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prostate cancer,thyroid cancer,imaging,targeted therapy

Priyanka Verma, Gaurav Malhotra, Ritesh Agrawal, Sunita Sonavane, Vilas Meshram, Ramesh V Asopa
PURPOSE OF THE REPORT: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) overexpression is not restricted to prostate cancer, but it has also been demonstrated in gliomas, lung cancer, and in tumor neovasculature. Systematic studies exploring PSMA uptake in thyroid tumors are lacking. The aim of this pilot study was to assess PSMA expression in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (mDTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients of mDTC harboring 32 lesions (5 men; age range, 38-65 years; mean age, 50 years) underwent prospective evaluation with radioiodine (I), F-FDG PET, and Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET scans as per the institution protocol...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Birthe Heitkötter, Konrad Steinestel, Marcel Trautmann, Inga Grünewald, Peter Barth, Heidrun Gevensleben, Martin Bögemann, Eva Wardelmann, Wolfgang Hartmann, Kambiz Rahbar, Sebastian Huss
Aim: PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen) is physiologically expressed in normal prostate tissue and over expressed in prostate cancer cells, therefore constituting a potential target for antibody-based radioligand therapy. Very recent imaging findings reported PSMA-PET/CT uptake in various thyroid lesions. We were therefore encouraged to systematically analyse PSMA expression in different benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PSMA expression in 101 thyroid lesions, while neovasculature was identified by CD34 immunostaining...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
James R Ballinger
Although use of the term "theranostic" is relatively recent, the concept goes back to the earliest days of nuclear medicine, with the use of radioiodine for diagnosis and therapy of benign and malignant thyroid disease being arguably the most successful molecular radiotherapy in history. A diagnostic scan with 123 I-, 124 I-, or a low activity of 131 I-iodide is followed by therapy with high activity 131 I-iodide. Similarly, adrenergic tumours such as phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma can be imaged with 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and treated with 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Hossein Jadvar, Xiaoyuan Chen, Weibo Cai, Umar Mahmood
The fundamental foundation for precision medicine is accurate and specific targeting of cancer cells. Advances in the understanding of cancer biology, developments in diagnostic technologies, and expansion of therapeutic options have all contributed to the concept of personalized cancer care. Theranostics is the systematic integration of targeted diagnostics and therapeutics. The theranostic platform includes an imaging component that "sees" the lesions followed by administration of the companion therapy agent that "treats" the same lesions...
February 2018: Radiology
Andrey Bychkov, Usanee Vutrapongwatana, Supatporn Tepmongkol, Somboon Keelawat
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in prostate cancer epithelium, making it a promising target for molecular imaging and therapy. Recently, several studies found unexpected PSMA radiotracer uptake by thyroid tumors, including radioiodine-refractory (RAIR) cancers. PSMA expression was reported in tumor-associated endothelium of various malignancies, however it has not been systematically addressed in thyroid tumors. We found that PSMA was frequently expressed in microvessels of thyroid tumors (120/267), but not in benign thyroid tissue...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hossein Jadvar
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews recent developments in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) approaches directed to malignant liver lesions, bone metastases, neuroendocrine tumors, and castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer and discusses challenges and opportunities in this field. CONCLUSION: TRT has been employed since the first radioiodine thyroid treatment almost 75 years ago. Progress in the understanding of the complex underlying biology of cancer and advances in radiochemistry science, multimodal imaging techniques including the concept of "see and treat" within the framework of theranostics, and universal traction with the notion of precision medicine have all contributed to a resurgence of TRT...
August 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
John O Prior, Silke Gillessen, Manfred Wirth, William Dale, Matti Aapro, Wim J G Oyen
Molecular imaging using radiopharmaceuticals has a clear role in visualising the presence and extent of tumour at diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. Such imaging provides prognostic and predictive information relevant to management, e.g. by quantifying active tumour mass using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). As these techniques require only pharmacologically inactive doses, age and potential frailty are generally not important. However, this may be different for therapy involving radionuclides because the radiation can impact normal bodily function (e...
May 2017: European Journal of Cancer
Markus Luster, Andreas Pfestroff, Frederik A Verburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review recent advances concerning the role of nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: For I therapy of thyroid cancer a thyrotropin (TSH) more than 30 mU/l has for many years been deemed a condition sine qua non. However, new data show that patients with lower TSH levels at the time of ablation have the same rate of successful ablation as those with TSH more than 30 mU/l.I-124 combined integrated positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography was shown to be highly accurate in predicting findings on posttherapy radioiodine scanning and was shown to have a high prognostic power...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
C Grávalos, C Rodríguez, A Sabino, M Á Seguí, J A Virizuela, A Carmona, J Cassinello, D Isla, C Jara, M Martín
Bone metastases are common in many advanced solid tumours, being breast, prostate, thyroid, lung, and renal cancer the most prevalent. Bone metastases can produce skeletal-related events (SREs), defined as pathological fracture, spinal cord compression, need of bone irradiation or need of bone surgery, and hypercalcaemia. Patients with bone metastases experience pain, functional impairment and have a negative impact on their quality of life. Several imaging techniques are available for diagnosis of this disease...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Susanne Lütje, Benedikt Gomez, Joseph Cohnen, Lale Umutlu, Martin Gotthardt, Thorsten D Poeppel, Andreas Bockisch, Sandra Rosenbaum-Krumme
PURPOSE: The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was shown to be overexpressed on the neovasculature of several malignancies. Here, the role of Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA PET/CT for the detection of PSMA expression in patients with metastasized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was evaluated. METHODS: Six patients with iodine-negative and F-FDG-positive metastasized DTC (mean TG, 1616 ng/mL) received 71-93 MBq of the Ga-labeled PSMA ligand and underwent PET/CT at 62 ± 7 minutes p...
January 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Ezekiel Maloney, Joo Ha Hwang
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), is a promising, non-invasive modality for treatment of tumours in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging or diagnostic ultrasound guidance. HIFU is being used increasingly for treatment of prostate cancer and uterine fibroids. Over the last 10 years a growing number of clinical trials have examined HIFU treatment of both benign and malignant tumours of the liver, breast, pancreas, bone, connective tissue, thyroid, parathyroid, kidney and brain. For some of these emerging indications, HIFU is poised to become a serious alternative or adjunct to current standard treatments--including surgery, radiation, gene therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy...
May 2015: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Zbigniew P Kortylewicz, Elizabeth Mack, Charles A Enke, Katherine A Estes, R Lee Mosley, Janina Baranowska-Kortylewicz
BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. 5-Radioiodo-3'-O-(17β-succinyl-5α-androstan-3-one)-2'-deoxyuridin-5'-yl phosphate (RISAD-P) is an AR-targeting reagent developed for noninvasive assessment of AR and proliferative status of the AR-expressing tumors, and for molecular radiotherapy with Auger electron-emitting radionuclides. In this study, the preclinical toxicity and targeting potential of RISAD-P was evaluated. METHODS: Effects of nonradioactive ISAD-P and RISAD-P labeled with (123) I, (124) I, and (125) I were evaluated in male mice...
January 2015: Prostate
Y Kiyono, T Mori, H Okazawa
Understanding the expression of tumor specific receptors is important not only for tumor diagnosis but also for planning the strategy for patient treatment. Tumor receptor has been one of the most critical targets for treatment in cancer such as breast, prostate and thyroid cancers. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a part of molecular imaging techniques based on detecting the radiopharmaceuticals that can capture functional or phenotypic changes associated with pathology. The advantages of detecting tumor specific receptors by PET are its non-invasiveness, providing comprehensive information about receptor expression, avoiding the sampling errors, selecting strategy for the treatment of patients and monitoring tumor response to therapy...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Valentina Ambrosini, Melpomeni Fani, Stefano Fanti, Flavio Forrer, Helmut R Maecke
Receptor targeting with radiolabeled peptides has become an important topic, particularly in nuclear oncology. Strong research efforts are under way in radiopharmaceutical science laboratories and in nuclear medicine departments in Europe. The target receptors belong to the large family of G-protein-coupled receptors. The prototypes of these radiopeptides are based on analogs of somatostatin targeting somatostatin receptor-positive tumors, particularly well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. These radiopeptides have an important impact not only on diagnosis but also on targeted radionuclide therapy of these tumors...
December 2011: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Sophie Giusiano, Stéphane Garcia, Claudia Andrieu, Nelson Javier Dusetti, Cyrille Bastide, Martin Gleave, Colette Taranger-Charpin, Juan Lucio Iovanna, Palma Rocchi
BACKGROUND: Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) is a proapoptotic protein involved in cell stress response. Whereas there is an overexpression of TP53INP1 in numerous tissues submitted to stress agents, TP53INP1 is down-expressed in stomach, pancreatic, and inflammation-mediated colic carcinomas. In medullary thyroid carcinomas, TP53INP1 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis. TP53INP1 expression has never been reported in Prostate Cancer (PC). Our aim was to investigate variations of TP53INP1 expression and their correlation to clinicopathological parameters in PC...
February 1, 2012: Prostate
Jiong Cai, Zhaofei Liu, Fan Wang, Fang Li
The advancement of molecular imaging hardware and disease targets has driven the demand of novel probes for diagnosis of human diseases. The high-throughput property of phage-display techniques makes the fast developments of these probes possible. The antibody and peptide phage display libraries have been widely used in ligand-selections for a variety of targets in tumors including osteosarcomas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, thyroid, head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, prostate, bladder, colon and gastric cancers...
September 1, 2010: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Jun Yang, Zengru Wu, Di Wu, Michael V Darby, Seoung Soo Hong, Duane D Miller, James T Dalton
Knowledge of the presence and extent of disease plays a major role in clinical management of prostate cancer, as it provides meaningful information as to which therapy to choose and who might benefit from this therapy. The wide expression of androgen receptor (AR) in primary and metastatic prostate tumors offers a cellular target for receptor-mediated imaging of prostate cancer. In our previous study, a non-steroidal AR ligand, S-26 [S-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-iodophenyl)-propionamide] showed promising in vitro pharmacological properties as an AR-mediated imaging agent, with high AR binding affinity and AR specificity...
January 2010: International Journal of Oncology
Kyle J Hewitt, Rachana Agarwal, Patrice J Morin
BACKGROUND: The claudin (CLDN) genes encode a family of proteins important in tight junction formation and function. Recently, it has become apparent that CLDN gene expression is frequently altered in several human cancers. However, the exact patterns of CLDN expression in various cancers is unknown, as only a limited number of CLDN genes have been investigated in a few tumors. METHODS: We identified all the human CLDN genes from Genbank and we used the large public SAGE database to ascertain the gene expression of all 21 CLDN in 266 normal and neoplastic tissues...
July 12, 2006: BMC Cancer
Eric P Krenning, Dik J Kwekkeboom, Roelf Valkema, Stanislas Pauwels, Larry K Kvols, Marion De Jong
On their plasma membranes, cells express receptor proteins with high affinity for regulatory peptides, such as somatostatin. Changes in the density of these receptors during disease, for example, overexpression in many tumors, provide the basis for new imaging methods. The first peptide analogues successfully applied for visualization of receptor-positive tumors were radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. The next step was to label these analogues with therapeutic radionuclides for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT)...
April 2004: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Ekaterina Dadachova, Nancy Carrasco
The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) is the plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates the active uptake of I(-) in the thyroid, ie, the crucial first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. NIS also mediates I(-) uptake in other tissues, such as salivary glands, gastric mucosa, and lactating (but not nonlactating) mammary gland. The ability of thyroid cancer cells to actively transport I(-) via NIS provides a unique and effective delivery system to detect and target these cells for destruction with therapeutic doses of radioiodide...
January 2004: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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