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Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Alexandra E Butler, Maciej Banach, George E Barreto, Amirhossein Sahbekar
Heat shock proteins (HSP or stress proteins) are intracellular molecules that participate in physiological cell metabolism and growth, although they are known to be involved in many stress conditions. Statins inhibit the action of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA), which is important in the synthesis of cholesterol and essential isoprenoid intermediates, thereby lowering circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
June 20, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Wen Shi, Tao Hou, Weiwei Liu, Danjun Guo, Hui He
BACKGROUND: The lack of estrogen in postmenopausal women is a key risk factor of the disorders of lipid metabolism and obesity. Except for estrogen replacement therapy(ERT), Chickpea peptides(ChPs) may be a potential candidate for treating hyperlipidemia. RESULTS: In ovariectomized rats model,ChPs were found to decrease the body weight, adipose tissue size, total cholesterol(TC),total triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), atherogenic index(AI) in serum and liver TC, TG...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Franciele Mercúrio Rodrigues, Jenifer Inácio Adélio, Vanessa Oliveira Santana, Elisabeth De Marco Ornelas, Romeu Rodrigues de Souza, Clever Gomes Cardoso, Glaucia Luciano da Veiga, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino
To explore the effects of physical exercise on the liver of animals in menopause, we analyzed the histomorphometric parameters of the hepatic tissue in ovariectomized and dyslipidemic female mice. The animals were distributed in six groups (n = 5): sedentary control (SC), sedentary ovariectomized control (SOC), trained ovariectomized control (TOC), sedentary LDL knockout (LDL-S), sedentary ovariectomized LDL knockout (LDL-SO), and trained ovariectomized LDL knockout (LDL-TO). At the end of the experiment, the liver and the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of animals were removed for morphometric and stereological studies...
June 22, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Qi-An Han, Kaifeng Li, Xiuping Dong, Yongkang Luo, Beiwei Zhu
This work was designed to separate and purify the saponin from Thelenota ananas with the highest anti-cholesterol ability using multiple chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses, and to systematically investigate the effect of the Thelenota ananas saponin on cholesterol metabolism in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced macrophage foam cells. Desulfated holothurin A (desHA), which was finally identified as the targeted saponin with the highest activity in decreasing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), markedly inhibited the formation of foam cells derived from macrophages based on Oil Red O staining...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sandeep Dhindsa, Husam Ghanim, Manav Batra, Paresh Dandona
One-third of men with obesity or type 2 diabetes have subnormal free testosterone concentrations. The lower free testosterone concentrations are observed in obese men at all ages, including adolescents at completion of puberty. The gonadotropin concentrations in these males are inappropriately normal; thus, these patients have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The causative mechanism of diabesity-induced HH is yet to be defined but is likely multifactorial. Decreased insulin and leptin signaling in the central nervous system are probably significant contributors...
July 2018: Diabetes Care
Merel L Hartgers, Joost Besseling, Erik S Stroes, Janneke Wittekoek, Joost H W Rutten, Jacqueline de Graaf, Frank L J Visseren, Ben P M Imholz, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep, Roeland Huijgen, John J P Kastelein, G Kees Hovingh
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) do not reach low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels advocated by international guidelines (<70 mg/dL or <100 mg/dL). OBJECTIVE: We set out to model which proportion of patients reach targets using conventional and novel therapies. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a large cohort of genetically identified heFH patients and calculated the proportion reaching treatment targets in four scenarios: (1) after 50% LDL-c reduction (representing maximal dose statin); (2) after 70% LDL-c reduction (maximal dose statin + ezetimibe); (3) additional 40% LDL-c reduction representing cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi); and (4) 60% LDL-c reduction (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors [PCSK9i]), on top of scenario 2...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Adam Hartley, Dorian Haskard, Ramzi Khamis
We provide an up-to-date overview of current topics surrounding oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and its related antibodies in the quest to better identify the individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerotic plaques with unfavorable characteristics. We discuss the potential of oxLDL and anti-oxLDL antibodies as serum biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and emerging studies examining the targeting of arterial oxLDL for imaging and therapeutic delivery.
June 4, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Wei Wei, Xiao-Mao Zhou, Yu-Cheng Wang, Zhi-Cheng Lin, Ji-Hua Xue
Alisol A 24-acetate, a triterpenoid extracted from Alisma orientale, has shown anti-atherosclerotic actions and many studies have proved that oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) could promote proliferation of aorta smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) which are closely related to atherosclerosis (AS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of alisol A 24-acetate on the proliferation of VSMCs isolated from the thoracic aorta of rats induced by ox-LDL. VSMCs were induced by ox-LDL(50 mg·L⁻¹) to establish the proliferation model and intervened by alisol A 24-acetate (5, 10, 20 mg·L⁻¹) for 12, 24 and 48 h...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Vaia Raikou, Vasilios Kardalinos, Despina Kyriaki
INTRODUCTION: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is considered a main biomarker of oxidative stress, a common characteristic in end stage renal disease. We examined the relationship between ox-LDL serum concentrations and cardiovascular disease in permanent hemodiafiltration therapy patients. METHODS: Ox-LDL values were measured by ELISA and were corrected for LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in 96 participants and in 45 healthy control subjects. We performed chi-square tests and adjusted models for the role of ox-LDL on cardiovascular morbidity including coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic, diastolic dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Gemma Vilahur, Soumaya Ben-Aicha, Elisa Diaz, Lina Badimon, Teresa Padro
Besides the well-characterized effect of foods and supplements enriched with plant sterols/stanols on serum LDL-C concentrations, evidence is now emerging that phytosterols exert beneficial effects on non-lipid variables such as inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, coagulation parameters and endothelial function. This makes sterols and stanols an attractive alternative for dietary interventions in cardiovascular disease prevention, particularly in populations at low or medium risk. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge derived from experimental studies and human data on the anti-inflammatory effects of phytosterols/stanols and their relevance in promoting atheroprotection and preventing cardiovascular disease...
June 22, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Hiroki Suganuma, Ikeda Naho, Natsuki Ohkawa, Hiromichi Shoji, Toshiaki Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: Lipid emulsions administered intravenously are normally rapidly metabolized by apoprotein recruited from HDL particles in the blood. However very low birth infants (VLBWIs) have low rates of lipid clearance of from their blood and so lipid emulsions must be administered carefully to minimize the risk of hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of intravenous lipid emulsion on the lipoprotein subclass profiles in VLBWIs during the early postnatal period...
June 22, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Stefanie R van Mil, Guy H E J Vijgen, Astrid van Huisstede, Boudewijn Klop, Gert-Jan M van de Geijn, Erwin Birnie, Gert-Jan Braunstahl, Guido H H Mannaerts, L Ulas Biter, Manuel Castro Cabezas
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to increased cardiovascular risk. It is unknown whether increasing levels of obesity also increase levels of cardiovascular risk factors and systemic inflammation. This study describes the relationship between classic cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers with BMI in a group of obese and non-obese subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Obese subjects (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ; n = 576; mean ± SD BMI 43.8 ± 7.58 kg/m2 ) scheduled for bariatric surgery were included...
June 21, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Rutger Verbeek, Renate M Hoogeveen, Anne Langsted, Lotte C A Stiekema, Simone L Verweij, G Kees Hovingh, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Børge G Nordestgaard, Erik S G Stroes
Aims: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) elevation is a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has however been suggested that elevated Lp(a) causes CVD mainly in individuals with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. We hypothesized that the risk associated with high Lp(a) levels would largely be attenuated at low LDL-C levels. Methods and results: In 16 654 individuals from the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study, and in 9448 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) parallel statistical analyses were performed...
June 21, 2018: European Heart Journal
D Noto, A Giammanco, C M Barbagallo, A B Cefalù, M R Averna
Anti-pcsk9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9) monoclonal antibodies (Mab) are novel, potent lipid-lowering drugs. They demonstrated to improve the lipid profile in high cardiovascular risk patients. Anti-pcsk9 Mab inhibit the targeted LDL-receptor degradation induced by pcsk9 protein and are able to reduce LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels on top of conventional lipid-lowering therapy.Though these drugs proved to be very safe in the short term, little is known about the possible long term effects, due to the short period of their marketing...
June 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Jun Li, Frank B Hu, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Deirdre K Tobias
BACKGROUND: Intervention studies suggest that incorporating walnuts into the diet may improve blood lipids without promoting weight gain. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials evaluating the effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors. Design: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE databases (from database inception to January 2018) of clinical trials comparing walnut-enriched diets with control diets...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Glaucylara Reis Geovanini, Peter Libby
The concept that inflammation participates pivotally in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its complications has gained considerable attention, but has not yet entered clinical practice. Experimental work has elucidated molecular and cellular pathways of inflammation that promote atherosclerosis. The recognition of atherogenesis as an active process rather than a cholesterol storage disease or a repository of calcium has highlighted some key inflammatory mechanisms. For example, mononuclear phagocytes contribute to all stages of this disease, illustrating the link between inflammation and atherosclerosis...
June 29, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Chloe E Bird, Michael Manocchia, Brooke Tomblin, Peggy Payne, Mahesh Kulakodlu, Emily Iacolo, Allen M Fremont
BACKGROUND: Prior research documents gender gaps in cardiovascular risk management, with women receiving poorer quality routine care on average, even in managed care systems. Although population health management tools and quality improvement efforts have led to better overall care quality and narrowing of racial/ethnic gaps for a variety of measures, we sought to quantify persistent gender gaps in cardiovascular risk management and to assess the performance of routinely used commercial population health management tools in helping systems narrow gender gaps...
June 1, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Sheri A Rowland, Kris E Berg, Kevin A Kupzyk, Carol H Pullen, Marlene Z Cohen, Paula S Schulz, Bernice C Yates
Most working women do not meet current guidelines for physical activity (PA). A 12-week pilot study tested a workplace, peer modeling PA intervention. Inactive female employees from a health system were randomized to an attention control group (ACG; n = 26) or an intervention group (IG; n = 26). The ACG received health information. The IG participated in six group sessions with an active peer model and received an exercise prescription and PA information. Pre and post measures were PA (ActiGraph), Estimated VO2max (cycle ergometer), resting heart rate (HR), glucose and lipids, and cardiovascular risk...
June 1, 2018: Workplace Health & Safety
Angela Gialamas, Angela Kinnell, Murthy N Mittinty, Belinda Davison, Gurmeet Singh, John Lynch
This study examined the association of anthropometric measures including height, leg length, trunk length and body mass index (BMI) at 11 and 18 years with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) at 11 and 18 years. We analysed data from 661 participants from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort study-a longitudinal study based in the Northern Territory, Australia. Associations between anthropometric measures and cardiovascular risk factors were investigated in linear regression analyses adjusted for confounding, with imputation for missing data...
2018: PloS One
Lukasz Szternel, Magdalena Krintus, Katarzyna Bergmann, Tadeusz Derezinski, Grazyna Sypniewska
OBJECTIVE: Despite the common use of non-fasting measurements for lipid profile in children it remains unclear as to the extent non-fasting conditions have on laboratory results of lipids measurements. We aimed to assess the impact of non-fasting lipid profile on the occurrence of dyslipidemia in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Basic lipid profile including: total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG), as well as small, dense-LDL-C (sd-LDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], were measured in 289 presumably healthy children aged 9-11 in both fasting and non-fasting condition...
2018: PloS One
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