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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640707/response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-clinical-trials
#1
Patrick Y Wen, Susan M Chang, Martin J Van den Bent, Michael A Vogelbaum, David R Macdonald, Eudocia Q Lee
Development of novel therapies for CNS tumors requires reliable assessment of response and progression. This requirement has been particularly challenging in neuro-oncology for which contrast enhancement serves as an imperfect surrogate for tumor volume and is influenced by agents that affect vascular permeability, such as antiangiogenic therapies. In addition, most tumors have a nonenhancing component that can be difficult to accurately quantify. To improve the response assessment in neuro-oncology and to standardize the criteria that are used for different CNS tumors, the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group was established...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640700/cns-tumors-in-neurofibromatosis
#2
Jian Campian, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis (NF) encompasses a group of distinct genetic disorders in which affected children and adults are prone to the development of benign and malignant tumors of the nervous system. The purpose of this review is to discuss the spectrum of CNS tumors arising in individuals with NF type 1 (NF1) and NF type 2 (NF2), their pathogenic etiologies, and the rational treatment options for people with these neoplasms. This article is a review of preclinical and clinical data focused on the treatment of the most common CNS tumors encountered in children and adults with NF1 and NF2...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640698/pediatric-gliomas-current-concepts-on-diagnosis-biology-and-clinical-management
#3
Dominik Sturm, Stefan M Pfister, David T W Jones
Gliomas are the most common CNS tumors in children and adolescents, and they show an extremely broad range of clinical behavior. The majority of pediatric gliomas present as benign, slow-growing lesions classified as grade I or II by the WHO classification of CNS tumors. These pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are fundamentally different from IDH-mutant LGGs occurring in adults, because they rarely undergo malignant transformation and show excellent overall survival under current treatment strategies. However, a significant fraction of gliomas develop over a short period of time and progress rapidly and are therefore classified as WHO grade III or IV high-grade gliomas (HGGs)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627634/dtx3l-is-upregulated-in-glioma-and-is-associated-with-glioma-progression
#4
Peng Xu, Xuelei Tao, Chengjin Zhao, Qingfeng Huang, Hao Chang, Na Ban, Yuanqi Bei, Xiaojie Xia, Chaoyan Shen, Kun Wang, Li Xu, Peizhang Wu, Jianbing Ren, Donglin Wang
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Due to the poor prognosis of glioma patients, it is urgent to develop more effective therapies. Deltex-3-like (DTX3L), also known as B-lymphoma and BAL-associated protein (BBAP), has been reported to play an important role in the progression of many tumors. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of DTX3L in human glioma. Clinically, the protein expression level of DTX3L is increased in glioma tissues compared with that observed in normal brain tissues...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593528/the-neuropathological-basis-to-the-functional-role-of-microglia-macrophages-in-gliomas
#5
Davide Schiffer, Marta Mellai, Enrica Bovio, Laura Annovazzi
The paper wants to be a tracking shot of the main recent acquisitions on the function and significance of microglia/macrophages in gliomas. The observations have been principally carried out on in vitro cultures and on tumor transplants in animals. Contrary to what is deduced from microglia in non-neoplastic pathologic conditions of central nervous system (CNS), most conclusions indicate that microglia acts favoring tumor proliferation through an immunosuppression induced by glioma cells. By immunohistochemistry, different microglia phenotypes are recognized in gliomas, from ramified microglia to frank macrophagic aspect...
June 7, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592714/the-2016-who-classification-of-tumours-of-the-central-nervous-system-the-major-points-of-revision
#6
Takashi Komori
The updated 2016 edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) uses molecular parameters and the histology to define the main tumor categories for the first time. This represents a shift from the traditional principle of using neuropathological diagnoses, which are primarily based on the microscopic features, to using molecularly-oriented diagnoses. Major restructuring was made with regard to diffuse gliomas, medulloblastomas and other embryonal tumors...
June 8, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582410/a-phase-i-study-of-single-agent-perifosine-for-recurrent-or-refractory-pediatric-cns-and-solid-tumors
#7
Oren J Becher, Nathan E Millard, Shakeel Modak, Brian H Kushner, Sofia Haque, Ivan Spasojevic, Tanya M Trippett, Stephen W Gilheeney, Yasmin Khakoo, David C Lyden, Kevin C De Braganca, Jill M Kolesar, Jason T Huse, Kim Kramer, Nai-Kong V Cheung, Ira J Dunkel
The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in various pediatric tumors. We conducted a phase I study of the Akt inhibitor perifosine in patients with recurrent/refractory pediatric CNS and solid tumors. This was a standard 3+3 open-label dose-escalation study to assess pharmacokinetics, describe toxicities, and identify the MTD for single-agent perifosine. Five dose levels were investigated, ranging from 25 to 125 mg/m2/day for 28 days per cycle. Twenty-three patients (median age 10 years, range 4-18 years) with CNS tumors (DIPG [n = 3], high-grade glioma [n = 5], medulloblastoma [n = 2], ependymoma [n = 3]), neuroblastoma (n = 8), Wilms tumor (n = 1), and Ewing sarcoma (n = 1) were treated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577579/patterns-of-relapse-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-inferences-regarding-the-role-of-the-neuro-vascular-unit-and-monoclonal-antibodies-in-treating-occult-cns-disease
#8
Prakash Ambady, Rongwei Fu, Joao Prola Netto, Cymon Kersch, Jenny Firkins, Nancy D Doolittle, Edward A Neuwelt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The radiologic features and patterns of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) at initial presentation are well described. High response rates can be achieved with first-line high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) based regimens, yet many relapse within 2 years of diagnosis. We describe the pattern of relapse and review the potential mechanisms involved in relapse. METHODS: We identified 78 consecutive patients who attained complete radiographic response (CR) during or after first-line treatment for newly diagnosed PCNSL (CD20+, diffuse large B cell type)...
June 2, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561706/practice-changing-abstracts-from-the-2016-society-for-neuro-oncology-annual-scientific-meeting
#9
Marta Penas-Prado
The most relevant practice-changing presentations at the 2016 Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO) Annual Scientific Meeting revolved around the topic of the new 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. The most notable change in this new classification is the introduction of molecular markers into the morphologic classification of diffuse gliomas (isocitrate dehydrogenase [IDH] mutation, 1p19q codeletion, and H3K27M mutation), ependymomas (RELA fusion), medulloblastomas (WNT- and sonic hedgehog-activated), and other embryonal tumors (C19MC amplification), thus allowing for more precise diagnosis of these entities compared with the use of morphologic features alone...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561665/new-classification-for-central-nervous-system-tumors-implications-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#10
Christine E Fuller, David T W Jones, Mark W Kieran
The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (WHO 2016) represents a noteworthy divergence from prior classification schemas. This new classification introduced the concept of "integrated diagnoses" based on a marriage of both phenotypic (microscopic) and genotypic parameters, with the intended goals of improving diagnostic accuracy and patient management. The result is a major restructuring in many of the brain tumor categories, with the codification of multiple new tumor entities and subgroups...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549927/molecular-classification-of-adult-diffuse-gliomas-conflicting-idh1-idh2-atrx-and-1p-19q-results
#11
Leomar Y Ballester, Jason T Huse, Guilin Tang, Gregory N Fuller
Until recently, the diagnosis of brain tumors was primarily based on microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections. The updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) incorporates genetic alterations into the classification system, with the goal of creating more homogenous disease categories with greater prognostic value. Hence, under the new classification system the diagnosis of diffuse gliomas incorporates the evaluation of mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes and simultaneous deletion of chromosomes 1p and 19...
May 23, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548875/overweight-obesity-and-height-as-risk-factors-for-meningioma-glioma-pituitary-adenoma-and-nerve-sheath-tumor-a-large-population-based-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Markus K H Wiedmann, Cathrine Brunborg, Antonio Di Ieva, Kristina Lindemann, Tom B Johannesen, Lars Vatten, Eirik Helseth, John A Zwart
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has announced that avoiding body fatness (i.e. overweight and obesity) contributes to prevent meningioma occurrence, but considered the available evidence for glioma inadequate. The association of body fatness with other CNS tumor subgroups is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether body fatness or body height are associated with risk for meningioma, glioma, pituitary adenoma (PA) or nerve sheath tumor (NST) in a large population-based Norwegian cohort...
May 26, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548216/pathology-of-oligodendroglia-an-overview
#13
Takashi Komori
Oligodendroglia are cells responsible for creating myelin sheaths for axons in the CNS. However, pathologies of oligodendroglia other than demyelination are not well understood due to the lack of adequate methods of characterizing pathological conditions affecting oligodendroglia in human tissue. This review discusses three major topics with the aim of clarifying some of the controversies in the study of oligodendroglia. The oligodendroglioma, a relatively indolent form of diffuse gliomas thought to originate in oligodendrocytes, has never demonstrated myelin formation on electron microscopy nor shown a constant expression of myelin-related proteins...
May 26, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544746/clinical-outcomes-following-proton-therapy-for-children-with-central-nervous-system-tumors-referred-overseas
#14
Daniel J Indelicato, Julie A Bradley, Eric S Sandler, Philipp R Aldana, Amy Sapp, Jennifer E Gains, Adrian Crellin, Ronny L Rotondo
BACKGROUND: International, multidisciplinary care of children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors presents unique challenges. The aim of this study is to report patient outcomes of U.K. children referred for proton therapy to a North American facility. METHODS: From 2008 to 2016, 166 U.K. children with approved CNS tumors were treated with proton therapy at a single academic medical center in the United States. Median age was 7 years (range, 1-19). Median follow-up was 2...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535583/molecular-testing-of-brain-tumor
#15
REVIEW
Sung-Hye Park, Jaekyung Won, Seong-Ik Kim, Yujin Lee, Chul-Kee Park, Seung-Ki Kim, Seung-Hong Choi
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors was revised in 2016 with a basis on the integrated diagnosis of molecular genetics. We herein provide the guidelines for using molecular genetic tests in routine pathological practice for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. While astrocytomas and IDH-mutant (secondary) glioblastomas are characterized by the mutational status of IDH, TP53 , and ATRX , oligodendrogliomas have a 1p/19q codeletion and mutations in IDH, CIC , FUBP1 , and the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase ( TERTp )...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534372/serum-expression-level-of-mir-504-can-differentiate-between-glioblastoma-multiforme-and-solitary-brain-metastasis-of-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#16
Zheng Jin, Ri-Hua Jin, Chi Ma, Hai-Song Li, Hai-Yang Xu
PURPOSE: Gliomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), accounting for about one third of all brain tumors. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the aggressive grade IV glioma with survival as low as 2-5% in the second year post-diagnosis, hence necessitating efficient diagnostic markers. More than 50% of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases are solitary lesions, often difficult to differentiate from gliomas by conventional imaging diagnostics...
March 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532485/multidimensional-scaling-of-diffuse-gliomas-application-to-the-2016-world-health-organization-classification-system-with-prognostically-relevant-molecular-subtype-discovery
#17
Patrick J Cimino, Michael Zager, Lisa McFerrin, Hans-Georg Wirsching, Hamid Bolouri, Bettina Hentschel, Andreas von Deimling, David Jones, Guido Reifenberger, Michael Weller, Eric C Holland
Recent updating of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in 2016 demonstrates the first organized effort to restructure brain tumor classification by incorporating histomorphologic features with recurrent molecular alterations. Revised CNS tumor diagnostic criteria also attempt to reduce interobserver variability of histological interpretation and provide more accurate stratification related to clinical outcome. As an example, diffuse gliomas (WHO grades II-IV) are now molecularly stratified based upon isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH) mutational status, with gliomas of WHO grades II and III being substratified according to 1p/19q codeletion status...
May 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531344/citation-classics-in-neuro-oncology-assessment-of-historical-trends-and-scientific-progress
#18
Laureen D Hachem, Alireza Mansouri, Kyle Juraschka, Shervin Taslimi, Farhad Pirouzmand, Gelareh Zadeh
Background.: Citation classics represent the highest cited works in a field and are often regarded as the most influential literature. Analyzing thematic trends in citation classics across eras enables recognition of important historical advances within a field. We present the first analysis of the citation classics in neuro-oncology. Methods.: The Web of Science database was searched using terms relevant to "neuro-oncology." Articles with >400 citations were identified and the top 100 cited articles were evaluated...
May 20, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516074/an-updated-nationwide-epidemiology-of-primary-brain-tumors-in-republic-of-korea-2013
#19
Yun-Sik Dho, Kyu-Won Jung, Johyun Ha, Youngbeom Seo, Chul-Kee Park, Young-Joo Won, Heon Yoo
BACKGROUND: This report aims to provide accurate nationwide epidemiologic data on primary brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the Republic of Korea. We updated the data by analyzing primary brain and CNS tumors diagnosed in 2013 using the data from the national cancer incidence database. METHODS: Data on primary brain and CNS tumors diagnosed in 2013 were collected from the Korean Central Cancer Registry. Crude and age-standardized rates were calculated in terms of gender, age, and histological type...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511914/digitoxin-increases-sensitivity-of-glioma-stem-cells-to-trail-mediated-apoptosis
#20
Zhixuan Shang, Liwei Zhang
Malignant glioma is one type of common malignancy in central nervous system (CNS) tumors which has a very bad influence on the survival quality of the patients. In this regard, lots of studies on improving the therapeutic effects of malignant glioma have been done continuously. This study takes glioma stem cells (GSCs) as the subject and focuses on the sensitization effect of digitoxin (DT) on the apoptosis mediated by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to prove that the combination therapy of DT and TRAIL has a more active effect of inducing GSCs apoptosis...
May 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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