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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156645/the-short-term-effects-of-visibility-and-haze-on-mortality-in-a-coastal-city-of-china-a-time-series-study
#1
Shaohua Gu, Jun Yang, Alistair Woodward, Mengmeng Li, Tianfeng He, Aihong Wang, Beibei Lu, Xiaobo Liu, Guozhang Xu, Qiyong Liu
Few studies have been conducted to investigate the acute health effects of visibility and haze, which may be regarded as proxy indicators of ambient air pollution. We used a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) combined with quasi-Poisson regression to estimate the relationship between visibility, haze and mortality in Ningbo, a coastal city of China. We found that the mortality risk of visibility was statistically significant only on the current day, while the risk of haze and PM10 peaked on the second day and could last for three days...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156551/is-all-urban-green-space-the-same-a-comparison-of-the-health-benefits-of-trees-and-grass-in-new-york-city
#2
Colleen E Reid, Jane E Clougherty, Jessie L C Shmool, Laura D Kubzansky
Living near vegetation, often called "green space" or "greenness", has been associated with numerous health benefits. We hypothesized that the two key components of urban vegetation, trees and grass, may differentially affect health. We estimated the association between near-residence trees, grass, and total vegetation (from the 2010 High Resolution Land Cover dataset for New York City (NYC)) with self-reported health from a survey of NYC adults (n = 1281). We found higher reporting of "very good" or "excellent" health for respondents with the highest, compared to the lowest, quartiles of tree (RR = 1...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156439/air-pollution-over-the-north-china-plain-and-its-implication-of-regional-transport-a-new-sight-from-the-observed-evidences
#3
Baozhu Ge, Zifa Wang, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Jie Li, Dongshen Ji, Zhiqiang Ma
High concentrations of the fine particles (PM2.5) are frequently observed during all seasons over the North China Plain (NCP) region in recent years. In NCP, the contributions of regional transports to certain area, e.g. Beijing city, are often discussed and estimated by models when considering an effective air pollution controlling strategy. In this study, we selected three sites from southwest to northeast in NCP, in which the concentrations of air pollutants displayed a multi-step decreasing trend in space...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156436/impact-of-changes-in-labor-resources-and-transfers-of-land-use-rights-on-agricultural-non-point-source-pollution-in-jiangsu-province-china
#4
Hua Lu, Hualin Xie
This study systematically explores the likely mechanisms driving the effect of the transfer of agricultural land use rights (ALURs) on agricultural non-point source pollution (ANSP) in the context of changing agricultural labor resources. It quantitatively estimates the direction and degree of this influence from a microeconomic perspective using data from rural households. The results reveal that economies of scale caused by ALURs transfers contribute to reducing both the ANSP and marginal costs of inputs...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156433/evaluating-features-of-periphytic-diatom-communities-as-biomonitoring-tools-in-fresh-brackish-and-marine-waters
#5
Lalit K Pandey, Yogesh Chandra Sharma, Jihae Park, Soyeon Choi, Hojun Lee, Jie Lyu, Taejun Han
The aims of this study were to assess the biodiversity of periphytic diatom assemblages in fresh, brackish and marine waterbodies of Korea, and to assess the effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on parameters such as the quantity and biovolume of lipid bodies and deformations of diatoms as early warning measures of anthropogenic impact. Diatom samples were collected from 31 sites (14 freshwater, 10 brackish and 7 marine), which included less impacted (upstream) and impacted (downstream) sites in each water type...
November 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156394/assessment-of-sampling-strategies-for-estimation-of-site-mean-concentrations-of-stormwater-pollutants
#6
David T McCarthy, Kefeng Zhang, Camilla Westerlund, Maria Viklander, Jean-Luc Bertrand-Krajewski, Tim D Fletcher, Ana Deletic
The estimation of stormwater pollutant concentrations is a primary requirement of integrated urban water management. In order to determine effective sampling strategies for estimating pollutant concentrations, data from extensive field measurements at seven different catchments was used. At all sites, 1-min resolution continuous flow measurements, as well as flow-weighted samples, were taken and analysed for total suspend solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). For each of these parameters, the data was used to calculate the Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) for each event...
October 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156370/a-novel-aerated-surface-flow-constructed-wetland-using-exhaust-gas-from-biological-wastewater-treatment-performance-and-mechanisms
#7
Xinwen Zhang, Zhen Hu, Jian Zhang, Jinlin Fan, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Chujun Zeng, Yiwen Wu, Siyuan Wang
In this study, a novel aerated surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) using exhaust gas from biological wastewater treatment was investigated. Compared with un-aerated SFCW, the introduction of exhaust gas into SFCW significantly improved NH4(+)-N, TN and COD removal efficiencies by 68.30 ± 2.06%, 24.92 ± 1.13% and 73.92 ± 2.36%, respectively. The pollutants removal mechanism was related to the microbial abundance and the highest microbial abundance was observed in the SFCW with exhaust gas because of the introduction of exhaust gas from sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and thereby optimizing nitrogen transformation processes...
September 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156331/may-humic-acids-or-mineral-fertilisation-mitigate-arsenic-mobility-and-availability-to-carrot-plants-daucus-carota-l-in-a-volcanic-soil-polluted-by-as-from-irrigation-water
#8
Antonio G Caporale, Paola Adamo, Shah M G G Azam, Maria A Rao, Massimo Pigna
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a widely consumed root vegetable, whose growth and safety might be threatened by growing-medium arsenic (As) contamination. By this work, we evaluated the effects of humic acids from Leonardite and NPK mineral fertilisation on As mobility and availability to carrot plants grown for 60 days in a volcanic soil irrigated with As-contaminated water - representing the most common scenario occurring in As-affected Italian areas. As expected, the irrigation with As-contaminated water caused a serious toxic effect on plant growth and photosynthetic rate; the highest rate of As also inhibited soil enzymatic activity...
November 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156311/impacts-from-urban-water-systems-on-receiving-waters-how-to-account-for-severe-wet-weather-events-in-lca
#9
Eva Risch, Johnny Gasperi, Marie-Christine Gromaire, Ghassan Chebbo, Sam Azimi, Vincent Rocher, Philippe Roux, Ralph K Rosenbaum, Carole Sinfort
Sewage systems are a vital part of the urban infrastructure in most cities. They provide drainage, which protects public health, prevents the flooding of property and protects the water environment around urban areas. On some occasions sewers will overflow into the water environment during heavy rain potentially causing unacceptable impacts from releases of untreated sewage into the environment. In typical Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of urban wastewater systems (UWS), average dry-weather conditions are modelled while wet-weather flows from UWS, presenting a high temporal variability, are not currently accounted for...
October 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156304/water-management-regimes-alter-pb-uptake-and-translocation-in-fragrant-rice
#10
Umair Ashraf, Saddam Hussain, Nadeem Akbar, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Waseem Hassan, Xiangru Tang
Rice cultivation in lead (Pb) polluted soils often leads to high Pb contents in rice grains. The present study investigated the dynamics of Pb uptake under different water regimes in two fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Guixiangzhan and Nongxiang-18. Results revealed that water dynamics regulated the antioxidant activities in both rice cultivars under Pb toxicity. Compared to continuous ponding (CP), taken as control, alternate wetting and drying (AWD) reduced the Pb contents in roots, stems, leaves, and grains up to 17%, 41%, 22%, and 52% in Guixiangzhan and 23%, 19%, 17%, and 37% in Nongxiang-18, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156303/assessment-of-nickel-bioavailability-through-chemical-extractants-and-red-clover-trifolium-pratense-l-in-an-amended-soil-related-changes-in-various-parameters-of-red-clover
#11
Ali Khan Shahbaz, Muhammad Iqbal, Abdul Jabbar, Sabir Hussain, Muhammad Ibrahim
Application of immobilizing agents may efficiently reduce the bioavailability of nickel (Ni) in the soil. Here we report the effect of biochar (BC), gravel sludge (GS) and zeolite (ZE) as a sole treatment and their combinations on the bioavailability of Ni after their application into a Ni-polluted soil. The bioavailability of Ni after the application of immobilizing agents was assessed through an indicator plant (red clover) and chemical indicators of bioavailability like soil water extract (SWE), DTPA and Ca(NO3)2 extracts...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156278/enhanced-phenanthrene-degradation-in-river-sediments-using-a-combination-of-biochar-and-nitrate
#12
Xunan Yang, Zefang Chen, Qunhe Wu, Meiying Xu
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in urban river sediments is a serious problem to ecological systems and human health. We examined novel remediation approaches, using a biochar amendment combined with bioaugmentation or/and nitrate stimulation, to degrade phenanthrene in sediment. Biochar amendment combined with nitrate stimulation enhanced phenanthrene degradation by 2.3 times that of the control and 1.9 times that of biochar alone. Nitrate stimulation altered the microbial succession and encouraged the growth of potential nitrate-reducing PAH-degraders Thiobacillus and Stenotrophomonas...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156266/seabirds-as-regional-biomonitors-of-legacy-toxicants-on-an-urbanized-coastline
#13
Corey A Clatterbuck, Rebecca L Lewison, Nathan G Dodder, Catherine Zeeman, Kenneth Schiff
Seabirds are often cited as sentinels of the marine environment, but are rarely used in traditional ocean and coastal contaminant monitoring. Four classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs, n=68) and three trace elements (mercury, selenium, and arsenic) were measured in the eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni), caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and western gulls (Larus occidentalis) that nest in the Southern California Bight. Building on a periodic five year regional monitoring program, we measured contaminant exposure and assessed the utility of seabirds as regional contaminant biomonitors...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156264/examining-the-effects-of-socioeconomic-development-on-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-in-china-s-cities-using-spatial-regression-and-the-geographical-detector-technique
#14
Chunshan Zhou, Jing Chen, Shaojian Wang
The frequent occurrence of extreme smog episodes in recent years has begun to present a serious threat to human health. In addition to pollutant emissions and meteorological conditions, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is also influenced by socioeconomic development. Thus, identifying the potential effects of socioeconomic development on PM2.5 variations can provide insights into particulate pollution control. This study applied spatial regression and the geographical detector technique for assessing the directions and strength of association between socioeconomic factors and PM2...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156256/effects-of-ambient-temperature-on-lung-function-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-time-series-panel-study
#15
Zhijing Lin, Yutong Gu, Cong Liu, Yuanlin Song, Chunxue Bai, Renjie Chen, Shujing Chen, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence concerns the associations between ambient temperature and lung function and the results are mixed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between temperature variations and daily fluctuations in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS: We designed a time-series panel study of 28 male urban COPD patients with repeated daily lung function measurements from December 2012 to May 2013 in Shanghai, China...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155030/transcriptome-analysis-and-discovery-of-genes-involved-in-immune-pathways-from-coelomocytes-of-onchidium-struma-after-bacterial-challenge
#16
Mingming Zhang, Guo Qiao, Qiang Li, De-Hai Xu, Zhitao Qi, Aiming Wang, Mengyao Xu, Jintian Huang
Onchidium struma widely distributes in subtidal and low-tidal zones, which is considered to be an economical species with rich nutrition, a valuable biomonitor for heavy metal pollution and a representative species for evolution from ocean to land. However, there is limited genetic information available for O. struma development. This study compared transcriptomic profiles of coelomocytes from normal and bacteria infected O. struma by Illumina-based paired-end sequencing to explore the molecular immune mechanism of O...
November 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154917/maternal-urinary-cadmium-levels-during-pregnancy-associated-with-risk-of-sex-dependent-birth-outcomes-from-an-e-waste-pollution-site-in-china
#17
Yuling Zhang, Xijin Xu, Aimin Chen, Chand Basha Davuljigari, Xiangbin Zheng, Stephani S Kim, Kim N Dietrich, Shuk-Mei Ho, Tiina Reponen, Xia Huo
This study was to investigate whether exposure to cadmium (Cd) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes in a sex-dependent manner. Cd concentrations in maternal urine (U-Cd) samples were measured in 237 subjects from Guiyu (e-waste area) and 212 subjects from Haojiang. A significance level of p <0.05 was used for all analyses. The maternal U-Cd levels in Guiyu residents were significantly higher than Haojiang. We found significant inverse associations between U-Cd concentrations and birth anthropometry (birth weight, birth length, Head Circumference and Apgar scores with 1min and 5 mins) in female neonates, but no significant associations were observed in male neonates except Apgar (1min...
November 14, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154531/study-of-graphene-oxide-structural-features-for-catalytic-antibacterial-gas-sensing-and-metals-decontamination-environmental-applications
#18
Shamaila Sajjad, Sajjad Ahmed Khan Leghari, Anum Iqbal
This study represents a comprehensive review about the structural features of graphene oxide (GO) and its significance in environmental applications. Two Dimensional (2D) GO is tremendously focused in advanced carbon based nanomaterial for environmental applications due to its tunable physicochemical characteristics. Herein, we report foundational structural models of GO and explore the chemical bonding of oxygen moieties with graphite basal plane using various characterization tools. Moreover, the impact of these oxygen moieties and morphology of GO for the environmental applications such as removal of metal ions, catalytic, antibacterial and gas sensing abilities has here been critically reviewed for the first time...
November 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154152/a-mathematical-model-to-plan-for-long-term-effects-of-water-conservation-choices-on-dry-weather-wastewater-flows-and-concentrations
#19
Lauren M Cook, Constantine Samaras, Jeanne M VanBriesen
In many cities, sewer systems are experiencing conditions that are significantly different from those for which they were designed. Factors such as water conservation efforts, changes in population, and efforts to reduce infiltration are altering the quantity and quality of sewage. These changes may affect the ability of sewers to maintain self-cleansing velocities, which are crucial to avoiding solids settling and corrosion issues. Further, such changes may alter the timeline for expected wastewater plant expansion...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154140/mouthpart-deformities-in-chironomidae-diptera-as-bioindicators-of-heavy-metals-pollution-in-shiroro-lake-niger-state-nigeria
#20
Francis O Arimoro, Yohanna I Auta, Oghenekaro N Odume, Unique N Keke, Adamu Z Mohammed
In this study, mouthpart deformities in Chironomid larvae (Diptera) were investigated in relation to sediment contamination in the Shiroro Lake in Nigeria. Metals and chironomids were sampled monthly at three stations (A-C) between August 2013 and January 2014. Across the stations, zinc ranged (3.9-75mg/g), manganese (1.29-1.65mg/g), lead (0.00-0.10mg/g), iron (101-168mg/g) and copper (0.13-0.17mg/g). The metal ions did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the sampling stations. However, zinc and iron ions were significantly different between the sampling seasons (P < 0...
November 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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