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Peripheral nerve blocks

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149212/mycolactone-displays-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-the-nervous-system
#1
Caroline Isaac, Annie Mauborgne, Alfonso Grimaldi, Kemy Ade, Michel Pohl, Cristina Limatola, Yves Boucher, Caroline Demangel, Laure Guenin-Macé
BACKGROUND: Mycolactone is a macrolide produced by the skin pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, with cytotoxic, analgesic and immunomodulatory properties. The latter were recently shown to result from mycolactone blocking the Sec61-dependent production of pro-inflammatory mediators by immune cells. Here we investigated whether mycolactone similarly affects the inflammatory responses of the nervous cell subsets involved in pain perception, transmission and maintenance. We also investigated the effects of mycolactone on the neuroinflammation that is associated with chronic pain in vivo...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148009/preoperative-ultrasound-for-runoff-venous-decompression-of-peripheral-nerves-for-arteriovenous-access-related-pain-in-the-upper-limb
#2
Hiroaki Matsuda, Yoshinari Oka, Ryuichi Yoshida, Yuki Katsura, Hidemi Takeuchi, Yasuo Fujimoto, Shigeko Takatsu, Masashi Miyazaki
INTRODUCTION: Arteriovenous access (AVA)-related pain treated successfully with runoff-venous decompression of the causative nerve, following ultrasound (US)-assisted preoperative evaluation, has never been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man suffering from constant exhausting pains along the outflow cephalic vein of the radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula at the wrist and the antecubital fossa, was treated surgically after the diagnosis of AVA-related pain derived from cephalic vein compression on two peripheral cutaneous nerves, the superficial radial nerve (SRN) and the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133339/decreased-ceramide-underlies-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-charcot-marie-tooth-2f
#3
Nicholas U Schwartz, Ryan W Linzer, Jean-Philip Truman, Mikhail Gurevich, Yusuf A Hannun, Can E Senkal, Lina M Obeid
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most commonly inherited neurologic disorder, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. One variant of CMT, 2F, is characterized by mutations in heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27). As bioactive sphingolipids have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, we sought to determine if their dysregulation is involved in CMT. Here, we show that Hsp27 knockout mice demonstrated decreases in ceramide in peripheral nerve tissue and that the disease-associated Hsp27 S135F mutant demonstrated decreases in mitochondrial ceramide...
November 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124490/nerve-blocks-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-headache-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Alexander Sasha Dubrovsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral nerve blocks of the scalp, mainly greater occipital nerve blocks, have received a renewed interest amongst pediatric providers as they offer an alternate option to provide both acute and chronic relief from the suffering of children with difficult to treat headaches. This narrative review will provide an in-depth discussion of the published pediatric-specific studies exploring the utility of nerve blocks for pediatric headache disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of seven pediatric publications have been reported to date and reveal excellent therapeutic effectiveness of bilateral greater occipital nerve blocks on primary chronic headaches and post-traumatic headaches...
November 9, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121400/dexamethasone-as-an-adjuvant-to-peripheral-nerve-block
#5
REVIEW
Carolyne Pehora, Annabel Me Pearson, Alka Kaushal, Mark W Crawford, Bradley Johnston
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve block (infiltration of local anaesthetic around a nerve) is used for anaesthesia or analgesia. A limitation to its use for postoperative analgesia is that the analgesic effect lasts only a few hours, after which moderate to severe pain at the surgical site may result in the need for alternative analgesic therapy. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the analgesic duration of peripheral nerve block, including perineural or intravenous dexamethasone. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of perineural dexamethasone versus placebo, intravenous dexamethasone versus placebo, and perineural dexamethasone versus intravenous dexamethasone when added to peripheral nerve block for postoperative pain control in people undergoing surgery...
November 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121277/ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-cryoneurolysis-for-treatment-of-acute-pain-could-cryoanalgesia-replace-continuous-peripheral-nerve-blocks
#6
B M Ilfeld, R A Gabriel, A M Trescot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095385/ultrasound-guided-popliteal-sciatic-nerve-block-for-an-ankle-laceration-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#7
Takaaki Mori, Yusuke Hagiwara
Although ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block has recently been introduced into pediatric emergency departments, knowledge of its use is limited. We present here a case demonstrating the safety and effectiveness of ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block for a pediatric spoke injury in a pediatric emergency department setting.
October 31, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091431/application-of-the-ugi-multicomponent-reaction-in-the-synthesis-of-reactivators-of-nerve-agent-inhibited-acetylcholinesterase
#8
Martijn C de Koning, Marloes J A Joosen, Franz Worek, Florian Nachon, Marco van Grol, Steven D Klaassen, Duurt P W Alkema, Timo Wille, Hans M de Bruijn
Recently, a new class of reactivators of chemical warfare agent inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with promising in vitro potential was developed by the covalent linkage of an oxime nucleophile and a peripheral site ligand. However, the complexity of these molecular structures thwarts their accessibility. We report the compatibility of various oxime-based compounds with the use of the Ugi multicomponent reaction in which four readily accessible building blocks are mixed together to form a product that links a reactivating unit and a potential peripheral site ligand...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090264/peripheral-nerve-blocks-and-postoperative-physical-therapy-a-single-institution-survey-of-physical-therapists-preferences-and-opinions
#9
Robert L McClain, Steven B Porter, Scott M Arnold, Christopher B Robards
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our aim was to ascertain the opinions and preferences of physical therapists with regard to use of peripheral nerve blocks and their impact on the recovery of patients undergoing total joint replacement. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous 24-question survey of 20 full-time inpatient physical therapists at a single tertiary care medical center. RESULTS: One respondent indicated they never work with patients who have undergone total joint replacement surgery...
October 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089436/protease-mediated-suppression-of-drg-neuron-excitability-by-commensal-bacteria
#10
Jessica L Sessenwein, Corey C Baker, Sabindra Pradhananga, Megan E Maitland, Elaine O Petrof, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Curtis Noordhof, David E Reed, Stephen J Vanner, Alan E Lomax
Peripheral pain signaling reflects a balance of pro and anti-nociceptive influences; the contribution by the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota to this balance has received little attention. Disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome are associated with exaggerated visceral nociceptive actions that may involve altered microbial signaling, particularly given the evidence for bacterial dysbiosis. Thus, we tested whether a community of commensal GI bacteria derived from a healthy human donor (microbial ecosystem therapeutics; MET-1) can affect the excitability of male mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084192/transient-left-ventricular-dysfunction-due-to-coronary-spasm-after-spinal-anesthesia-with-bupivacaine-a-case-report
#11
Waldemar Elikowski, Małgorzata Małek-Elikowska, Marek Słomczyński, Karolina Horbacka, Jarosław Bartkowski, Bartosz Kalawski
Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic (LA) used for cutaneous infiltration, peripheral nerve blocks, epidural and spinal anesthesia. However, its application may result in cardiovascular complications such as: hypotension, bradycardia, cardiac arrest and toxic myocardial injury. The authors describe a 53-year-old male with a history of cigarette smoking, admitted for an elective inguinal hernia surgery. Before surgery, the patient received subarachnoid injection of bupivacaine (20 mg). After the operation, he developed transient hypotension...
October 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075135/dnmt3a-methylation-in-neuropathic-pain
#12
Cuijie Shao, Yong Gao, Dan Jin, Xin Xu, Shuying Tan, Hui Yu, Qingxiang Zhao, Li Zhao, Wansheng Wang, Deqiang Wang
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptor (MOR) plays a crucial role in mediating analgesic effects of opioids and is closely associated with the pathologies of neuropathic pain. Previous studies have reported that peripheral nerve injury downregulates MOR expression, but the epigenetic mechanisms remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, we investigated DNA methyltransferase3a (DNMT3a) expression or methylation changes within MOR promoter in the spinal cord in a neuropathic pain induced by a chronic constriction injury (CCI) mouse model and further determined whether these injury-associated changes are reversible by pharmacological interventions...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074363/ultrasound-guided-femoral-and-obturator-nerves-block-in-the-psoas-compartment-in-dogs-anatomical-and-randomized-clinical-study
#13
Hamaseh Tayari, Giulio Tazioli, Gloria Breghi, Angela Briganti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraoperative and postoperative efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided femoral (FN) and obturator (ON) nerves block, in the iliopsoas muscle compartment (IPM), using an in-plane technique. STUDY DESIGN: Anatomical research and randomized, prospective, 'blinded' clinical study. ANIMALS: Six dog cadavers and 20 client-owned dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) surgery. METHODS: In phase 1, anatomical dissections and US imaging of the IPM were performed to design an US-guided nerve block involving the FN and ON simultaneously...
April 29, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055733/qx-oh-levobupivacaine-fixed-dose-combination-to-provide-a-long-acting-postoperative-pain-of-knee-surgery-in-rodents
#14
WenLing Zhao, Jun Yang, YuJun Zhang, Jin Liu, WenSheng Zhang
Although total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a commonly performed procedure, anesthetic efficacy in post-surgical pain remains an issue. Exparel (45mM liposome bupivacaine), a relatively long-acting local anesthetic, has shown efficacy in blocking peripheral nerve or periarticular infiltration to achieve better post-TKA analgesia. In the present work, we tested whether a fixed-dose combination of QX-OH (35mM) and levobupivacaine (10mM) (QX-OH/LB) could confer longer-lasting pain relief and reduce periarticular tissue toxicity compared to liposome bupivacaine (45mM) after TKA operation...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055716/attenuation-of-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-by-treatment-with-peptide5-a-connexin-43-mimetic-peptide-involves-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-nerve-injured-mice
#15
Ryan S Tonkin, Callum Bowles, Chamini J Perera, Brooke A Keating, Preet G S Makker, Samuel S Duffy, Justin G Lees, Collin Tran, Anthony S Don, Thomas Fath, Lu Liu, Simon J O'Carroll, Louise F B Nicholson, Colin R Green, Catherine Gorrie, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels in spinal cord astrocytes are implicated in the maintenance of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. Peptide5 is a Cx43 mimetic peptide that blocks hemichannels. In this study, we investigated the effects of spinal delivery of Peptide5 on mechanical pain hypersensitivity in two mouse models of neuropathic pain, peripheral nerve injury and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). We demonstrated that 10days following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, Cx43 expression, co-localised predominantly with astrocytes, was increased in the ipsilateral L3-L5 lumbar spinal cord...
October 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-screening-of-candidate-therapeutics-to-restore-neurotransmission-in-nerve-terminals-intoxicated-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a1
#16
Phillip H Beske, Aaron B Bradford, Katie M Hoffman, Sydney Mason, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin in the bloodstream, there are no clinically effective treatments to prevent or reverse disease once BoNT has entered the neuron. To address the need for post-symptomatic countermeasures, we designed and developed an in vitro assay based on whole-cell, patch-clamp electrophysiological monitoring of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents in synaptically active murine embryonic stem cell-derived neurons...
October 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053880/electrodiagnostic-errors-contribute-to-cidp-misdiagnosis
#17
Jeffrey A Allen, John Ney, Richard A Lewis
INTRODUCTION: Documentation of peripheral nerve demyelination is an important part of the CIDP diagnostic process. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients referred with a diagnosis of CIDP who were found to have a different condition. Electrodiagnostic study data and interpretations performed at the time of the initial diagnosis were compared to those obtained during the re-evaluation. RESULTS: Thirty-nine of 86 patients were found to not have CIDP...
October 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053076/protective-effect-of-biodegradable-nerve-conduit-against-peripheral-nerve-adhesion-after-neurolysis
#18
Kosuke Shintani, Takuya Uemura, Kiyohito Takamatsu, Takuya Yokoi, Ema Onode, Mitsuhiro Okada, Hiroaki Nakamura
OBJECTIVE Peripheral nerve adhesion caused by extraneural and intraneural scar formation after neurolysis leads to nerve dysfunction. The authors previously developed a novel very flexible biodegradable nerve conduit composed of poly(L-lactide) and poly(ε-caprolactone) for use in peripheral nerve regeneration. In the present study, they investigated the effect of protective nerve wrapping on preventing adhesion in a rat sciatic nerve adhesion model. METHODS Rat sciatic nerves were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: a no-adhesion group, which involved neurolysis alone without an adhesion procedure; an adhesion group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis, but no treatment was subsequently administered; a nerve wrap group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis and protective nerve wrapping was then performed with the nerve conduit; and a hyaluronic acid (HA) group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis and nerve wrapping was then performed with a 1% sodium HA viscous solution...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052225/peripheral-nerve-block-in-ankle-fracture-surgery-a-qualitative-study-of-patients-experiences
#19
M J Henningsen, R Sort, A M Møller, S F Herling
Peripheral nerve blocks are popular as a mode of anaesthesia for limb surgery and their beneficial effects are well documented in elective surgery. However, concerns have been raised about potential rebound pain outweighing the benefits in acute ankle fracture surgery. Furthermore, pain scores and morphine consumption do not provide a full picture, as pain is subjective. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of peripheral nerve blocks, we explored patients' expectations and experiences by means of semi-structured interviews analysed with systematic text condensation...
October 19, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051083/lysophosphatidic-acid-propagates-post-injury-schwann-cell-dedifferentiation-through-lpa1-signaling
#20
Fabian Szepanowski, Leon-Phillip Szepanowski, Anne K Mausberg, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Bernd C Kieseier, Mark Stettner
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a pleiotropic signaling lipid that acts as ligand for at least six specific G-protein coupled receptors. Schwann cells (SC) are known to mainly express the LPA1 receptor subtype. An emerging body of evidence has linked LPA with injury-induced peripheral nerve demyelination as well as neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its demyelinating effect have not been conclusively elucidated. We aimed to decipher the demyelinating effect in vitro as well as in vivo by studying markers of SC differentiation and dedifferentiation: Myelinated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures were treated either with LPA, LPA plus AM095 (LPA1 antagonist) or vehicle...
October 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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