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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131126/extending-the-neuroanatomic-territory-of-diffuse-midline-glioma-k27m-mutant-pineal-region-origin
#1
Andrea R Gilbert, Wafik Zaky, Murat Gokden, Christine E Fuller, Eylem Ocal, Norman E Leeds, Gregory N Fuller
Diffuse midline glioma, H3-K27M mutant (DMG-K27M) is a newly described, molecularly distinct infiltrative glioma that almost exclusively arises in midline CNS structures, including the brain stem, especially the pons, as well as the thalamus and spinal cord with rare examples seen in the cerebellum, third ventricle, and hypothalamus. To our knowledge, only 1 case of a molecularly confirmed DMG-K27M arising in the pineal region has been previously reported. We present the second occurrence of a tissue-confirmed DMG-K27M of the pineal region, which, to our knowledge, is the first case reported in a child and the first case with documented preoperative MRI...
November 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116209/preoperative-n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-concertation-and-prognosis-of-brain-tumor-patients-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#2
Adomas Bunevicius, Vytenis Deltuva, Edward R Laws, Giorgio Iervasi, Arimantas Tamsauskas, Robertas Bunevicius
Increased N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration predicts poor prognosis of non-CNS cancer patients. We evaluated the association of NT-proBNP concentration with disease severity, discharge outcomes and prognosis of patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor. From January, 2010 until September, 2011 two-hundred and forty-five patients (age 55.05 ± 14.62 years) admitted for brain tumor surgery were evaluated for NT-proBNP serum concentration. Outcome at hospital discharge was evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081735/targeting-wnt-signaling-for-multifaceted-glioblastoma-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Matthew McCord, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama, Mark R Gilbert, Sadhana Jackson
The WNT signaling pathway has been of great interest to developmental biologists for decades and has more recently become a central topic for study in cancer biology. It is vital for cell growth and regulation of embryogenesis in many organ systems, particularly the CNS and its associated vasculature. We summarize the role of WNT in CNS development and describe how WNT signaling makes key contributions to malignant glioma stemness, invasiveness, therapeutic resistance, and angiogenesis. The role of WNT in these mechanisms, along with creation and maintainance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), points to the potential of WNT as a multi-faceted target in malignant glioma therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075658/improving-the-antibody-based-evaluation-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#4
Lindsey McCracken, Junxian Zhang, Maxwell Greene, Anne Crivaro, Joyce Gonzalez, Malek Kamoun, Eric Lancaster
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether antibody screening samples of patients with suspected autoimmune encephalitis with additional research assays would improve the detection of autoimmune encephalitis compared with standard clinical testing alone. METHODS: We examined 731 samples (333 CSF, 182 sera, and 108 pairs) from a cohort of 623 patients who were tested for CNS autoantibodies by the University of Pennsylvania clinical laboratory over a 24-month period with cell-based assays (CBAs) on commercially obtained slides of fixed cells for antibodies to NMDA receptor (NMDAR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR), leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65)...
November 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034211/the-role-of-atrx-in-glioma-biology
#5
REVIEW
Pravanya Nandakumar, Alireza Mansouri, Sunit Das
The current World Health Organization classification of CNS tumors has made a tremendous leap from past editions by incorporating molecular criteria in addition to the pre-existing histological parameters. The revised version has had a particular impact on the classification of diffuse low-grade gliomas and their high-grade variants. The ATRX status is one of the critical markers that define the molecular classification of gliomas. In this review, we will first provide an overview of the role of ATRX in regular cell biology...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016894/diffuse-high-grade-gliomas-with-h3-k27m-mutations-carry-a-dismal-prognosis-independent-of-tumor-location
#6
Michael Karremann, Gerrit H Gielen, Marion Hoffmann, Maria Wiese, Niclas Colditz, Monika Warmuth-Metz, Brigitte Bison, Alexander Claviez, Dannis G van Vuurden, André O von Bueren, Marco Gessi, Ingrid Kühnle, Volkmar H Hans, Martin Benesch, Dominik Sturm, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Andreas Waha, Torsten Pietsch, Christof M Kramm
Background: The novel entity of "diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant" has been defined in the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Tumors of this entity arise in CNS midline structures of predominantly pediatric patients and are associated with an overall dismal prognosis. They are defined by K27M mutations in H3F3A or HIST1H3B/C, encoding for histone 3 variants H3.3 and H3.1, respectively, which are considered hallmark events driving gliomagenesis...
August 4, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989289/epidemiology-diagnosis-and-optimal-management-of-glioma-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#7
REVIEW
Tejan P Diwanji, Alexander Engelman, James W Snider, Pranshu Mohindra
Neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) are the most frequently encountered solid tumors of childhood, but are less common in adolescents and young adults (AYA), aged 15-39 years. Gliomas account for 29%-35% of the CNS tumors in AYA, with approximately two-thirds being low-grade glioma (LGG) and the remaining being high-grade glioma (HGG). We review the epidemiology, work-up, and management of LGG and HGG, focusing on the particular issues faced by the AYA population relative to pediatric and adult populations...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987669/histogram-analysis-of-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-estimates-for-in-vivo-assessment-of-2016-who-glioma-grades-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#8
Johann-Martin Hempel, Jens Schittenhelm, Cornelia Brendle, Benjamin Bender, Georg Bier, Marco Skardelly, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Salvador Castaneda Vega, Ulrike Ernemann, Uwe Klose
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic performance of histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) maps for in vivo assessment of the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (2016 CNS WHO) integrated glioma grades. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with histopathologically-confirmed glioma who provided written informed consent were retrospectively assessed between 01/2014 and 03/2017 from a prospective trial approved by the local institutional review board...
October 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971474/survival-from-tumours-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-danish-children-is-survival-related-to-family-circumstances
#9
Friederike Erdmann, Jeanette Falck Winther, Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton, Hajo Zeeb, Anja Krøyer, Andrea Bautz, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Joachim Schüz
Little is known about social inequalities in childhood cancer survival. We investigated the impact of family circumstances on survival from paediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumours in a nationwide, register-based cohort of Danish children. All children born between 1973 and 2006 and diagnosed with a CNS tumour before the age of 20 years (N=1,261) were followed until 10 years from diagnosis. Using Cox proportional hazards models, the impact of various family characteristics on overall survival was estimated...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960623/multimodal-molecular-analysis-of-astroblastoma-enables-reclassification-of-most-cases-into-more-specific-molecular-entities
#10
Matthew D Wood, Tarik Tihan, Arie Perry, Geeta Chacko, Clinton Turner, Cunfeng Pu, Christopher Payne, Alexander Yu, Serguei I Bannykh, David A Solomon
Astroblastoma is a rare and controversial glioma with variable clinical behavior. The diagnosis currently rests on histologic findings of a circumscribed glioma with astroblastomatous pseudorosettes and vascular hyalinization. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested different oncogenic drivers, such as BRAF p.V600E, but very few cases have been studied using genome-wide methodologies. Recent genomic profiling identified a subset of CNS embryonal tumors with astroblastoma-like morphology that harbored MN1 gene fusions, termed "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumors with MN1 alteration" (CNS-HGNET-MN1)...
September 28, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941560/systematic-assessment-of-clinical-outcomes-and-toxicities-of-proton-radiotherapy-for-reirradiation
#11
REVIEW
Vivek Verma, Jean-Claude M Rwigema, Robert S Malyapa, William F Regine, Charles B Simone
Reirradiation (reRT) for locoregional recurrences poses unique challenges and risks; re-treatment using proton beam radiotherapy (PBT) could prove advantageous. Assessing clinical outcomes and toxicity profiles, this systematic review comprehensively evaluated available evidence regarding PBT reRT. Fourteen original investigations across central nervous system (CNS) (n=6), head/neck (H&N) (n=4), lung (n=2), and gastrointestinal (n=2) malignancies were analyzed. PBT for recurrent uveal melanoma achieved 5-year eye retention of 55%; for chordomas, reRT afforded a 2-year local control and overall survival (OS) of 85% and 80%, respectively...
October 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933335/re-evaluating-ttf-1-immunohistochemistry-in-diffuse-gliomas-expression-is-clone-dependent-and-associated-with-tumor-location
#12
Drew Pratt, Nina Afsar, Michael Allgauer, Patricia Fetsch, Maryknoll Palisoc, Stefania Pittaluga, Martha Quezado
TTF-1 is widely used as a marker in routine surgical pathology in the work-up of malignancy. Aberrant expression of TTF-1 in extrapulmonary and extrathyroidal malignancies is a frequently reported phenomenon. In addition to the recently characterized pituicyte-derived tumors of the sella, immunoreactivity has been reported in diffuse gliomas with the SPT24 clone. Here, we sought to evaluate TTF-1 expression with three commercially available clones in a large series of gliomas. Expression was compared across the newly defined diagnostic entities in the 2016 WHO Classification of CNS Tumors...
November 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917252/stereotactic-radiosurgery-of-the-brain-a-review-of-common-indications
#13
Philip Gilbo, Isabella Zhang, Jonathan Knisely
Over the past half-century since Lars Leksell first utilized radiation to address deep and difficult to treat lesions of the central nervous system (CNS), intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become an increasingly valued tool in the hands of neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists. Following developments in medical imaging and radiation technology, radiosurgery has evolved from its first application in movement disorders to widespread use for a varied range of malignant and benign conditions. SRS remains a powerful, minimally invasive instrument that offers additional options for intervention to a diverse patient population...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911239/controlled-release-of-liposome-encapsulated-temozolomide-for-brain-tumor-treatment-by-convection-enhanced-delivery
#14
Chung-Yin Lin, Rui-Jin Li, Chiung-Yin Huang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Pin-Yuan Chen
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a promising technique for the delivery of drugs directly into the central nervous system (CNS) and, more specifically, the brain. CED can increase drug concentration within a brain tumor, thereby improving the therapeutic efficacy and limiting the systemic toxicity of tumoricidal agents. In this study, we evaluated a drug-liposome construct in vitro and in vivo using U87 tumor-bearing nude mice. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-based liposomes were designed to deliver a lipophilic temozolomide (TMZ) formulation (LipoTMZ)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901970/the-2016-who-classification-of-central-nervous-system-tumors-what-neurologists-need-to-know
#15
John C DeWitt, Andreas Mock, David N Louis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system (2016 CNS WHO) features many changes that are relevant to neurologists treating patients with brain tumors as well as neurologists involved in basic, clinical, and epidemiological research. This review summarizes what neurologists need to know and will need to know in the next years. RECENT FINDINGS: The 2016 CNS WHO introduces diagnostic terms that 'integrate' histological and molecular information and suggests presenting diagnoses in a four-layered reporting format...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892058/glia-specific-enhancers-and-chromatin-structure-regulate-nfia-expression-and-glioma-tumorigenesis
#16
Stacey M Glasgow, Jeffrey C Carlson, Wenyi Zhu, Lesley S Chaboub, Peng Kang, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Yoanne M Clovis, Brittney E Lozzi, Robert J McEvilly, Michael G Rosenfeld, Chad J Creighton, Soo-Kyung Lee, Carrie A Mohila, Benjamin Deneen
Long-range enhancer interactions critically regulate gene expression, yet little is known about how their coordinated activities contribute to CNS development or how this may, in turn, relate to disease states. By examining the regulation of the transcription factor NFIA in the developing spinal cord, we identified long-range enhancers that recapitulate NFIA expression across glial and neuronal lineages in vivo. Complementary genetic studies found that Sox9-Brn2 and Isl1-Lhx3 regulate enhancer activity and NFIA expression in glial and neuronal populations...
November 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869943/targeting-the-potassium-channel-kv1-3-kills-glioblastoma-cells
#17
Elisa Venturini, Luigi Leanza, Michele Azzolini, Stephanie Kadow, Andrea Mattarei, Michael Weller, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Michael J Edwards, Mario Zoratti, Cristina Paradisi, Ildikò Szabò, Erich Gulbins, Katrin Anne Becker
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers, counting for a high number of the newly diagnosed patients with central nervous system (CNS) cancers in the United States and Europe. Major features of GBM include aggressive and invasive growth as well as a high resistance to treatment. Kv1.3, a potassium channel of the shaker family, is expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane of many cancer cells. Inhibition of mitochondrial Kv1.3 was shown to induce apoptosis in several tumor cells at doses that were not lethal for normal cells...
September 1, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865921/in-vivo-assessment-of-tumor-heterogeneity-in-who-2016-glioma-grades-using-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-diagnostic-performance-and-improvement-of-feasibility-in-routine-clinical-practice
#18
J-M Hempel, J Schittenhelm, S Bisdas, C Brendle, B Bender, G Bier, M Skardelly, G Tabatabai, S Castaneda Vega, U Ernemann, U Klose
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic performance of normalized and non-normalized diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics extracted from different tumor volume data for grading glioma according to the integrated approach of the revised 2016 WHO classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma, who provided written informed consent, were retrospectively assessed between 01/2013 and 08/2016 from a prospective trial approved by the local institutional review board...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845038/treatment-recommendations-for-adult-patients-with-diffuse-gliomas-of-grades-ii-and-iii-according-to-the-new-who-classification-in-2016
#19
Hikaru Sasaki, Kazunari Yoshida
With advanced understanding of molecular background and correlation with therapeutic outcomes, the revised 4th edition of World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors incorporated molecular information into the definition of diffuse gliomas. Indeed, oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma are now defined by molecular signature, with diagnosis of glioblastoma being made by histology. In parallel, numerous clinical trials are underway all over the world, and important findings are being produced every year that have an impact on patient outcomes...
August 25, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841798/re-irradiation-for-recurrent-glioblastoma-multiforme
#20
Christian Barney, Gaurav Shukla, Deepak Bhamidipati, Joshua D Palmer
As our understanding of normal brain tissue tolerance and radiation technology have improved, central nervous system (CNS) re-irradiation has garnered more attention; whereas, in the past there had been hesitancy due to late toxicity concerns, particularly radionecrosis (RN). There is minimal prospective data evaluating repeat radiation in recurrent gliomas. In this review, the rationale for and different approaches to re-irradiation will be discussed, and the biology and clinical impact of late CNS toxicity will be reviewed...
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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