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Zhuofeng Yu, Pinjing He, Liming Shao, Hua Zhang, Fan Lü
Since municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill harbours miscellaneous wastes, pollutants and microorganisms, it gradually becomes a huge potential reservoir for breeding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of ARGs associated with various mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in MSW landfill leachates. The relationship of ARGs with leachate characteristics was also studied to explore the influence of landfill age. Seven sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and sulfaquinoxaline), three encoded ARGs (sul-I, sul-II and sul-III) and four types of MGEs (plasmids, transposons, integrons and insertion sequences) were quantified in leachates with landfill ages ranging from 3 months-6 years...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
Hongru Yang, Jian Tian, Yanyan Bo, Yanli Zhou, Xinzhen Wang, Hongzhi Cui
Novel In2O3 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance were successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. Well-dispersed In2O3 nanoparticles with small sizes are uniformly attached on the surface of TiO2 nanobelts to form In2O3 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures. The TiO2 nanobelts as backbones restrict the aggregation of In2O3 nanoparticles, resulting in the formation of smaller In2O3 nanoparticles with more interaction sites for pollutants...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
S K Jesudoss, J Judith Vijaya, L John Kennedy, P Iyyappa Rajan, Hamad A Al-Lohedan, R Jothi Ramalingam, K Kaviyarasu, M Bououdina
The present work describes the successful synthesize of spinel magnetic ferrite Mn1-xNixFe2O4 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 & 0.5) nanoparticles via a simple microwave combustion method which was then evaluated for its photocatalytic activity in the degradation of indigo carmine (IC) synthetic dye, a major water pollutant. Our results reveal that the synthesized of Ni(2+) doped MnFe2O4 nanoparticles possess well-crystalline pure cubic spinel phase, exhibit excellent optical and magnetic properties. Further, the photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanoparticles at different concentration ratios of Ni(2+) ions was monitored by photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine synthetic dye under UV (λ=365nm) light irradiation...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Chenhao Gong, Gang Shen, Haiou Huang, Peiran He, Zhongguo Zhang, Baoqing Ma
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of water pollutants because of their known ecological and human toxicity. Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising technology for mitigating industrial wastewater pollution, but the removal and transformation of PAHs during EC treatment has not yet been understood. Therefore, a paper-making wastewater effluent (PMWW) was employed in this study to investigate the relationship between PAHs' removal and transformation during EC treatment. The results show that 86% of PAHs were effectively removed not only by the electro-oxidation reactions, but also by adsorption onto Fe hydroxide flocs...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Lingling Li, Da Yang, Yufang Song, Yi Shi, Bin Huang, Jun Yan, Xinxin Dong
In this study, toxic effects of bifenthrin in soil on earthworms were evaluated by acute and chronic toxic endpoints combined with a set of biomarkers. Bifenthrin was moderately toxic in 72-h filter paper test and low toxic in 14-d soil test. The exposure of earthworms to bifenthrin-polluted soil for 8 weeks showed that cocoons were inhibited by high dose of bifenthrin, and larvae were stimulated by low dose but inhibited by high dose of bifenthrin. Furthermore, 28-d soil test on the responses of enzymes associated with antioxidation and detoxification in worms showed that peroxidase (POD) was stimulated by bifenthrin, superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited in the early period but stimulated in the later period, glutathione S- transferase (GST) inhibited in the later period, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) inhibited at day 3 but markedly stimulated at day 28 at high dose...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Ruoxi Wang, Dongju Zhang, Chengbu Liu
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic to humans and the environment. Developing efficient methods to detect or remove these pollutants is particularly important and urgent. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with low dimension and high surface-to-volume ratio might be one of promising materials for the adsorption of PCDD/Fs. Here we present a density functional theory (DFT) study on the interaction of the pristine and Ni doped (8,0) single-walled BNNTs with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener among PCDD/F family...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Jing Li, Aping Niu, Chun-Jiao Lu, Jing-Hui Zhang, Muhammad Junaid, Phyllis R Strauss, Ping Xiao, Xiao Wang, Yi-Wei Ren, De-Sheng Pei
Landfill leachate (LL) is harmful to aquatic environment because it contains high concentrations of dissolved organic matter, inorganic components, heavy metals, and other xenobiotics. Thus, the remediation of LL is crucial for environmental conservation. Here, a potential application of the forward osmosis (FO) filtration process with ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) as a draw solution (DS) was investigated to remediate membrane bioreactor-treated LL (M-LL). After the leachate treatment, the toxicity and removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated using zebrafish and cultured human cells...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Florian Matt, Tom Cole-Hunter, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Nadine Kubesch, David Martínez, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) has beneficial, whereas exposure to traffic related air pollution (TRAP) has adverse, respiratory effects. Few studies, however, have examined if the acute effects of TRAP upon respiratory outcomes are modified depending on the level of PA. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to disentangle acute effects of TRAP and PA upon respiratory outcomes and assess the impact of participants TRAP pre-exposure. METHODS: We conducted a real-world crossover study with repeated measures of 30 healthy adults...
October 20, 2016: Environment International
Stefano R Del Giacco, Arzu Bakirtas, Elizabeth Bel, Adnan Custovic, Zuzana Diamant, Eckard Hamelmann, Enrico Heffler, Ömer Kalayci, Sejal Saglani, Svetlana Sergejeva, Sven Seys, Angela Simpson, Leif Bjermer
It is well recognized that atopic sensitisation is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term "Severe Asthma" encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming "uncontrolled", or whose disease remains "uncontrolled" despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations...
October 24, 2016: Allergy
Thomas B Atherholt, Nicholas A Procopio, Sandra M Goodrow
It is important that indicators of fecal pollution are reliable. Coliform bacteria are a commonly used indicator of fecal pollution. As other investigators have reported elsewhere, we observed a seasonal pattern of coliform bacteria detections in domestic wells in New Jersey. Examination of a statewide database of 10 years of water quality data from 93,447 samples, from 78,207 wells, generated during real estate transactions, revealed that coliform bacteria were detected in a higher proportion of wells during warm weather months...
October 24, 2016: Ground Water
Zhenni Xing, Jianjiang Lu, Zilong Liu, Shanman Li, Gehui Wang, Xiaolong Wang
Although perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been identified in milk and dairy products in many regions, knowledge on their occurrence in Xinjiang (China) is rare. This study was conducted to measure the levels of PFOA and PFOS in milk and yogurt from Xinjiang and to investigate the average daily intake (ADI) of these two compounds. PFOA and PFOS levels were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction with methanol and solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jiabo Chen, Fayun Li, Zhiping Fan, Yanjie Wang
Source apportionment of river water pollution is critical in water resource management and aquatic conservation. Comprehensive application of various GIS-based multivariate statistical methods was performed to analyze datasets (2009-2011) on water quality in the Liao River system (China). Cluster analysis (CA) classified the 12 months of the year into three groups (May-October, February-April and November-January) and the 66 sampling sites into three groups (groups A, B and C) based on similarities in water quality characteristics...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tiago Torres, Isabel Cunha, Rosário Martins, Miguel M Santos
Recently, several emerging pollutants, including Personal Care Products (PCPs), have been detected in aquatic ecosystems, in the ng/L or µg/L range. Available toxicological data is limited, and, for certain PCPs, evidence indicates a potential risk for the environment. Hence, there is an urgent need to gather ecotoxicological data on PCPs as a proxy to improve risk assessment. Here, the toxicity of three different PCPs (4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor (4-MBC), propylparaben and triclocarban) was tested using embryo bioassays with Danio rerio (zebrafish) and Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kerry Ard, Cynthia Colen, Marisol Becerra, Thelma Velez
This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ayman M Atta, Hamad A Al-Lohedan, Ahmed M Tawfik, Abdelrahman O Ezzat
This work first reports the preparation of super-amphiphilic silica-nanogel composites to reduce the contact angle of water to increase the diffusion of pollutant into adsorbents. In this respect, the silica nanoparticles were encapsulated into nanogels based on ionic and nonionic polyacrylamides by dispersion polymerization technique. The morphologies and the dispersion stability of nanogel composites were investigated to clarify the ability of silica-nanogel composites to adsorb at different interfaces. The feasibility of silica polyacrylamide nanogel composites to act as a high-performance adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye and heavy metals (Co(2+) and Ni(2+)) from aqueous solution was investigated...
October 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rachael A Smith, Michael St J Warne, Kerrie Mengersen, Ryan D R Turner
Pollutant loads are widely used to set pollution reduction targets and assess regulatory compliance for the protection of receiving waterbodies. However, when a pollutant load is comprised of a mixture of chemicals, reducing the overall load (mass) will not necessarily reduce the toxicity by a similar amount. This can be overcome by setting targets based on toxicity-based loads (toxic loads), where the load is modified according to the relative toxicity (expressed as toxic equivalency factors- TEFs) of each toxicant...
October 24, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Maryam Bello-Akinosho, Rosina Makofane, Rasheed Adeleke, Mapitsi Thantsha, Michael Pillay, George Johannes Chirima
Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jie Wang, Haijing Shen, Xiaoxia Hu, Yan Li, Zhihao Li, Jinfan Xu, Xiufeng Song, Haibo Zeng, Quan Yuan
For the water remediation techniques based on adsorption, the long-standing contradictories between selectivity and multiple adsorbability, as well as between affinity and recyclability, have put it on weak defense amid more and more severe environment crisis. Here, a pollutant-targeting hydrogel scavenger is reported for water remediation with both high selectivity and multiple adsorbability for several pollutants, and with strong affinity and good recyclability through rationally integrating the advantages of multiple functional materials...
March 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
David I W Phillips, Clive Osmond, Martin L Williams, Alexander Jones
BACKGROUND: Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a globally important cause of heart disease. The reasons for the continuing high prevalence of this disease are obscure, but it may have its origins in the poor social and economic conditions with which the disease has been consistently and strongly linked. Mortality studies from the UK have suggested the importance of adverse environmental factors in early life; these studies demonstrated specific geographical associations between high rates of chest infection during infancy and subsequent RHD...
October 23, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Zhiying Dong, Kai Wang, Xinxin Chen, Jianlin Zhu, Changju Hu, Demin Zhang
Coastal ecosystems are receiving elevated loads of nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources. Understanding how excessive N loading affects bacterioplankton communities is critical to predict the biodiversity of marine ecosystems under conditions of eutrophic disturbance. In this study, oligotrophic coastal water microcosms were perturbed with nitrate in two loading modes: 1) one-off loading at the beginning of the incubation period; and 2) periodic loading every two days for 16days. Turnover in the bacterioplankton community was investigated by 16S rDNA gene amplicon sequencing...
October 20, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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