mineralization, which is carefully regulated and in which isozymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have a crucial role. Four genes encode ALP isozymes in humans. Intestinal, placental and germ cell ALPs are tissue-specific, whereas the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of ALP (TNALP) is present in several tissues, including bone, liver and kidney...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456399/prior-lactose-glycation-of-caseinate-via-the-maillard-reaction-affects-in-vitro-activities-of-the-pepsin-trypsin-digest-toward-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#10
X P Wang, X H Zhao
The well-known Maillard reaction in milk occurs between lactose and milk proteins during thermal treatment, and its effects on milk nutrition and safety have been well studied. A lactose-glycated caseinate was prepared via this reaction and digested using 2 digestive proteases, pepsin and trypsin. The glycated caseinate digest was assessed for its in vitro activities on rat intestinal epithelial cells in terms of growth proliferation, anti-apoptotic effect, and differentiation induction using caseinate digest as reference, to verify potential effects of the Maillard reaction on these activities of caseinate digest to the cells...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452813/duodenal-histopathology-and-laboratory-deficiencies-related-to-bone-metabolism-in-coeliac-disease
#11
Lotte Posthumus, Abdul Al-Toma
OBJECTIVES: Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated small intestine enteropathy precipitated by gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Adult presentation is often atypical and malabsorption of vitamins and minerals is common, with a consequent disturbance of bone metabolism. We aim to evaluate laboratory deficiencies related to bone metabolism and the relationship between severity of histological damage and degree of bone mass loss at diagnosis of CD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 176 adult coeliac patients was carried out...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448526/human-alkaline-phosphatase-dephosphorylates-microbial-products-and-is-elevated-in-preterm-neonates-with-a-history-of-late-onset-sepsis
#12
Matthew Pettengill, Juan D Matute, Megan Tresenriter, Julie Hibbert, David Burgner, Peter Richmond, José Luis Millán, Al Ozonoff, Tobias Strunk, Andrew Currie, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: A host defense function for Alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) is suggested by the contribution of intestinal ALP to detoxifying bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) in animal models in vivo and the elevation of ALP activity following treatment of human cells with inflammatory stimuli in vitro. However the activity of ALP in human plasma (primarily tissue-nonspecific ALP; TNAP) on lipopolysaccharide and other microbial products has not been assessed, nor has its expression been studied in preterm newborns, a vulnerable population at high risk of sepsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440703/zeta-potential-changing-nanoparticles-conjugated-with-cell-penetrating-peptides-for-enhanced-transfection-efficiency
#13
Wongsakorn Suchaoin, Arshad Mahmood, Kesinee Netsomboon, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
AIM: The aim of this study was to develop zeta-potential-changing nanoparticles (NPs) combining cell-penetrating peptides for gene delivery. METHODS & MATERIALS: NPs were formed using phosphorylated carboxymethyl cellulose-glucosamine 6-phosphate (CMC-G6P) and polyethylene imine-polyarginine conjugates. Phosphate release was evaluated using intestinal alkaline phosphatase and cell lines. Transfection studies with plasmid DNA were then performed. RESULTS: The zeta potential of CMC-G6P/branched PEI NPs was -3 mV and switched to +4 mV after intestinal alkaline phosphatase cleavage...
May 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424943/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-attenuates-alcohol-induced-hepatosteatosis-in-mice
#14
Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Byeong-Moo Kim, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Sara A Morrison, Tyler J Tantillo, Qingsong Tao, Mussa M Rafat Mohamed, Juan M Ramirez, Aaron Karas, Wei Liu, Dong Hu, Abeba Teshager, Sarah Shireen Gul, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Atul K Bhan, Madhu S Malo, Michael Y Choi, Richard A Hodin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacterially derived factors from the gut play a major role in the activation of inflammatory pathways in the liver and in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The intestinal brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) detoxifies a variety of bacterial pro-inflammatory factors and also functions to preserve gut barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral IAP supplementation could protect against alcohol-induced liver disease...
April 19, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423120/primary-cultures-of-mouse-small-intestinal-epithelial-cells-using-the-dissociating-enzyme-type-i-collagenase-and-hyaluronidase
#15
H J Ren, C L Zhang, R D Liu, N Li, X G Li, H K Xue, Y Guo, Z Q Wang, J Cui, L Ming
The epithelium is a highly dynamic system, which plays a crucial role in the homeostasis of the intestinal tract. However, studies on the physiological and pathophysiological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been hampered due to lack of normal epithelial cell models. In the present study, we established a reproducible method for primary culture of mouse IECs, which were isolated from the viable small intestinal crypts of murine fetuses (on embryonic day 19), using type I collagenase and hyaluronidase in a short span of time (≤20 min)...
April 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406692/effect-of-pre-and-post-weaning-high-fat-dietary-manipulation-on-intestinal-microflora-and-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-in-male-rats
#16
Z Šefčíková, D Bujňáková
We investigated the impact of a high-fat (HF) diet during pre- and post-weaning periods on the intestinal microbiota and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in male rats. Nutrition from birth was influenced by feeding rat dams with either a standard or HF diet. After weaning male pups nursed by control dams continued on a standard diet (CC) or HF diet (C->HF), while offspring nursed by HF dams continued on HF diet (HF) or standard diet (HF->C). The numbers of Bacteriodes/Prevotella (BAC) and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus (LAB) in the gut were determined by FISH technique...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401057/intestinal-hypoganglionosis-leading-to-intestinal-failure-and-the-compassionate-use-of-omegaven%C3%A2
#17
Racha Khalaf, Sara Karjoo, Paul Danielson, Michael Wilsey, Fauzia Shakeel
Intestinal hypoganglionosis is a rare innervation disorder that provides numerous nutritional, medical and surgical challenges. In this case report, we present a case of a newborn with intestinal hypoganglionosis leading to intestinal failure and intestinal failure-associated liver disease who responded to Omegaven™, a fat emulsion comprised of omega-3 fatty acids. Omegaven™ has been shown to be beneficial in the management of cholestatic liver injury. Clinical success with Omegaven™ was seen in this patient with a clear decrease in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and complete resolution of cholestasis with a direct bilirubin of zero within two weeks of initiation of Omegaven™...
March 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400412/western-diet-consumption-induces-alteration-of-barrier-function-mechanisms-in-the-ileum-that-correlates-with-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-rats
#18
Mathilde Guerville, Anaïs Leroy, Annaëlle Sinquin, Fabienne Laugerette, Marie-Caroline Michalski, Gaëlle Boudry
Obesity and its related disorders have been associated to the presence in the blood of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, the factors underlying this low-grade elevation in plasma LPS, so-called metabolic endotoxemia, are not fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the effects of Western diet (WD) feeding on intestinal and hepatic LPS handling mechanisms in a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Rats were fed either a standard chow diet (C) or a Western Diet (WD, 45% fat) for 6 weeks...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393441/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-at-the-crossroad-of-intestinal-health-and-disease-a-putative-role-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
M I Lassenius, C L Fogarty, M Blaut, K Haimila, L Riittinen, A Paju, J Kirveskari, J Järvelä, A J Ahola, D Gordin, M-A Härma, A Kumar, S R Hamarneh, R A Hodin, T Sorsa, T Tervahartiala, S Hörkkö, P J Pussinen, C Forsblom, M Jauhiainen, M-R Taskinen, P-H Groop, M Lehto
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 diabetes have shown an increase in circulating cytokines, altered lipoprotein metabolism and signs of vascular dysfunction in response to high-fat meals. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) regulates lipid transport and inflammatory responses in the gastrointestinal tract. We therefore hypothesized that changes in IAP activity could have profound effects on gut metabolic homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Faecal samples of 41 nondiabetic controls and 46 patients with type 1 diabetes were analysed for IAP activity, calprotectin, immunoglobulins and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376858/clinical-diagnostic-value-of-viable-schistosoma-japonicum-eggs-detected-in-host-tissues
#20
Kongzhen Gu, Yuesheng Li, Patrick Driguez, Qingren Zeng, Xinlin Yu, Hui Sun, Liting Cai, Yongkang He, Wenyang Wang, Donald P McManus
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, one of the neglected tropical diseases, is endemic in more than 70 countries. However, the clinical diagnosis of patients with a low degree of infection is an unsolved technical problem. In areas endemic for schistosomiasis japonica, proctoscopy detection of eggs has been one method used for clinical diagnosis. However, it is often a challenge to find typical live eggs and it is difficult to distinguish live eggs from large numbers of partially degraded and/or completely degraded eggs within colon biopsy tissue...
April 4, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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