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Cns glioma

Mariella G Filbin, Dominik Sturm
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in children and adolescents and are thought to arise from their glial progenitors or stem cells. Although the exact cells of origin for most pediatric gliomas remain to be identified, our current understanding is that specific cell populations during CNS development are susceptible to particular oncogenic events during certain time windows and thus give rise to pediatric gliomas with distinct histological, molecular, and clinical features...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Michael Platten, David A Reardon
Strategies to empower the immune system to successfully attack cancers, including vaccination approaches, adaptive T cell therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators, have recently achieved remarkable success across a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless, with rare exception, only a minority of patients with a given type of cancer respond to an immunotherapeutic when administered as single-agent therapy. Although under extensive laboratory and clinical investigation, the role of these approaches for glioma patients remains to be determined...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Debajyoti Chatterjee, Bishan Dass Radotra, Narendra Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Vasishta, Sunil Kumar Gupta
Background: According to the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors (2016), histological diagnosis of gliomas should be supplemented by molecular information. This study was carried out to determine the frequency of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 ( IDH 1), ATRX , and BRAF V600E mutations in different grade astrocytomas and their prognostic value. Methods: Eighty cases of astrocytoma (15 pilocytic astrocytoma, 25 diffuse astrocytoma, 15 anaplastic astrocytoma, and 25 glioblastoma) with follow-up information were analyzed using immunohistochemistry for IDH1 mutant protein, ATRX, p53, and BRAF...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Shuang-Lin Deng, Yun-Qian Li, Gang Zhao
Objective: Gliomas are the most common neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS); however, traditional imaging techniques do not show the boundaries of tumors well. Some researchers have found a new therapeutic mode to combine nanoparticles, which are nanosized particles with various properties for specific therapeutic purposes, and stem cells for tracing gliomas. This review provides an introduction of the basic understanding and clinical applications of the combination of stem cells and nanoparticles as a contrast agent for glioma imaging...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Fangjie Shao, Chong Liu
High-grade glioma, particularly, glioblastoma, is the most aggressive cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Due to its heterogeneous nature, glioblastoma almost inevitably relapses after surgical resection and radio-/chemotherapy, and is thus highly lethal and associated with a dismal prognosis. Identifying the cell of origin has been considered an important aspect in understanding tumor heterogeneity, thereby holding great promise in designing novel therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma. Taking advantage of genetic lineage-tracing techniques, performed mainly on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), multiple cell types in the CNS have been suggested as potential cells of origin for glioblastoma, among which adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are the major candidates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Julien Puntonet, Volodia Dangouloff-Ros, Raphaël Saffroy, Mélanie Pagès, Felipe Andreiuolo, Jacques Grill, Stéphanie Puget, Nathalie Boddaert, Pascale Varlet
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Molecular alterations were recently added to the WHO 2016 classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We correlated the histological and radiological features of G34R-mutant high-grade gliomas, a recently described hemispheric and supratentorial glioma of children and young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter study on the histopathological and MRI results of 12 patients. RESULTS: All tumors were supratentorial...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Heather M Ames, Lisa M Rooper, John J Laterra, Charles G Eberhart, Fausto J Rodriguez
Tumors with a neuronal component comprise a small percentage of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms overall, but the presence of neuronal differentiation has important diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. Insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) is a transcription factor with strong nuclear immunostaining in neuroendocrine cells and neoplasms of neuroendocrine origin; however, its expression in the CNS in normal brain and in neoplastic cells has not been fully explored. Here, we present immunostaining results from a large number of archival CNS tissue specimens, including 416 tumors...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Jared F Sweeney, Heather Smith, AmiLyn Taplin, Eric Perloff, Matthew A Adamo
OBJECTIVE Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) is a widely accessible imaging modality that provides real-time surgical guidance with minimal identified risk or additional operative time. A recent study by the authors found a strong correlation between IOUS and postoperative MRI findings when evaluating the extent of tumor resection, suggesting that IOUS might have significant clinical implications. The objective of this study was to expand on results from the previous study in order to provide more evidence on the usage of IOUS in the determination of gross-total resection (GTR) in both adult and pediatric patients with brain tumors...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Courtney S Malo, Matthew A Huggins, Emma N Goddery, Heather M A Tolcher, Danielle N Renner, Fang Jin, Michael J Hansen, Larry R Pease, Kevin D Pavelko, Aaron J Johnson
The contribution of antigen-presenting cell (APC) types in generating CD8+ T cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) is not fully defined, limiting the development of vaccines and understanding of immune-mediated neuropathology. Here, we generate a transgenic mouse that enables cell-specific deletion of the H-2Kb MHC class I molecule. By deleting H-2Kb on dendritic cells and macrophages, we compare the effect of each APC in three distinct models of neuroinflammation: picornavirus infection, experimental cerebral malaria, and a syngeneic glioma...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
H H Jiang, G Li, J M Wang, X L Li, Y Cui, S Lin
Objective: To explore the prognostic impact of 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors on patients with low grade gliomas (LGG). Methods: A total of 482 patients diagnosed with LGG in Beijing Tiantan Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University from January 2009 to May 2016 were pathologically reclassified and retrospectively reviewed. In the survival analysis, Kaplan-Meier Plot was used to univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazards model was used to multivariate analysis...
January 30, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
James O Galle, David E Long, Tim Lautenschlaeger, Richard C Zellars, Gordon A Watson, Susannah G Ellsworth
PURPOSE: To analyze effects of closure of an academic proton treatment center (PTC) on pediatric case volume, distribution, and resident education. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was a review of 412 consecutive pediatric (age ≤18 years) cases treated at a single institution from 2012 to 2016. Residents' Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for the same years were also analyzed. Characteristics of the patient population and resident case volumes before and after closure of the PTC are reported...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Takashi Komori, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Mikhail F Chernov
Current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the neuroepithelial tumors is cell lineage-oriented and based on a presumed developmental tree of the central nervous system (CNS). It defines three main groups of gliomas, namely astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas, and additionally presumes their 4-tiered histopathological grading (WHO grades I to IV). Nevertheless, the impact of tumor pathology on clinically related parameters may be frequently much better predicted by genetics, than by histological appearance of the lesion...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Guillermo Aldave, Marisol Gonzalez-Huarriz, Angel Rubio, Juan Pablo Romero, Datta Ravi, Belén Miñana, Mar Cuadrado-Tejedor, Ana García-Osta, Roeland Verhaak, Enric Xipell, Naiara Martinez-Vélez, Arlet Acanda de la Rocha, Montserrat Puigdelloses, Marc García-Moure, Miguel Marigil, Jaime Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Oskar Marín-Bejar, Maite Huarte, Maria Stella Carro, Roberto Ferrarese, Cristobal Belda-Iniesta, Angel Ayuso, Ricardo Prat-Acín, Fernando Pastor, Ricardo Díez-Valle, Sonia Tejada, Marta M Alonso
Background: Glioblastoma, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is a genetically heterogeneous tumor. Alternative spicing (AS) plays a key role in numerous pathologies, including cancer. The objective of our study was to determine whether aberrant AS could play a role in the malignant phenotype of glioma and to understand the mechanism underlying its aberrant regulation. Methods: We obtained surgical samples from patients with glioblastoma who underwent 5-aminolevulinic fluorescence-guided surgery...
January 24, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Yangzong Wu, Zhihong Den, Yuanxiang Lin
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: It is always a great challenge to distinguish high-grade glioma (HGG) from primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the performance of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and susceptibility weighted-imaging (SWI) in differentiating HGGs from PCNSLs. METHODS: Heterogeneity and threshold effect were evaluated, sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE) and areas under summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) were calculated...
January 22, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Nina P Connolly, Amol C Shetty, Jesse A Stokum, Ina Hoeschele, Marni B Siegel, C Ryan Miller, Anthony J Kim, Cheng-Ying Ho, Eduardo Davila, J Marc Simard, Scott E Devine, John H Rossmeisl, Eric C Holland, Jeffrey A Winkles, Graeme F Woodworth
Glioma is a unique neoplastic disease that develops exclusively in the central nervous system (CNS) and rarely metastasizes to other tissues. This feature strongly implicates the tumor-host CNS microenvironment in gliomagenesis and tumor progression. We investigated the differences and similarities in glioma biology as conveyed by transcriptomic patterns across four mammalian hosts: rats, mice, dogs, and humans. Given the inherent intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity of human glioma, we focused this study on tumors with upregulation of the platelet-derived growth factor signaling axis, a common and early alteration in human gliomagenesis...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Burford, Alan Mackay, Sergey Popov, Maria Vinci, Diana Carvalho, Matthew Clarke, Elisa Izquierdo, Aimee Avery, Thomas S Jacques, Wendy J Ingram, Andrew S Moore, Kieran Frawley, Timothy E Hassall, Thomas Robertson, Chris Jones
Astroblastomas are rare brain tumours which predominate in children and young adults, and have a controversial claim as a distinct entity, with no established WHO grade. Reports suggest a better outcome than high grade gliomas, though they frequently recur. Recently, they have been described to overlap with a newly-discovered group of tumours described as'high grade neuroepithelial tumour with MN1 alteration' (CNS HGNET-MN1), defined by global methylation patterns and strongly associated with gene fusions targeting MN1...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Min Qian, Yilin Du, Shanshan Wang, Chengyi Li, Huiling Jiang, Wei Shi, Jian Chen, Yi Wang, Ernst Wagner, Rongqin Huang
Imaging-guided site-specific photothermal therapy (PTT) of glioma and other tumors in central nervous system (CNS) presents a great challenge for the current nanomaterial design. Herein, an in-situ solid-state transformation method was developed for the preparation of multicolor highly crystalline carbon nanodots (HCCDs). The synthesis yields 6-8 nm sized HCCDs containing a highly crystalline carbon nanocore and a hydrophilic surface, which therefore simultaneously provide strong photoacoustic and photothermal performance as well as tunable fluorescence emission...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Silvia Pietrobon, Marco Manfredini, Elena Trregiani, Marika Rossini, Francesca Lotito, Giovanni Guerra, Paola Rizzo, Fernanda Martini, Mauro Tognon
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was identified in 1971 in the brain tissue of a patient (J.C.) affected by the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCPyV encodes for the oncoproteins large T antigen (Tag) and small t-antigen (tag). These oncoproteins are responsible of the cell transformation and tumorigenesis in experimental animals. JCPyV is ubiquitous in human populations. After the primary infection, which is usually asymptomatic, JCPyV remains lifelong in the host in a latent phase. Its reactivation may occur in heathy subjects and immunocompromised patients...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Edgar Rangel-Lopez, Yesennia Sanchez-Perez, Ernesto Soto-Reyes, Claudia Maria Garcia-Cuellar, Bernardo Cacho-Diaz, Abel Santamaria
Malignant gliomas constitute more than 49% of all central nervous system (CNS) tumors and exhibit very poor prognosis. Two main events involved with the progression of gliomas are the deregulation of genes by genetic events and cellular damage elicited by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In gliomas, epigenetic abnormalities implicated in the deregulation of DNA methylation, nucleosome rearrangement, and acetylation of histones have been depicted. The overproduction of ROS has been implicated in the promotion of these modifications...
January 10, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ana S Guerreiro Stucklin, Vijay Ramaswamy, Craig Daniels, Michael D Taylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors and leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The advent of large-scale genomics has resulted in a plethora of profiling studies that have mapped the genetic and epigenetic landscapes of pediatric brain tumors, ringing in a new era of precision diagnostics and targeted therapies. In this review, we highlight the most recent findings, focusing on studies published after 2015, and discuss how new evidence is changing the care of children with brain tumors...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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