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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138080/muscarinic-receptor-subtype-distribution-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-relevance-to-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
E P Lebois, C Thorn, J R Edgerton, M Popiolek, S Xi
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the metabotropic actions of acetylcholine (ACh). There are five subtypes of mAChR, M1 - M5, which are expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) on numerous cell types and represent promising treatment targets for a number of different diseases, disorders, and conditions of the CNS. Although the present review will focus on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a number of conditions such as Parkinson's disease (PD), schizophrenia, and others represent significant unmet medical needs for which selective muscarinic agents could offer therapeutic benefits...
November 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135331/imaging-microglial-activation-and-amyloid-burden-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Dunja Knezevic, Nicolaas Paul Lg Verhoeff, Sina Hafizi, Antonio P Strafella, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Tarek Rajji, Bruce G Pollock, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is defined as a transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given the replicated finding of increased microglial activation in AD, we sought to investigate whether microglial activation is also elevated in aMCI and whether it is related to amyloid beta (Aβ) burden in-vivo . Eleven aMCI participants and 14 healthy volunteers completed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [(18)F]-FEPPA and [(11)C]-PIB. Given the known sensitivity in affinity of second-generation TSPO radioligands, participants were genotyped for the TSPO polymorphism and only high-affinity binders were included...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126669/what-can-dti-tell-about-early-cognitive-impairment-differentiation-between-mci-subtypes-and-healthy-controls-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#3
Gyula Gyebnár, Ádám Szabó, Enikő Sirály, Zsuzsanna Fodor, Anna Sákovics, Pál Salacz, Zoltán Hidasi, Éva Csibri, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Csukly
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) gained a lot of interest recently, especially that the conversion rate to Alzheimer Disease (AD) in the amnestic subtype (aMCI) is higher than in the non-amnestic subtype (naMCI). We aimed to determine whether and how diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) using the diffusion tensor model (DTI) can differentiate MCI subtypes from healthy subjects. High resolution 3D T1W and DWI images of patients (aMCI, n = 18; naMCI, n = 20; according to Petersen criteria) and controls (n = 27) were acquired at 3T and processed using ExploreDTI and SPM...
October 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105977/tau-pet-imaging-predicts-cognition-in-atypical-variants-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Jeffrey S Phillips, Sandhitsu R Das, Corey T McMillan, David J Irwin, Emily E Roll, Fulvio Da Re, Ilya M Nasrallah, David A Wolk, Murray Grossman
Accumulation of paired helical filament tau contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). (18) F-flortaucipir is a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand sensitive to tau in AD, but its clinical utility will depend in part on its ability to predict cognitive symptoms in diverse dementia phenotypes associated with selective, regional uptake. We examined associations between (18) F-flortaucipir and cognition in 14 mildly-impaired patients (12 with cerebrospinal fluid analytes consistent with AD pathology) who had amnestic (n = 5) and non-amnestic AD syndromes, including posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, n = 5) and logopenic-variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA, n = 4)...
November 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096387/clinical-and-neuropsychological-profile-of-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-hospital-based-study-from-a-lower-and-middle-income-country
#5
Srikala Bharath, Shilpa Sadanand, Keshav J Kumar, Rakesh Balachandar, Himanshu Joshi, Mathew Varghese
Mild Cognitive impairment (MCI) is an important pre-dementia stage to be identified towards prevention. We screened a large number of older adults seeking help at hospital and community towards a diagnosis of MCI and this study describe their clinical and neuropsychological profile. Older adults aged 60 years & above seeking help at NIMHANS outpatient & community services were screened for early cognitive deficits. Persons were diagnosed to have MCI according to Petersen's criteria, after detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments...
October 16, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096134/modification-of-the-natural-progression-of-epileptogenesis-by-means-of-biperiden-in-the-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#6
Simone Bittencourt, Enéas Ferrazoli, Maria Fernanda Valente, Simone Romariz, Nilma R L L Janisset, Carlos Eduardo Macedo, Bruno de Brito Antonio, Vanessa Barros, Mayara Mundim, Marimélia Porcionatto, Mayra Consuelo Aarão, Maísa Ferreira Miranda, Antônio Márcio Rodrigues, Antônio-Carlos Guimarães de Almeida, Beatriz M Longo, Luiz E Mello
Brain injuries are often associated with the later development of epilepsy. Evidence suggests that morphological and functional changes occur in the remaining neural tissue during a silent (or latent) period in which no seizures are expressed. It is believed that this silent (reorganization) period may provide a therapeutic window for modifying the natural history of disease progression. Here we provide evidence that biperiden, a muscarinic anticholinergic agent, is able to alter disease progression in an animal model of epilepsy...
October 29, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093468/blood-levels-of-d-amino-acid-oxidase-vs-d-amino-acids-in-reflecting-cognitive-aging
#7
Chieh-Hsin Lin, Hui-Ting Yang, Chih-Chiang Chiu, Hsien-Yuan Lane
Feasible peripheral biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is lacking. Dysregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and amino acids can regulate the NMDA receptor function. This study aimed to examine whether peripheral DAO and amino acids levels are characteristic of age-related cognitive decline. We enrolled 397 individuals (including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild AD, moderate to severe AD, and healthy elderly). DAO levels in the serum were measured using ELISA...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092777/white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-meta-analysis-of-whole-brain-and-roi-based-studies
#8
REVIEW
Junhong Yu, Charlene L M Lam, Tatia M C Lee
Studies that examined white matter (WM) alterations in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) abound. This timely meta-analysis aims to synthesize the results of these studies. Seventy-seven studies (totalNaMCI=1844) were included. Fourteen region-of-interest-based (ROI-based) (k≥8;NaMCI≥284 per ROI) and two activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses (fractional anisotropy [FA]: k=15;NaMCI=463; mean diffusivity [MD]: k=8;NaMCI=193) were carried out. Among the many significant ROI-related findings, reliable FA and MD alterations in the fornix, uncinate fasciculus, and parahippocampal cingulum were observed in aMCI...
October 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089883/resting-state-fmri-functional-connectivity-based-classification-using-a-convolutional-neural-network-architecture
#9
Regina J Meszlényi, Krisztian Buza, Zoltán Vidnyánszky
Machine learning techniques have become increasingly popular in the field of resting state fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) network based classification. However, the application of convolutional networks has been proposed only very recently and has remained largely unexplored. In this paper we describe a convolutional neural network architecture for functional connectome classification called connectome-convolutional neural network (CCNN). Our results on simulated datasets and a publicly available dataset for amnestic mild cognitive impairment classification demonstrate that our CCNN model can efficiently distinguish between subject groups...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072169/amnestic-dementia-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-the%C3%A2-role-of-body-composition-ageing-and-insulin-resistance
#10
Arthur Oscar Schelp, Cristiane Lara Mendes-Chiloff, Vanessa Cristina Paduan, José Eduardo Corrente, Aline Vieira, Juliana Cristine Nunes Marchette, Juli Thomaz de Souza, Gustavo José Luvizuto, Célia Regina Nogueira, Rodrigo Bazan
BACKGROUND: The risk of cognitive impairment associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to ageing. The role of body compartmentalization and associated metabolic dysfunctions, as a risk factor for dementia in PD is still not clear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate body mass distribution, insulin resistance, and other parameters in patients without dementia, and those with dementia classified as compromised delayed memory. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We recorded body composition, basal levels of insulin resistance, and other data from 135 patients, who were followed for at least two years...
August 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061091/exploring-the-spectrum-of-subcortical-hyperintensities-and-cognitive-decline
#11
Yi-Chun Chen, Hsien-Hao Tsao, Yi-Chuan Chu, Jiun-Jie Wang, Jiann-Der Lee, Pi-Yueh Chang, Wen-Chuin Hsu
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) include periventricular WMH (pvWMH) and deep WMH. When hyperintensities in the basal ganglia or brainstem are included, the collective term is subcortical hyperintensities. Both WMH and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) are risk factors for cognitive decline. This prospective study enrolled participants aged 50-85 years and followed their neuropsychological assessments annually for 2 years to explore the interactive effects of WMH and MTA on longitudinal clinical decline...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060680/eeg-fluctuations-of-wake-and-sleep-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Johnny O'Keeffe, Barbara Carlson, Lisa DeStefano, Michael Wenger, Melissa Craft, Linda Hershey, Jeremy Hughes, Dee Wu, Lei Ding, Han Yuan
Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), a condition in which the memory functions of cognition are significantly impaired, is an established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a tool capable of measuring the dynamics of the brain's neural networks, and is thus an important means in analysis and understanding of aMCI. In this proof-of-concept study, we compared the brain activation patterns of ten aMCI subjects with those of four healthy subjects during sleep by employing a 64-channel EEG data collection system...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053409/amnestic-heterosexism-and-bystander-responses-to-anti-gay-bullying
#13
Jennifer Katz, Dillon Federici, Tess Ramos-Dries
Amnestic heterosexism (AH) reflects the belief that, in contemporary society, people who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) no longer experience discrimination related to sexual orientation. We investigated potential associations between individuals' AH beliefs and their responses to anti-gay bullying. Heterosexual undergraduates (N = 238) completed a measure of AH before responding to a scenario in which a man accuses another man of being a "fag." As expected, those with greater AH beliefs perceived the situation as less severe/dangerous, felt less personally responsible to intervene, and were more blaming toward the target of bullying...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053037/possible-autoantibody-negative-limbic-encephalitis-after-anterior-temporal-lobectomy-for-hippocampal-sclerosis
#14
Sara Casciato, Alfredo D'Aniello, Addolorata Mascia, Pier Paolo Quarato, Marco De Risi, Liliana G Grammaldo, Vincenzo Esposito, Marco Zoccarato, Giancarlo Di Gennaro
Amnestic syndromes are acknowledged to be associated to bilateral hippocampal damage. We briefly report the case of a young man who underwent anterior left temporal lobectomy for a medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis with an excellent seizure and neuropsychological outcome. Approximately 10 years later, he presented with a subacute severe global amnesia and MRI findings of a damage involving the contralateral mesial temporal lobe structures. A diagnosis of a possible autoimmune encephalitis was made...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050382/distinct-18f-av-1451-tau-pet-retention-patterns-in-early-and-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Michael Schöll, Rik Ossenkoppele, Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Jonas Jögi, Tomas Ohlsson, Ruben Smith, Oskar Hansson
Patients with Alzheimer's disease can present with different clinical phenotypes. Individuals with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (>65 years) typically present with medial temporal lobe neurodegeneration and predominantly amnestic symptomatology, while patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (<65 years) exhibit greater neocortical involvement associated with a clinical presentation including dyspraxia, executive dysfunction, or visuospatial impairment. We recruited 20 patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, 21 with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, three with prodromal early-onset Alzheimer's disease and 13 with prodromal late-onset Alzheimer's disease, as well as 30 cognitively healthy elderly controls, that had undergone 18F-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography and structural magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease exhibit differential regional tau pathology and atrophy patterns...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039020/systemic-inflammation-and-multimodal-biomarkers-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
T N C Magalhães, M Weiler, C V L Teixeira, T Hayata, A S Moraes, V O Boldrini, L M Dos Santos, B M de Campos, T J R de Rezende, H P G Joaquim, L L Talib, O V Forlenza, F Cendes, Marcio L F Balthazar
There is increasing evidence suggesting that one of the most relevant pathophysiological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neuroinflammation, which plays an important role in the production and regulation of AD-related proteins (amyloid beta (Aβ) and Tau) and exacerbates AD pathology. Neuroinflammation can also be induced by systemic influences (factors from outside the central nervous system). However, the role of systemic inflammation in AD pathophysiology is much less understood. Thus, our main objective in this study was to verify whether the presence of serum cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α) affects different AD biomarkers: Aβ1-42 and Tau protein levels, hippocampal volumes (HV), and default mode network functional connectivity (DMN FC) in healthy elderly controls, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients due to AD, and mild AD patients...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036825/the-emergence-of-a-new-conceptual-framework-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Dubois Bruno
The New Criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), published by a group of experts in 2007, have resulted in a revolution in the comprehension of the disease. Before 2007, the diagnosis of AD dementia was done through a process of exclusion: it was considered in the case of patients with a dementia syndrome without identified etiologies. This traditional algorithm had three major limitations that penalize the disease: 1) a low accuracy of the performance which may share responsibility for negative results in clinical trials; 2) a late identification of the patients only when they reach the threshold of dementia which may delay the activation of optimal care; and last but not least, 3) an absence of clear recognition of AD as a disease because of the lack of specific arguments for its identification...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017912/csf-a%C3%AE-1-42-but-not-p-tau181-differentiates-amci-from-sci
#18
Liara Rizzi, Marcelle Maria Portal, Carlos Eduardo Alves Batista, Luciane Missiaggia, Matheus Roriz-Cruz
AIM: Individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at a high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared CSF levels of biomarkers of amyloidosis (Aβ1-42) and neurodegeneration (p-Tau181) in individuals with aMCI and with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) in order to ascertain diagnostic accuracy and predict the odds ratio associated with aMCI. METHODS: We collected CSF of individuals clinically diagnosed with aMCI (33) and SCI (12) of a memory clinic of Southern Brazil...
October 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017593/incremental-value-of-biomarker-combinations-to-predict-progression-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-dementia
#19
Lutz Frölich, Oliver Peters, Piotr Lewczuk, Oliver Gruber, Stefan J Teipel, Hermann J Gertz, Holger Jahn, Frank Jessen, Alexander Kurz, Christian Luckhaus, Michael Hüll, Johannes Pantel, Friedel M Reischies, Johannes Schröder, Michael Wagner, Otto Rienhoff, Stefanie Wolf, Chris Bauer, Johannes Schuchhardt, Isabella Heuser, Eckart Rüther, Fritz Henn, Wolfgang Maier, Jens Wiltfang, Johannes Kornhuber
BACKGROUND: The progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia can be predicted by cognitive, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers. Since most biomarkers reveal complementary information, a combination of biomarkers may increase the predictive power. We investigated which combination of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR)-sum-of-boxes, the word list delayed free recall from the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Dementia (CERAD) test battery, hippocampal volume (HCV), amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ42), amyloid-beta1-40 (Aβ40) levels, the ratio of Aβ42/Aβ40, phosphorylated tau, and total tau (t-Tau) levels in the CSF best predicted a short-term conversion from MCI to AD dementia...
October 10, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981569/memory-binding-test-distinguishes-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-from-cognitively-normal-elderly
#20
Herman Buschke, Wenzhu B Mowrey, Wendy S Ramratan, Molly E Zimmerman, David A Loewenstein, Mindy J Katz, Richard B Lipton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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