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Peripheral nerve blocks

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731982/peripheral-oxytocin-receptors-inhibit-the-nociceptive-input-signal-to-spinal-dorsal-horn-wide-dynamic-range-neurons
#1
Abimael González-Hernández, Alfredo Manzano-García, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Irma A Tello-García, Martha Carranza, Carlos Arámburo, Miguel Condés-Lara
Oxytocin has emerged as a mediator of endogenous analgesia in behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. In fact, oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in the spinal dorsal horn participate in a selective inhibition of the neuronal activity mediated by Aδ- and C-fibers but not Aβ-fibers. This study shows that OTRs are expressed in the terminal nerve endings and are able to inhibit nociceptive neuronal firing. Indeed, local peripheral oxytocin blocked the first sensorial activity Aδ- and C-fibers recorded in the spinal cord neurons...
July 19, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727704/evaluating-the-adjuvant-effect-of-dexamethasone-to-ropivacaine-in-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-for-inguinal-hernia-repair-and-spermatocelectomy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Robert Wegner, Duane Akwar, Sarah Guzman-Reyes, Greesha Pednekar, Rabail Chaudhry, Navneet Grewal, Naveen Kukreja, Omar L Mancillas, George W Williams, Omonele Nwokolo
BACKGROUND: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a relatively straightforward regional technique used for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing abdominal surgeries. Various adjuvants have been used in past to prolong the duration of action of analgesia in peripheral nerve blocks. Several studies investigating the analgesic efficacy of dexamethasone added to local anesthetic agents, such as bupivacaine, have shown promising results. However, there are few studies comparing the efficacy of dexamethasone with ropivacaine...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727583/serum-bupivacaine-concentration-after-periarticular-injection-with-a-mixture-of-liposomal-bupivacaine-and-bupivacaine-hcl-during-total-knee-arthroplasty
#3
Michael J Buys, Marian F Murphy, Christine M Warrick, Nathan L Pace, Jeremy M Gililland, Christopher E Pelt, Byron R Bankhead, John L Patzkowsky, Ken B Johnson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A relatively new technique to reduce postoperative pain for total knee arthroplasty is to inject a mixture of 266 mg of liposomal bupivacaine and 125 mg of 0.25% bupivacaine HCl with epinephrine 1:300,000 around the knee joint at the time of surgery. Currently, no publications report serum bupivacaine concentrations over time after periarticular injection of liposomal mixed with free bupivacaine. This information is important to ensure safe serum bupivacaine concentrations are maintained especially when considering supplemental or rescue peripheral nerve blocks...
July 20, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722246/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-decreases-masticatory-muscle-sensitization-in-female-rats-through-peripheral-cannabinoid-receptor-activation
#4
H Wong, S Hossain, B E Cairns
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether intramuscular injection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), by acting on peripheral cannabinoid (CB) receptors, could decrease nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced sensitization in female rat masseter muscle; a model which mimics the symptoms of myofascial temporomandibular disorders. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to explore the peripheral expression of cannabinoid receptors in the masseter muscle while behavioural and electrophysiology experiments were employed to assess the functional effects of intramuscular injection of THC...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719457/regional-anesthesia-in-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#5
Werner Ten Hoope, Marjolein Looije, Philipp Lirk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize recent relevant literature regarding regional anesthesia in the diabetic neuropathic patient and formulate recommendations for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic neuropathic nerves, but not nerves of diabetic patients per se, exhibit complex functional changes. As a result, they seem more sensitive to local anesthetics, and are more difficult to stimulate. When catheters are used postoperatively, diabetes is an independent risk factor for infection...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714206/efficacy-of-ultrasound-and-nerve-stimulation-guidance-in-peripheral-nerve-block-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Zhi-Xue Wang, De-Li Zhang, Xin-Wei Liu, Yan Li, Xiao-Xia Zhang, Ru-Hong Li
Evidence was controversial about whether nerve stimulation (NS) can optimize ultrasound guidance (US)-guided nerve blockade for peripheral nerve block. This review aims to explore the effects of the two combined techniques. We searched EMBASE (from 1974 to March 2015), PubMed (from 1966 to Mar 2015), Medline (from 1966 to Mar 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and clinicaltrials.gov. Finally, 15 randomized trials were included into analysis involving 1,019 lower limb and 696 upper limb surgery cases...
July 16, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713527/comparison-of-continuous-femoral-nerve-block-with-and-without-combined-sciatic-nerve-block-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-prospective-randomized-study
#7
Shoji Nishio, Shigeo Fukunishi, Tomokazu Fukui, Yuki Fujihara, Shohei Okahisa, Yu Takeda, Shinichi Yoshiya
In association with the growing interests in pain management, several modalities to control postoperative pain have been proposed and examined for the efficacy in the recent studies. Various modes of peripheral nerve block have been proposed and the effectiveness and safety have been examined for each of those techniques. We have described our clinical experiences, showing that continuous femoral nerve block could provide a satisfactory analgesic effect after total hip arthroplasty (THA) procedure. In this study, we compared the effectiveness and safety of continuous femoral nerve block with and without sciatic nerve blockade on pain control after THA...
June 23, 2017: Orthopedic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712103/randomised-controlled-trial-of-analgesic-effectiveness-of-three-different-techniques-of-single-shot-interscalene-brachial-plexus-block-using-20-ml-of-0-5-ropivacaine-for-shoulder-arthroscopy
#8
Michał Jan Stasiowski, Michał Kolny, Marek Zuber, Radosław Marciniak, Ewa Chabierska, Przemysław Jałowiecki, Aleksandra Pluta, Bartłomiej Możdżyński
Background Shoulder arthroscopic procedures impose a challenge to anaesthesiologists in terms of postoperative analgesia. Proper pain management after arthroscopic procedures improves patient satisfaction and facilitates early rehabilitation. METHODS: We performed a randomized, prospective clinical study to assess the influence of anthropometric parameters and IBPB technique on the quality of postoperative analgesia. A total of 106 randomly selected patients of ASA I-III status scheduled for elective shoulder arthroscopy ...
July 16, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711166/treatment-of-palmar-hyperhidrosis-by-peripheral-nerve-block-at-the-wrist-with-botulinum-toxin
#9
A de Quintana-Sancho, M T Conde Calvo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705925/management-of-hiccups-in-palliative-care-patients
#10
REVIEW
Yong Suk Jeon, Alison Mary Kearney, Peter Graham Baker
Persistent hiccups are a frustrating experience for palliative care patients, and can have a profound impact on their quality of life. This article provides an evidence-based approach overview of the causes and treatment of this not infrequently debilitating condition for such patients, with a management algorithm. In situations where no readily reversible cause is identified, or where simple physical manoeuvres, such as breath holding have failed, a systematic approach is required. Hiccups can be broadly divided into central and peripheral types...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700113/na-k-atpase-coupled-to-endothelin-receptor-type-b-stimulates-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-via-lactate-signaling
#11
Nguyen H Tu, Tayo Katano, Shinji Matsumura, Nobuo Funatsu, Vuong Minh Pham, Jun-Ichi Fujisawa, Seiji Ito
We have recently demonstrated that endothelin (ET) is functionally coupled to Nax , a Na(+) concentration-sensitive Na(+) channel for lactate release via ET receptor type B (ETB R) and is involved in peripheral nerve regeneration in a sciatic nerve transection-regeneration mouse model. Nax is known to interact directly with Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, leading to lactate production in the brain. To investigate the role of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in peripheral nerve regeneration, in the present study we applied ouabain, a Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase inhibitor, to the cut site for 4 weeks with an osmotic pump...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698219/the-transcription-factor-c-ebp%C3%AE-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-contributes-to-peripheral-nerve-trauma-induced-nociceptive-hypersensitivity
#12
Zhisong Li, Yuanyuan Mao, Lingli Liang, Shaogen Wu, Jingjing Yuan, Kai Mo, Weihua Cai, Qingxiang Mao, Jing Cao, Alex Bekker, Wei Zhang, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Changes in gene transcription in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after nerve trauma contribute to the genesis of neuropathic pain. We report that peripheral nerve trauma caused by chronic constriction injury (CCI) increased the abundance of the transcription factor C/EBPβ (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β) in the DRG. Blocking this increase mitigated the development and maintenance of CCI-induced mechanical, thermal, and cold pain hypersensitivities without affecting basal responses to acute pain and locomotor activity...
July 11, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696947/regional-blocks-carried-out-during-general-anesthesia-or-deep-sedation-myths-and-facts
#13
Peter Marhofer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More patients will accept regional blocks if these are performed during sedation or general anesthesia. This review discusses regional anesthesia in sedated or anesthetized patients. RECENT FINDINGS: As complications of regional blocks are rare, regional anesthesia can be considered aswell-tolerated. Awake patients will notice only a minority of needle-to-nerve contacts, that renders the notion of a 'live monitor' obsolete. Using high-resolution ultrasound, the needle can be advanced to an extraepineural position for injection, thus strictly avoiding needle-to-nerve contact or intraepineural injection of local anesthetic...
July 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682892/in-patients-undergoing-fast-track-total-knee-arthroplasty-addition-of-buprenorphine-to-a-femoral-nerve-block-has-no-clinical-advantage-a-prospective-double-blinded-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rienk van Beek, Harry J Zonneveldt, Tjeerd van der Ploeg, Jeroen Steens, Phillip Lirk, Marcus W Hollmann
BACKGROUND: Several adjuvants have been proposed to prolong the effect of peripheral nerve blocks, one of which is buprenorphine. In this randomized double blinded placebo controlled trial we studied whether the addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block prolongs analgesia in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty in a fast track surgery protocol. METHODS: The treatment group (B) was given an ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 0...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680401/cannabidiol-is-a-potential-therapeutic-for-the-affective-motivational-dimension-of-incision-pain-in-rats
#15
Karina Genaro, Débora Fabris, Ana L F Arantes, Antônio W Zuardi, José A S Crippa, Wiliam A Prado
Background: Pain involves different brain regions and is critically determined by emotional processing. Among other areas, the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is implicated in the processing of affective pain. Drugs that interfere with the endocannabinoid system are alternatives for the management of clinical pain. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, has been utilized in preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of pain. Herein, we evaluate the effects of CBD, injected either systemically or locally into the rACC, on mechanical allodynia in a postoperative pain model and on the negative reinforcement produced by relief of spontaneous incision pain...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674170/the-mnk-eif4e-signaling-axis-contributes-to-injury-induced-nociceptive-plasticity-and-the-development-of-chronic-pain
#16
Jamie K Moy, Arkady Khoutorsky, Marina N Asiedu, Bryan J Black, Jasper L Kuhn, Paulino Barragán-Iglesias, Salim Megat, Michael D Burton, Carolina C Burgos-Vega, Ohannes K Melemedjian, Scott Boitano, Josef Vagner, Christos G Gkogkas, Joseph J Pancrazio, Jeffrey S Mogil, Gregory Dussor, Nahum Sonenberg, Theodore J Price
Injury-induced sensitization of nociceptors contributes to pain states and the development of chronic pain. Inhibiting activity-dependent mRNA translation through mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways blocks the development of nociceptor sensitization. These pathways convergently signal to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4F complex to regulate sensitization of nociceptors but the details of this process are ill-defined. Here we investigated the hypothesis that phosphorylation of the 5' cap-binding protein, eIF4E, by its specific kinase MAPK interacting kinase (MNK) 1/2 is a key factor in nociceptor sensitization and the development of chronic pain...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663643/comparison-between-conventional-and-ultrasound-guided-supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block-in-upper-limb-surgeries
#17
Kiran Abhayakumar Honnannavar, Mahantesh Shivangouda Mudakanagoudar
INTRODUCTION: Brachial plexus blockade is a time-tested technique for upper limb surgeries. The classical approach using paresthesia technique is a blind technique and may be associated with a higher failure rate and injury to the nerves and surrounding structures. To avoid some of these problems, use of peripheral nerve stimulator and ultrasound techniques were started which allowed better localization of the nerve/plexus. Ultrasound for supraclavicular brachial plexus block has improved the success rate of the block with excellent localization as well as improved safety margin...
April 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663624/the-effect-of-preemptive-ankle-block-using-ropivacaine-and-dexamethasone-on-postoperative-analgesia-in-foot-surgery
#18
Ashraf Elsayed Alzeftawy, Nabil Aly Elsheikh
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve blocks have become an increasingly popular form of anesthesia. Preemptive analgesia reduces central sensitization, postoperative pain, and analgesic consumption. Different additive has been used to prolong regional blockade and improve postoperative analgesia. AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate whether preemptive ankle block using combination of ropivacaine and dexamethasone would succeed in improving the postoperative analgesia after foot surgery in patients receiving general anesthesia...
April 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661918/continuous-versus-bolus-local-anesthetic-administration-in-peripheral-nerve-blocks-time-to-relook
#19
Deepak Thapa, Vanita Ahuja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638701/reinnervation-of-denervated-muscle-by-implantation-of-nerve-muscle-endplate-band-graft-to-the-native-motor-zone-of-the-target-muscle
#20
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: Motor endplate reinnervation is critical for restoring motor function of the denervated muscle. We developed a novel surgical technique called nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) for muscle reinnervation. METHODS: Experimentally denervated sternomastoid muscle in the rat was reinnervated by transferring a NMEG from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle to the native motor zone (NMZ) of the target muscle. A NMEG pedicle contained a block of muscle (~ 6 × 6 × 3 mm), a nerve branch with axon terminals, and a motor endplate band with numerous neuromuscular junctions...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
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