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R Sheelakumari, C Kesavadas, V S Lekha, Sunitha Justus, P Sankara Sarma, Ramshekhar Menon
Context: Annually 10-12% of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are likely to progress to Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The morphometric profile in stable non-converters has not been adequately characterized. Aims: To determine the structural differences between amnestic MCI and early AD using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation with neuropsychological test performances. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based case-control study...
March 2018: Neurology India
Hugo Botha, William G Mantyh, Melissa E Murray, David S Knopman, Scott A Przybelski, Heather J Wiste, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Keith A Josephs, Christopher G Schwarz, Walter K Kremers, Bradley F Boeve, Ronald C Petersen, Mary M Machulda, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson, Val Lowe, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
Predicting underlying pathology based on clinical presentation has historically proven difficult, especially in older cohorts. Age-related hippocampal sclerosis may account for a significant proportion of elderly participants with amnestic dementia. Advances in molecular neuroimaging have allowed for detailed biomarker-based phenotyping, but in the absence of antemortem markers of hippocampal sclerosis, cases of mixed pathology remain problematic. We evaluated the utility of 18F-FDG-PET to differentiate flortaucipir tau PET negative from flortaucipir positive amnestic mild cognitive impairment and dementia and used an autopsy confirmed cohort to test the hypothesis that hippocampal sclerosis might account for the observed pattern...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Clifford R Jack, Heather J Wiste, Christopher G Schwarz, Val J Lowe, Matthew L Senjem, Prashanthi Vemuri, Stephen D Weigand, Terry M Therneau, Dave S Knopman, Jeffrey L Gunter, David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Kejal Kantarci, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen
Our objective was to compare different whole-brain and region-specific measurements of within-person change on serial tau PET and evaluate its utility for clinical trials. We studied 126 individuals: 59 cognitively unimpaired with normal amyloid, 37 cognitively unimpaired with abnormal amyloid, and 30 cognitively impaired with an amnestic phenotype and abnormal amyloid. All had baseline amyloid PET and two tau PET, MRI, and clinical assessments. We compared the topography across all cortical regions of interest of tau PET accumulation rates and the rates of four different whole-brain or region-specific meta-regions of interest among the three clinical groups...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Chia-Liang Tsai, Jozef Ukropec, Barbara Ukropcová, Ming-Chyi Pai
Although exercise is an effective way to decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, the biological basis for such benefits from the different exercise modes remains elusive. The present study thus aimed (i) to investigate the effects of acute aerobic or resistance exercise on neurocognitive performances and molecular markers when performing a cognitive task involving executive functioning in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and (ii) to explore relationships of acute exercise-induced neurocognitive changes with changes in circulating levels of neuroprotective growth factors (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
David A Scott, Lisbeth Evered, Paul Maruff, Andrew MacIsaac, Sarah Maher, Brendan S Silbert
BACKGROUND: Hospital procedures have been associated with cognitive change in older patients. This study aimed to document the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in individuals undergoing left heart catheterization (LHC) before the procedure and the incidence of cognitive decline to 3 months afterwards. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective, observational, clinical investigation of elderly participants undergoing elective LHC. Cognition was assessed using a battery of written tests and a computerized cognitive battery before the LHC and then at 3 months afterwards...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Richard H Epstein, Joni M Maga, Michael E Mahla, Eric S Schwenk, Marc J Bloom
BACKGROUND: Processed electroencephalogram (EEG) monitors help assess the hypnotic state during general anesthesia or sedation. Maintaining the bispectral index (BIS) or state entropy (SE) between 40 and 60 has been recommended to mitigate anesthesia awareness. Nonetheless, SEs > 70 were frequently observed at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations unlikely to allow awareness. We sought to determine the prevalence of elevated discordant measurements during BIS and SE monitoring. METHODS: Electronic data collected over 11 months at two academic hospitals were retrospectively reviewed...
March 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Zhen Fan, Melanie Dani, Grazia D Femminella, Melanie Wood, Valeria Calsolaro, Mattia Veronese, Federico Turkheimer, Steve Gentleman, David J Brooks, Rainer Hinz, Paul Edison
PURPOSE: Neuroinflammation and microglial activation play an important role in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of neuroinflammation in MCI subjects, using spectral analysis (SA) to generate parametric maps and quantify11 C-PBR28 PET, and compared these with compartmental and other kinetic models of quantification. METHODS: Thirteen MCI and nine healthy controls were enrolled in this study...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Lynette J Tippett, Sally C Prebble, Donna Rose Addis
Diachronic unity is the belief that, despite changes, we are the same person across the lifespan. We propose that diachronic unity is supported by the experience of remembering the self over time during episodic recall (i.e., phenomenological continuity). However, we also predict that diachronic unity is also possible when episodic memory is impaired, as long as the ability to construct life narratives from semantic memory (i.e., semantic continuity) is intact. To examine this prediction, we investigated diachronic unity in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), two conditions characterised by disrupted phenomenological continuity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jin San Lee, Changsoo Kim, Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Hanna Cho, Dae-Seock Shin, Nakyoung Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Yeshin Kim, Samuel N Lockhart, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, Joon-Kyung Seong
To develop a new method for measuring Alzheimer's disease (AD)-specific similarity of cortical atrophy patterns at the individual-level, we employed an individual-level machine learning algorithm. A total of 869 cognitively normal (CN) individuals and 473 patients with probable AD dementia who underwent high-resolution 3T brain MRI were included. We propose a machine learning-based method for measuring the similarity of an individual subject's cortical atrophy pattern with that of a representative AD patient cohort...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
ChunLei Wang, Yuan Pan, YanMei Liu, Ke Xu, LanXiang Hao, Fei Huang, Juan Ke, LiQin Sheng, HaiRong Ma, WeiFeng Guo
Independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the most popular and valid methods to investigate the default mode network (DMN), an intrinsic network which attracts particular attention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, previous studies present inconsistent results regarding the topographical organization of the DMN in aMCI. Therefore, we conducted a quantitative, voxel-wise meta-analysis of resting-state ICA studies using Seed-based d Mapping to establish the most consistent pattern of DMN functional connectivity alterations in aMCI...
March 6, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Emilie Beaufils, Johnny Vercouillie, Emilie Vierron, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Vincent Camus, Karl Mondon, Denis Guilloteau, Caroline Hommet, Maria Joao Ribeiro
PURPOSE: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurological syndrome in which language functions become progressively impaired with relative sparing of memory and other instrumental functions. The pathologic causes of PPA are heterogeneous, but studies suggest that logopenic PPA (LPA) is underpinned by Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in a high proportion of cases. The purposes of this descriptive and retrospective study were to characterize F-florbetapir PET imaging in a group of patients with a clinical syndrome of PPA, to determine the value of clinical characterization based on language phenotype in predicting the underlying pathology of PPA with F-florbetapir, and to quantify amyloid load in PPA subjects classified as "positive" F-florbetapir scans...
April 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
D Allan Butterfield
Oxidative stress, an overproduction of free radicals or a diminution of free radical scavenging ability relative to those of cognitively aged-matched controls, is widely recognized as a critical component of the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This recognition arose in significant part from the work in the author's laboratory, complemented by research from others' laboratories. The Butterfield laboratory discovered the oxidative stress associated with oligomeric amyloid-β peptide manifested primarily as elevated oxidative modification of proteins and peroxidation of lipids...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Bruno Dubois, Stephane Epelbaum, Francis Nyasse, Hovagim Bakardjian, Geoffroy Gagliardi, Olga Uspenskaya, Marion Houot, Simone Lista, Federica Cacciamani, Marie-Claude Potier, Anne Bertrand, Foudil Lamari, Habib Benali, Jean-François Mangin, Olivier Colliot, Remy Genthon, Marie-Odile Habert, Harald Hampel
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding is needed of risk factors and markers of disease progression in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We assessed associations between brain β-amyloidosis and various cognitive and neuroimaging parameters with progression of cognitive decline in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: The INSIGHT-preAD is an ongoing single-centre observational study at the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. Eligible participants were age 70-85 years with subjective memory complaints but unimpaired cognition and memory (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score ≥27, Clinical Dementia Rating score 0, and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test [FCSRT] total recall score ≥41)...
February 27, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Masato Ishibashi, Noriyuki Kimura, Yasuhiro Aso, Etsuro Matsubara
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of white matter lesions on regional cerebral blood flow in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five subjects with mild cognitive impairment (36 men and 39 women; mean age, 78.1 years) were included in the study. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination to assess cognitive function. All subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and99m Tc ethylcysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography...
February 24, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Mark W Logue, Matthew S Panizzon, Jeremy A Elman, Nathan A Gillespie, Sean N Hatton, Daniel E Gustavson, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Carol E Franz, Michael J Lyons, Michael C Neale, Chandra A Reynolds, Xin Tu, William S Kremen
Early identification of younger, non-demented adults at elevated risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial because the pathological process begins decades before dementia onset. Toward that end, we showed that an AD polygenic risk score (PRS) could identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in adults who were only in their 50s. Participants were 1176 white, non-Hispanic community-dwelling men of European ancestry in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA): 7% with amnestic MCI (aMCI); 4% with non-amnestic MCI (naMCI)...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Kenia S Correa-Jaraba, Mónica Lindín, Fernando Díaz
The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been shown to be useful for evaluating changes in brain electrical activity associated with different cognitive processes, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal studies have shown that a high proportion of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) go on to develop AD. aMCI is divided into two subtypes according to the presence of memory impairment only (single-domain aMCI: sdaMCI) or impairment of memory and other cognitive domains (multi-domain aMCI: mdaMCI)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Roberto Monastero, Calogero Edoardo Cicero, Roberta Baschi, Marco Davì, Antonina Luca, Vincenzo Restivo, Chiara Zangara, Brigida Fierro, Mario Zappia, Alessandra Nicoletti
Approximately 30% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show impaired cognitive performance, which is suggestive of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), representing a predictor of dementia, especially when present at diagnosis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical predictors of MCI in a large hospital-based cohort of PD patients. We collected cross-sectional data from the Parkinson's disease cognitive impairment study (PACOS), a multicenter study involving two Movement Disorder centers, which are located in south Italy...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Emiliano Merlo, Amy L Milton, Barry J Everitt
Fully consolidated fear memories can be maintained or inhibited by retrieval-dependent mechanisms depending on the degree of re-exposure to fear cues. Short exposures promote memory maintenance through reconsolidation and long exposures promote inhibition through extinction. Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which increasing cue exposure overrides reconsolidation and instead triggers extinction. Using auditory fear conditioning in male rats, we analysed the role of a molecular mechanism common to reconsolidation and extinction of fear, ERK1/2 activation within the basolateral amygdala (BLA), after intermediate CS exposure events...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Qing Ye, Haifeng Chen, Fan Su, Hao Shu, Liang Gong, Chunming Xie, Hong Zhou, Feng Bai
OBJECTIVE: Higher functional connectivity (FC) in resting-state networks has been shown in individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by many studies. However, the longitudinal trajectories of the FC remain unknown. The present 35-month follow-up study aimed to explore longitudinal changes in higher FC in multiple resting-state networks in subjects with the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE4) and/or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: Fifty-one subjects with aMCI and 64 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent neuropsychological tests and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans twice from April 2011 to June 2015...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Henrietta Wellington, Ross W Paterson, Aida Suárez-González, Teresa Poole, Chris Frost, Ulrika Sjöbom, Catherine F Slattery, Nadia K Magdalinou, Manja Lehmann, Eric Portelius, Nick C Fox, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Jonathan M Schott
Objective: To assess whether high levels of cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin are found in atypical as well as typical Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Immunoassays were used to measure cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin in 114 participants including healthy controls ( n  = 27), biomarker-proven amnestic Alzheimer's disease ( n  = 68), and the atypical visual variant of Alzheimer's ( n  = 19) according to international criteria. CSF total-tau, Aβ42, and neurofilament light concentrations were investigated using commercially available assays...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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