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Jonathan Kei, Donald P Mebust
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that an adult 8.0 endotracheal tube (ETT) connected to a neonatal meconium aspirator would improve suctioning during emergent endotracheal intubation compared to the Yankauer suction instrument, the standard tool used by emergency physicians. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of a Yankauer vs. an ETT-meconium aspirator set-up in suctioning liquids of different viscosities. METHODS: The Yankauer and ETT-meconium aspirator device underwent a head-to-head timed comparison, suctioning 250 mL of three different fluids, varying in viscosity...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Xiang Kong, Yan Kong, Fangyuan Zhang, Tingting Wang, Jin Yan
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a specific pregnancy-related disorder without standard medical therapies. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the most used medicine, but the efficacy and safety of UDCA remain uncertain. Several meta-analyses had been made to assess the effects of UDCA in ICP. However, the samples were not large enough to convince obstetricians to use UDCA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects and safety of UDCA in patients with ICP, which included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ahmad S Ashrafi, Michael J Horkoff, Waleed M Mohammad, Shaheer Tadros, Sudhir Sundaresan
INTRODUCTION: Boerhaave's syndrome is defined as the spontaneous perforation of the esophagus. Although it has been reported in association with different gastrointestinal pathologies, there are no previous reports in association with an incarcerated inguinal hernia containing ischemic small bowel. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present an unusual case of a gentleman who presented with severe chest pain after a 24-h period of emesis. He was found to have developed an esophageal perforation presumed secondary to an incarcerated inguinal hernia causing small bowel obstruction...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Midori Nakagaki, Michael Barras, Cameron Curley, Jason P Butler, Glen A Kennedy
PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of olanzapine, palonosetron and ondansetron infusion (standard of care) for the treatment of breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHOD: It was a randomized open-label prospective study. Sixty-two patients were randomized to receive either ondansetron 32-mg infusion over 24 h, or olanzapine wafer 10 mg once daily in addition to ondansetron 8 mg IV three times a day or a single dose of palonosetron 0...
October 13, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Shan Yu, Aaron D Pearson, Reyna K V Lim, David T Rodgers, Sijia Li, Holly B Parker, Meredith Weglarz, Eric N Hampton, Michael J Bollong, Jiayin Shen, Claudio Zambaldo, Danling Wang, Ashley K Woods, Timothy M Wright, Peter G Schultz, Stephanie A Kazane, Travis S Young, Matthew S Tremblay
Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors are approved for the treatment of some moderate to severe inflammatory conditions. However, dose-limiting side effects in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract, including nausea, emesis, headache, and diarrhea, have impeded the broader therapeutic application of PDE4 inhibitors. We sought to exploit the wealth of validation surrounding PDE4 inhibition by improving the therapeutic index through generation of an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively targets immune cells through the CD11a antigen...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
M C Vallejo, A F Attaallah, O M Elzamzamy, D T Cifarelli, A L Phelps, G R Hobbs, R E Shapiro, P Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: During spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery phenylephrine is the vasopressor of choice but can cause bradycardia. Norepinephrine has both β- and α-adrenergic activity suitable for maintaining blood pressure with less bradycardia. We hypothesized that norepinephrine would be superior to phenylephrine, requiring fewer rescue bolus interventions to maintain blood pressure. METHODS: Eighty-five parturients having spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery were randomized to Group P (phenylephrine 0...
August 28, 2016: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Ralf Ulrich Trappe, Marianne Sinn, Hanno Riess
There is only limited data for the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in tumor patients and no data from prospective randomised trials comparing DOACs to the current standard care: low molecular weight heparine (LMWH). Therefore, DOACs must be used with caution and should be restricted to tumor patients with (1) contraindications for LMWH (e.g. HIT II, phobia of syringe) or (2) to the situations of prolonged anticoagulation after initial therapy with LMWH. Cancer-associated disorders as well as side effects of chemotherapy as nausea and emesis have to be considered as well as potential substance-specific interactions...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Catherine McParlin, Amy O'Donnell, Stephen C Robson, Fiona Beyer, Eoin Moloney, Andrew Bryant, Jennifer Bradley, Colin R Muirhead, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Justine Norman, Caroline Shaw, Emma Simpson, Brian Swallow, Laura Yates, Luke Vale
Importance: Nausea and vomiting affects approximately 85% of pregnant women. The most severe form, hyperemesis gravidarum, affects up to 3% of women and can have significant adverse physical and psychological sequelae. Objective: To summarize current evidence on effective treatments for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum. Evidence Review: Databases were searched to June 8, 2016. Relevant websites and bibliographies were also searched...
October 4, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Megan C Niederwerder, Jerome C Nietfeld, Jianfa Bai, Lalitha Peddireddi, Barbara Breazeale, Joe Anderson, Maureen A Kerrigan, Baoyan An, Richard D Oberst, Kimberly Crawford, Kelly M Lager, Darin M Madson, Raymond R R Rowland, Gary A Anderson, Richard A Hesse
We determined tissue localization, shedding patterns, virus carriage, antibody response, and aerosol transmission of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) following inoculation of 4-week-old feeder pigs. Thirty-three pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups for the 42-day study: inoculated (group A; n = 23), contact transmission (group B; n = 5), and aerosol transmission (group C; n = 5). Contact transmission occurred rapidly to group B pigs whereas productive aerosol transmission failed to occur to group C pigs...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
T Gregg Davis
The ability to assess the potential for gastrointestinal adverse events in a preclinical setting is a challenge in the development of new drugs, as the vast majority of in vivo research is conducted in rodent species lacking a vomiting reflex. The use of higher species capable of emesis is often limited by cost, technical experience, and relevant efficacy models to define a therapeutic index. Additionally, investigators should be mindful of ethical considerations when using more sentient species when an alternative in lower species is available...
October 3, 2016: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
Isabelle Karine da Costa Nunes, Everton Tenório de Souza, Suzana Vanessa S Cardozo, Vinicius de Frias Carvalho, Nelilma Correia Romeiro, Patrícia Machado Rodrigues E Silva, Marco Aurélio Martins, Eliezer J Barreiro, Lídia Moreira Lima
Prior investigations showed that increased levels of cyclic AMP down-regulate lung inflammatory changes, stimulating the interest in phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 as therapeutic target. Here, we described the synthesis, pharmacological profile and docking properties of a novel sulfonamide series (5 and 6a-k) designed as PDE4 inhibitors. Compounds were screened for their selectivity against the four isoforms of human PDE4 using an IMAP fluorescence polarized protocol. The effect on allergen- or LPS-induced lung inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) was studied in A/J mice, while the xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia test was employed as a behavioral correlate of emesis in rodents...
2016: PloS One
Leigh A Rettenmaier, Brian J Park, Marshall T Holland, Youssef J Hamade, Shuchita Garg, Rahul Rastogi, Chandan G Reddy
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a more common than previously noted condition (1-2.5 per 50,000) typically caused by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Initial treatment involves conservative therapies, but the mainstay of treatment for patients who fail conservative management is the epidural blood patch (EBP). Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common complication occurring with SIH, but its management remains controversial. In this report, we discuss a 62-year-old female who presented with a 5-week history of orthostatic headaches associated with nausea, emesis, and neck pain...
September 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Zengbing Lu, Chi-Kong Yeung, Ge Lin, David T W Yew, P L R Andrews, John A Rudd
BACKGROUND: GLP-1 receptor agonists are utilised for the treatment of Type-2 diabetes but can be associated with undesirable effects of nausea and vomiting. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of GLP-1 receptors in mechanisms of emesis, behaviours indicative of nausea (BIN) and food intake in the ferret. RESULTS: Exendin-4 (10 and 30nmol, i.c.v.) induced emesis, inhibited food intake, and increased the frequency of BIN. Increases in c-Fos in the brainstem, midbrain and forebrain occurred in animals exhibiting emesis; no activation of the brainstem occurred in animals not vomiting...
September 14, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Zhong-Zhen Zhou, Yu-Fang Cheng, Zheng-Qiang Zou, Bing-Chen Ge, Hui Yu, Cang Huang, Hai-Tao Wang, Xue-Mei Yang, Jiang-Ping Xu
Depression involving neuroinflammation is one of the most common disabling and life-threatening psychiatric disorders. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors produce potent antidepressant-like and cognition-enhancing effects. However, their clinical utility is limited by their major side effect of emesis. To obtain more selective PDE4 inhibitors with antidepressant and anti-neuroinflammation potential and less side effect of emesis, we designed and synthesized a series of N-alkyl catecholamides by modifying the 4-methoxybenzyl group of our hit compound, FCPE07, with an alkyl side chain...
October 3, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Teresa Meier, J Michael Hazenfield, Saulius Girnius, Matthew Hagen, Ronald E Warnick, Jordan Kharofa
A 54-year-old female presented with multiple episodes of emesis, intractable headaches, worsening balance, and slowly progressive right facial weakness. Imaging demonstrated a 3-cm mass in the left internal capsule and corona radiata region with associated edema, mass effect, and midline shift concerning for high-grade glioma, lymphoma, or brain metastasis. Stereotactic biopsy of the mass was consistent with amyloid deposition. Systemic workup for amyloidosis was negative, and the mass was thought to represent a focal tumor-like deposit of amyloid, also referred to as "amyloidoma...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Wenda Wu, Hui-Ren Zhou, Steven J Bursian, Jane E Link, James J Pestka
The common foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) can negatively impact animal and human health by causing food refusal and vomiting. Gut enteroendocrine cells (EECs) secrete hormones that mediate DON's anorectic and emetic effects. In prior work utilizing a cloned EEC model, our laboratory discovered that DON-induced activation of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-coupled protein receptor (GPCR), and transient receptor ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel, drives Ca(2+)-mediated hormone secretion...
September 25, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Joanna L Gould, Ashwini S Poola, Shawn D St Peter, Pablo Aguayo
PURPOSE: After investigating barriers for same day discharge (SDD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), we employed a protocol which we have followed with a prospective, observational study. METHODS: A single institution, prospective observational study was performed from July 2014 to 2015 (2nd period). These data were compared to our initial experience with an SDD protocol from January 2013 to July 2014 (1st period). RESULTS: A total of 191 LCs were analyzed, 116 in the 1st period and 75 in the second period...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
B Zollers, M Huebner, G Armintrout, L C Rausch-Derra, L Rhodes
The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety of capromorelin, a ghrelin agonist that stimulates appetite and causes increased body weight and the release of growth hormone (GH). Beagle dogs (n = 32) received either oral placebo or 0.3, 7, or 40 mg/kg capromorelin once daily for 12 consecutive months. Safety was evaluated by physical examinations, including ECG and ophthalmic examinations, and comprehensive clinical pathology. Serum levels of capromorelin, GH, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured periodically...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Delphine Payros, Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Alix Pierron, Nicolas Loiseau, Philippe Pinton, Isabelle P Oswald
Mycotoxins are the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in human and animal diet. Among them, deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by Fusarium, is one of the most prevalent and thus represents an important health risk. Recent detection methods revealed new mycotoxins and new molecules derivated from the "native" mycotoxins. The main derivates of DON are the acetylated forms produced by the fungi (3- and 15-acetyl-DON), the biologically "modified" forms produced by the plant (deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucopyranoside), or after bacteria transformation (de-epoxy DON, 3-epi-DON and 3-keto-DON) as well as the chemically "modified" forms (norDON A-C and DON-sulfonates)...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Natan E Seidel, Beth D Harper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
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