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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434067/sediment-metal-contamination-in-the-kafue-river-of-zambia-and-ecological-risk-assessment
#1
Ethel M'kandawire, Kennedy Choongo, John Yabe, Maxwell Mwase, Ngonda Saasa, Shouta M M Nakayama, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Claudia A Blindauer
Zambia's Kafue River receives wastes from various sources, resulting in metal pollution. This study determined the degree of contamination of 13 metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Hg and Pb) in Kafue River sediment and the associated ecological risks at six sites in three different seasons. The level of contamination for most metals showed significant site and seasonal differences. The contamination factor and pollution load index indicated that concentrations of most metals particularly copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) were very high at sites within the Copperbelt mining area...
April 22, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434030/spatial-and-temporal-distributions-of-air-pollutants-and-size-distribution-of-aerosols-over-central-and-eastern-china
#2
Honglei Wang, Lijuan Shen, Bin Zhu, Hanqing Kang, Xuewei Hou, Qing Miao, Yang Yang, Shuangshuang Shi
The origins and spatial and temporal distributions of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2 and O3) during May to June of 2015 were investigated using data from 1490 monitoring sites in China. Aerosol number concentrations and meteorological data from Shijiazhuang, Nanjing, and Suzhou were combined with the MIX Asian emission data and the HYSPLIT model. Furthermore, the diurnal variation, size distribution, and main sources of air pollutants and aerosols were selectively characterized in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD)...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433929/pollution-characteristics-and-human-health-risks-of-potentially-eco-toxic-elements-ptes-in-road-dust-from-metropolitan-area-of-hefei-china
#3
Muhammad Ubaid Ali, Guijian Liu, Balal Yousaf, Qumber Abbas, Habib Ullah, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba Munir, Biao Fu
This study aims to investigate the pollution characteristics of road dust and their associated health risks of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) to humans using array-based risk assessment models described by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in a metropolitan area of Hefei, China. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) was used to describe pollution characteristics of roadside dust in urban, periurban and industrial areas. Results indicate that industrial roadside dust was contaminated with Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti, V, Pb, Ba, Sb, Cr, Sn, Pb, As and Ga showing Igeo value (log2 (x)) between Igeo class 3 to 4...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433925/low-dose-pollutant-mixture-triggers-metabolic-disturbances-in-female-mice-leading-to-common-and-specific-features-as-compared-to-a-high-fat-diet
#4
Emmanuel Labaronne, Claudie Pinteur, Nathalie Vega, Sandra Pesenti, Benoit Julien, Emmanuelle Meugnier-Fouilloux, Hubert Vidal, Danielle Naville, Brigitte Le Magueresse-Battistoni
Environmental pollutants are potential etiologic factors of obesity and diabetes that reach epidemic proportions worldwide. However, it is important to determine if pollutants could exert metabolic defects without directly inducing obesity. The metabolic disturbances triggered in nonobese mice lifelong exposed to a mixture of low-dose pollutants (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxine, polychlorinated biphenyl 153, diethylhexyl-phthalate, and bisphenol A) were compared with changes provoked by a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet not containing the pollutant mixture...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433906/treatment-of-urban-sludge-by-hydrothermal-carbonization
#5
Xiwei Xu, Enchen Jiang
Urban sludge was treated by Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). The effect of hydrothermal carbonization temperature, mixing with or without catalysts on solid products yield, heavy metal contents, turbidity and COD value was evaluated. The result showed solid products yield decreased from 92.04% to 52.65% when the temperature increased from 180 to 300°C. And the Cu, Zn, and Pb contents under exchangeable states decreased and reached discharge standard. Addition of FeCl3 or Al(OH)3 resulted in a significant increase in the exchangeable states of Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cd and decrease in their residual states...
March 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433885/electric-fields-within-clay-materials-how-to-affect-the-adsorption-of-metal-ions
#6
Xiong Li, Hang Li, Gang Yang
Electric fields exist ubiquitously in chemical and biological systems while how to affect the interfacial adsorption processes remain elusive. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to understand at a molecular level the adsorption of metal ions at the interface of aqueous solutions and clay materials that are generally endowed with strong electric fields. In absence of electric fields, even Cs(+), one of the strongest adsorbed metal ions, is facile to detach from solvated clay surfaces. Electric fields are critical to construct stable inner-sphere complexes and enhance pronouncedly the adsorption strengths of both inner- and outer-sphere complexes...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433872/biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-by-using-camellia-japonica-leaf-extract-for-the-electrocatalytic-reduction-of-nitrobenzene-and-photocatalytic-degradation-of-eosin-y
#7
R Karthik, Mani Govindasamy, Shen-Ming Chen, Yi-Hui Cheng, P Muthukrishnan, S Padmavathy, A Elangovan
In the present study, sphere-like silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized by using Camellia japonica leaf extract and its remediation industrial pollutants such as nitrobenzene and Eosin-Y (EY). As-prepared sphere-like Ag-NPs were characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic methods such as UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), and the chemical constituents of the leaf extract were also analyzed by using Gas chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433767/temporal-dynamics-of-human-excreted-pollutants-in-wastewater-treatment-plant-influents-toward-a-better-knowledge-of-mass-load-fluctuations
#8
Thomas Thiebault, Laëtitia Fougère, Emilie Destandau, Maxime Réty, Jérémy Jacob
The occurrence of 25 drug target residues (illicit drugs or pharmaceutically active compounds) was investigated during 85 consecutive days in the influents of a wastewater treatment plant in the Region Centre-Val de Loire, France. This long tracking period allowed a better understanding of the patterns affecting the occurrence of this type of contaminants. Among them, 2 were never detected (i.e. heroin and amphetamine). Concerning illicit drugs two patterns were found. Cocaine and ecstasy median loads varied considerably between weekdays and weekend days (i...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433765/geochemical-processes-controlling-the-distribution-and-concentration-of-metals-in-soils-from-a-patagonian-argentina-salt-marsh-affected-by-mining-residues
#9
Yanina L Idaszkin, María Del Pilar Alvarez, Eleonora Carol
Heavy metal pollution that affects salt marshes is a major environmental concern due to its toxic nature, persistence, and potential risk to organisms and to human health. Mining waste deposits originated four decades ago, by the metallurgical extraction of heavy metals, are found near to the San Antonio salt marsh in Patagonia. The aim of the work was to determine the geochemical processes that control the distribution and concentration of Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in the soils of this Patagonian salt marsh. A survey of the mining waste deposits was carried out where three dumps were identified...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433763/biomass-burning-sources-and-their-contributions-to-the-local-air-quality-in-hong-kong
#10
K L Chan
In this paper, we present a quantitative estimation of the impacts of biomass burning emissions from different source regions to the local air quality in Hong Kong in 2014 using global chemistry transport model simulations, sun photometer measurements, satellite observations and local monitoring network data. This study focuses on two major biomass burning pollutants, black carbon aerosols and carbon monoxide (CO). The model simulations of atmospheric black carbon and CO show excellent agreement with sun photometer aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, satellite CO columns observations and local monitoring stations data...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433694/bacteroidales-markers-for-microbial-source-tracking-in-southeast-asia
#11
Jean Pierre Nshimyimana, Mercedes C Cruz, R Janelle Thompson, Stefan Wuertz
The island city country of Singapore served as a model to validate the use of host-associated Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene marker assays for identifying sources of fecal pollution in the urban tropical environment of Southeast Asia. A total of 295 samples were collected from sewage, humans, domesticated animals (cats, dogs, rabbits and chicken), and wild animals (birds, monkeys and wild boars). Samples were analyzed by real time PCR using five human-associated assays (HF183-SYBR Green, HF183, BacHum, BacH and B...
April 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433682/a-mechanistic-review-on-vermifiltration-of-wastewater-design-operation-and-performance
#12
REVIEW
Rajneesh Singh, Puspendu Bhunia, Rajesh R Dash
With global population explosion, the available water resources are slowly being polluted due to the excessive human interference. To encounter this, it is the need of this hour to find out sustainable pollution remediating technologies to meet the stringent discharge standards for domestic as well as industrial wastewaters. In addition, those techniques should have the capabilities for effective implementation even in developing countries. Based on the available literatures, one such technique, named vermifilter, has been identified which takes care of almost all the sustainable and economical criteria for its effective implementation even in developing countries...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433639/optimization-of-atrazine-and-imidacloprid-removal-from-water-using-biochars-designing-single-or-multi-staged-batch-adsorption-systems
#13
Abhishek Mandal, Neera Singh
BACKGROUND: Contamination of surface and ground water by pesticides from agricultural runoff and industrial discharge is one of the main causes of aqueous contaminations world over. Biochar, agricultural waste derived highly aromatic substance produced after pyrolysis and carbonification of biomass have exhibited good adsorption capacity for pesticides and can be used to develop on-site bio-purification systems for organic contaminant removal from polluted waters. However, high amounts of adsorbent required in single stage-batch sorption plant increases the cost of water treatment; therefore, multistage plant systems were investigated...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433638/metabolomic-analysis-for-combined-hepatotoxicity-of-chlorpyrifos-and-cadmium-in-rats
#14
Ming-Yuan Xu, Pan Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Yi-Jun Wu
Pesticides and heavy metals are widespread environmental pollutants. Although the acute toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is well characterized, the combined toxicity of CPF and Cd, especially the hepatotoxicity of the two chemicals with long-term exposure at a low dose, remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the toxicity in the liver of rats upon subchronic exposure to CPF and Cd at environmentally relevant doses. Rats were given three different doses (1/135 LD50, 1/45 LD50 and 1/15 LD50) of CPF and Cd as well as their mixtures by oral gavage for 90 days...
April 19, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433595/effects-of-chlorpyrifos-on-soil-carboxylesterase-activity-at-an-aggregate-size-scale
#15
Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez, Marco Sandoval
The impact of pesticides on extracellular enzyme activity has been mostly studied on the bulk soil scale, and our understanding of the impact on an aggregate-size scale remains limited. Because microbial processes, and their extracellular enzyme production, are dependent on the size of soil aggregates, we hypothesized that the effect of pesticides on enzyme activities is aggregate-size specific. We performed three experiments using an Andisol to test the interaction between carboxylesterase (CbE) activity and the organophosphorus (OP) chlorpyrifos...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433395/distribution-enrichment-and-source-of-heavy-metals-in-rizhao-offshore-area-southeast-shandong-province
#16
Hongying Song, Jinqing Liu, Ping Yin, Yong Zhang
50 surface sediments were collected from Rizhao offshore area to determine heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, Hg) pollution. High heavy metal values were located near the two ports in the north and south study areas, which was consistent with the distribution of fine-grained sediments. According to threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL), Cu and As had occasionally adverse biological effects on the aquatic ecosystems. The enrichment factor (EF) values showed that most of the study area was moderate or moderately severe enrichment for As, and minor enrichment for Pb, but Hg was only moderately enriched in the river estuaries...
April 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433208/elucidating-the-fate-of-a-mixed-toluene-dhm-methanol-and-i-propanol-plume-during-in-situ-bioremediation
#17
E Verardo, O Atteia, H Prommer
Organic pollutants such as solvents or petroleum products are widespread contaminants in soil and groundwater systems. In-situ bioremediation is a commonly used remediation technology to clean up the subsurface to eliminate the risks of toxic substances to reach potential receptors in surface waters or drinking water wells. This study discusses the development of a subsurface model to analyse the performance of an actively operating field-scale enhanced bioremediation scheme. The study site was affected by a mixed toluene, dihydromyrcenol (DHM), methanol, and i-propanol plume...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433055/pyrenyl-carbon-nanostructures-for-ultrasensitive-measurements-of-formaldehyde-in-urine
#18
Gayan Premaratne, Sabrina Farias, Sadagopan Krishnan
Measurement of ultra-low (e.g., parts-per-billion) levels of small-molecule markers in body fluids (e.g., serum, urine, saliva) involves a considerable challenge in view of designing assay strategies with sensitivity and selectivity. Herein we report for the first time an amperometric nano-bioelectrode design that uniquely combines 1-pyrenebutyric acid units pi-pi stacked with carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the surface of gold screen printed electrodes for covalent attachment of NAD(+) dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH)...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432993/chemical-biological-and-dna-markers-for-tracing-slaughterhouse-effluent
#19
P J Harvey, M P Taylor, H K Handley, S Foster, M R Gillings, A J Asher
Agricultural practices, if not managed correctly, can have a negative impact on receiving environments via waste disposal and discharge. In this study, a chicken slaughter facility on the rural outskirts of Sydney, Australia, has been identified as a possible source of persistent effluent discharge into a peri-urban catchment. Questions surrounding the facility's environmental management practices go back more than four decades. Despite there having never been a definitive determination of the facility's impact on local stream water quality, the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority (NSW EPA) has implemented numerous pollution reduction requirements to manage noise and water pollution at the slaughter facility...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432989/the-effect-of-natural-ventilation-strategy-on-indoor-air-quality-in-schools
#20
Luca Stabile, Marco Dell'Isola, Aldo Russi, Angelamaria Massimo, Giorgio Buonanno
In order to reduce children's exposure to pollutants in classrooms a proper ventilation strategy need to be adopted. Such strategy is even more important in naturally ventilated schools where the air exchange rate is only based on the manual airing of classrooms. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of the manual airing strategy on indoor air quality in Italian classrooms. For this aim, schools located in the Central Italy were investigated. Indoor air quality was studied in terms of CO2, particle number and PM concentrations and compared to corresponding outdoor levels...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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