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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212424/risk-factors-for-central-nervous-system-tumors-in-children-new-findings-from-a-case-control-study
#1
Rebeca Ramis, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Diana Gómez-Barroso, Gonzalo López-Abente, Antonio Morales-Piga, Elena Pardo Romaguera, Nuria Aragonés, Javier García-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system tumors (CNS) are the most frequent solid tumor in children. Causes of CNS tumors are mainly unknown and only 5% of the cases can be explained by genetic predisposition. We studied the effects of environmental exposure on the incidence of CNS tumors in children by subtype, according to exposure to industrial and/or urban environment, exposure to crops and according to socio-economic status of the child. METHODS: We carried out a population-based case-control study of CNS tumors in Spain, covering 714 incident cases collected from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (period 1996-2011) and 4284 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204914/salvage-therapy-with-bendamustine-for-temozolomide-refractory-recurrent-anaplastic-gliomas-a-prospective-phase-ii-trial
#2
Marc C Chamberlain, Howard Colman, Bryan T Kim, Jeffrey Raizer
There is no standard therapy for recurrent anaplastic glioma (AG). Salvage therapies include alkylator-based chemotherapy, re-resection with or without carmustine implants, re-irradiation and bevacizumab. Bendamustine is a novel bifunctional alkylator with CNS penetration never previously evaluated in AG. Assess response and toxicity of bendamustine in recurrent AG in a phase II trial. Adults with radiation and temozolomide refractory recurrent AG were treated with bendamustine. A cycle of bendamustine was defined as two consecutive days of treatment (100 mg/m(2)/day) administered once every 4 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203606/dna-methylation-in-oligodendroglial-cells-during-developmental-myelination-and-in-disease
#3
Sarah Moyon, Patrizia Casaccia
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). During development, they differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes (OL) and ensheath axons, providing trophic and functional support to the neurons. This process is regulated by the dynamic expression of specific transcription factors, which, in turn, is controlled by epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation. Here we discuss recent findings showing that DNA methylation levels are differentially regulated in the oligodendrocyte lineage during developmental myelination, affecting both genes expression and alternative splicing events...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138871/clinical-relevance-of-steroid-use-in-neuro-oncology
#4
REVIEW
K Ina Ly, Patrick Y Wen
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are commonly used in the management of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors and CNS metastases to treat cancer- and treatment-related cerebral edema and improve neurologic function. However, they are also associated with significant morbidity and mortality, given their wide range of adverse effects. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the mechanism of action, pharmacology, and toxicity profile of corticosteroids and to critically appraise the evidence that supports their use in neuro-oncologic practice based on the latest scientific and clinical data...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124385/up-regulation-of-plakophilin-2-is-correlated-with-the-progression-of-glioma
#5
Degeng Zhang, Yuxia Qian, Xiaoxing Liu, Hong Yu, Niangao Zhao, Zhengdong Wu
Glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumor in the CNS. Due to its poor prognosis and high mortality rates, it is urgent to find out more effective therapies. Plakophilin-2 (PKP2) is a widespread desmosomal plaque protein. Recently, the important roles of PKP2 in the proliferation and migration of cancer cells and tumor progression has been shown. However, the expression and potential function of PKP2 in glioma was still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that PKP2 protein expression level was increased in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues, and its level was significantly associated with the Ki-67 expression and WHO grade by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry...
January 26, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111040/-immunotherapy-in-brain-tumors
#6
Emilie De Carli, Matthieu Delion, Audrey Rousseau
Diffuse gliomas represent the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors in adults and children alike. Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant form of diffuse glioma with a median overall survival of 15 months despite aggressive treatments. New therapeutic approaches are needed to prolong survival in this always fatal disease. The CNS has been considered for a long time as an immune privileged organ, in part because of the existence of the blood-brain barrier. Nonetheless, immunotherapy is a novel approach in the therapeutic management of glioma patients, which has shown promising results in several clinical trials, especially in the adult population...
January 19, 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063055/isolation-of-microglia-and-immune-infiltrates-from-mouse-and-primate-central-nervous-system
#7
Thais F Galatro, Ilia D Vainchtein, Nieske Brouwer, Erik W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen
Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, providing neural support and neuroprotection. Microglia constantly survey their environment and quickly respond to homeostatic perturbations. Microglia are increasingly implicated in neuropathological and neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and glioma progression. Here, we describe a detailed isolation protocol for microglia and immune infiltrates, optimized for large amounts of post mortem tissue from human and rhesus macaque, as well as smaller tissue amounts from mouse brain and spinal cord, that yield a highly purified microglia population (up to 98 % purity)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060678/canine-central-nervous-system-neoplasm-phenotyping-using-tissue-microarray-technique
#8
I Spitzbarth, F Heinrich, V Herder, T Recker, P Wohlsein, W Baumgärtner
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042970/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-in-molecular-subtyping-of-lower-grade-diffuse-gliomas-application-of-the-world-health-organization-s-2016-revised-criteria-for-cns-tumors
#9
Jamal H Carter, Samantha N McNulty, Patrick J Cimino, Catherine E Cottrell, Jonathan W Heusel, Katinka A Vigh-Conrad, Eric J Duncavage
The 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System classifies lower-grade gliomas [LGGs (grades II to III diffuse gliomas)] morphologically as astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas, and tumors with unclear ambiguous morphology as oligoastrocytomas. The World Health Organization's newly released (2016) classification incorporates molecular data. A single, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel was used for detecting single-nucleotide variation and copy number variation in 50 LGG cases originally classified using the 2007 criteria, including 36 oligoastrocytomas, 11 oligodendrogliomas, 2 astrocytomas, and 1 LGG not otherwise specified...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009239/central-nervous-system-filariasis-masquerading-as-a-glioma-case-report
#10
Adesh Shrivastava, Prateek Arora, Akriti Khare, Garima Goel, Neelkamal Kapoor
Filariasis, an endemic zoonosis in the Southeast Asia region, has been reported to affect various organs as well as the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammatory reactions mimicking those from neoplastic lesions clinically and radiologically have been reported in the breast and urinary bladder. To date, a CNS manifestation of filarial infestation has been reported in the form of meningoencephalitis. The authors here present an interesting case of a young man presenting in status epilepticus, which on radiological evaluation appeared to be a glioma...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998231/hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-dysfunction-in-survivors-of-childhood-cns-tumors-importance-of-systematic-follow-up-and-early-endocrine-consultation
#11
Wassim Chemaitilly, Gregory T Armstrong, Amar Gajjar, Melissa M Hudson
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987946/lactoferrin-coated-polysaccharide-nanoparticles-based-on-chitosan-hydrochloride-hyaluronic-acid-peg-for-treating-brain-glioma
#12
Yurui Xu, Sajid Asghar, Liu Yang, Hongying Li, Zhilin Wang, Qineng Ping, Yanyu Xiao
Curcuminoid (Cur) loaded polysaccharide nanoformulations with blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration and brain targeting properties, based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitosan hydrochloride (CSH) (Lf-Cur-PSNPs) were developed as a novel delivery system for malignant glioma. Formulations were investigated for physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, uptake, and BBB penetration. The results showed that LfM-Cur-PSNPs (concentration of Lf was 0.5mg/mL) were preferentially taken up by brain capillary endothelial cells than Cur-PSNPs at any time...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978508/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-pediatric-neuro-oncology-patients-improves-diagnosis-identifies-pathogenic-germline-mutations-and-directs-targeted-therapy
#13
Cassie N Kline, Nancy M Joseph, James P Grenert, Jessica van Ziffle, Eric Talevich, Courtney Onodera, Mariam Aboian, Soonmee Cha, David R Raleigh, Steve Braunstein, Joseph Torkildson, David Samuel, Michelle Bloomer, Alejandra G de Alba Campomanes, Anuradha Banerjee, Nicholas Butowski, Corey Raffel, Tarik Tihan, Andrew W Bollen, Joanna J Phillips, W Michael Korn, Iwei Yeh, Boris C Bastian, Nalin Gupta, Sabine Mueller, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, David A Solomon
BACKGROUND: Molecular profiling is revolutionizing cancer diagnostics and leading to personalized therapeutic approaches. Herein we describe our clinical experience performing targeted sequencing for 31 pediatric neuro-oncology patients. METHODS: We sequenced 510 cancer-associated genes from tumor and peripheral blood to identify germline and somatic mutations, structural variants, and copy number changes. RESULTS: Genomic profiling was performed on 31 patients with tumors including 11 high-grade gliomas, 8 medulloblastomas, 6 low-grade gliomas, 1 embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 uveal ganglioneuroma, 1 choroid plexus carcinoma, 1 chordoma, and 1 high-grade neuroepithelial tumor...
November 14, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974956/correlation-of-intraoperative-frozen-section-report-and-histopathological-diagnosis-of-%C3%A2-central-nervous-system-tumors-a-six-year-retrospective-study
#14
Radiya Al-Ajmi, Hunaina Al-Kindi, Mina George, Kurien Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the degree of agreement between the intraoperative frozen section (FS) reporting of central nervous system (CNS) tumors and final histopathological diagnosis based on permanent paraffin section. METHODS: All CNS tumor cases with a diagnosis at FS and subsequent permanent section (n = 261) taken from 2007 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty percent of FS were double-checked by a senior pathologist as part of the study and the intraobserver agreement between the pathologist and the agreement between final report, and initial FS report was estimated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)...
November 2016: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966427/patterns-of-diagnostic-marker-assessment-in-adult-diffuse-glioma-a-survey-of-the-european-confederation-of-neuropathological-societies-euro-cns
#15
Adelheid Woehrer, Bjarne W Kristensen, Anne Vital, Johannes A Hainfellner
The 2016 update of the WHO classification has introduced an integrated diagnostic approach that incorporates both tumor morphology and molecular information. This conceptual change has far-reaching implications, especially for neuropathologists who are in the forefront of translating molecular markers to routine diagnostic use. Adult diffuse glioma is a prototypic example for a group of tumors that underwent substantial regrouping, and it represents a major workload for surgical neuropathologists. Hence, we conducted a survey among members of the European Confederation of Neuropathological Societies (Euro-CNS) in order to assess 1) the extent to which molecular markers have already been incorporated in glioma diagnoses, 2) which molecular techniques are in daily use, and 3) to set a baseline for future surveys in this field...
January 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956075/natural-product-htp-screening-for-attenuation-of-cytokine-induced-neutrophil-chemo-attractants-cincs-and-no2-in-lps-ifn%C3%AE-activated-glioma-cells
#16
Elizabeth A Mazzio, David Bauer, Patricia Mendonca, Equar Taka, Karam F A Soliman
Chronic and acute central nervous system (CNS) inflammation are contributors toward neurological injury associated with head trauma, stroke, infection, Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease. CNS inflammatory illnesses can also contribute toward risk of developing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). With growing public interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), we conduct a high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 natural herbs, plants and over the counter (OTC) products for anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon gamma (IFNγ) activated C6 glioma cells...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888628/impact-of-epidemiological-characteristics-of-supratentorial-gliomas-in-adults-brought-about-by-the-2016-world-health-organization-classification-of-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system
#17
Haihui Jiang, Yong Cui, Junmei Wang, Song Lin
The latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) integrates both histological and molecular features in the definition of diagnostic entities. This new approach enrolls novel entities of gliomas. In this study, we aimed to reveal the epidemiological characteristics, including age at diagnosis, gender ratio, tumor distribution and survival, of these new entities. We retrospectively reclassified 1210 glioma samples according to the 2016 CNS WHO diagnostic criteria...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877908/an-immuno-wall-microdevice-exhibits-rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-idh1-r132h-mutation-specific-to-grade-ii-and-iii-gliomas
#18
Akane Yamamichi, Toshihiro Kasama, Fumiharu Ohka, Hiromichi Suzuki, Akira Kato, Kazuya Motomura, Masaki Hirano, Melissa Ranjit, Lushun Chalise, Michihiro Kurimoto, Goro Kondo, Kosuke Aoki, Noritada Kaji, Manabu Tokeshi, Toshio Matsubara, Takeshi Senga, Mika K Kaneko, Hidenori Suzuki, Masahito Hara, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Yoshinobu Baba, Yukinari Kato, Atsushi Natsume
World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas most frequently occur in the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Gliomas are not circumscribed; tumor edges are irregular and consist of tumor cells, normal brain tissue, and hyperplastic reactive glial cells. Therefore, the tumors are not fully resectable, resulting in recurrence, malignant progression, and eventual death. Approximately 69-80% of grade II and III gliomas harbor mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1), of which 83-90% are found to be the IDH1-R132H mutation...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815391/quantitative-fluorescence-microscopy-measures-vascular-pore-size-in-primary-and-metastatic-brain-tumors
#19
Rajendar K Mittapalli, Chris E Adkins, Kaci A Bohn, Afroz S Mohammad, Julie A Lockman, Paul R Lockman
Tumors residing in the central nervous system (CNS) compromise the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via increased vascular permeability, with the magnitude of changes dependent on the tumor type and location. Current studies determine penetrability of a cancer therapeutic by administering progressively larger molecules until cutoff is observed where little to no tumor accumulation occurs. However, decades-old experimental work and mathematical modeling document methods to calculate both the size of the vascular opening (pore) with solute permeability values...
January 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798857/re-irradiation-for-recurrent-primary-brain-tumors
#20
REVIEW
Carsten Nieder, Nicolaus H Andratschke, Anca L Grosu
BACKGROUND: Historically, radiation oncologists have been cautious about re-irradiating brain tumors because of concerns about the risks of late central nervous system (CNS) toxicity, especially radionecrosis, that may occur several months to years following treatment. Today there are still limited prospective data addressing this approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic review of published trials reporting clinical results after re-irradiation of patients with different types of brain tumors was performed...
2016: Anticancer Research
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