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Božidar Rašković, Vesna Poleksić, Stefan Skorić, Katarina Jovičić, Slađana Spasić, Aleksandar Hegediš, Nebojša Vasić, Mirjana Lenhardt
Chub (Squalius cephalus) specimens were collected in Korenita River seven months after spillover from the waste water of antimony mine tailing pond and compared with chub living in Kruščica reservoir (intended for water supply) and Međuvršje reservoir (influenced by intense emission of industrial, urban and rural wastewater). Concentrations of 15 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, Zn) were determined in muscle, liver and gills of chub by inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES) and histopathological alterations in liver and gills were assessed...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
László Andrássy, Izabella Gomez, Ágnes Horváth, Katalin Gulyás, Zsófia Pethö, Balázs Juhász, Harjit Pal Bhattoa, Zoltan Szekanecz
Bone may be similar to geological formulations in many ways. Therefore, it may be logical to apply laser-based geological techniques in bone research. The mineral and element oxide composition of bioapatite can be estimated by mathematical models. Laser-induced plasma spectrometry (LIPS) has long been used in geology. This method may provide a possibility to determine the composition and concentration of element oxides forming the inorganic part of bones. In this study, we wished to standardize the LIPS technique and use mathematical calculations and models in order to determine CaO distribution and bone homogeneity using bovine shin bone samples...
February 17, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Margarita Lopez-Fernandez, Maria Romero-González, Alix Günther, Pier L Solari, Mohamed L Merroun
This study presents the effect of aqueous uranium speciation (U-hydroxides and U-hydroxo-carbonates) on the interaction of this radionuclide with the cells of the yeast Rhodotorula mucigilanosa BII-R8. This strain was isolated from Spanish bentonites considered as reference materials for the engineered barrier components of the future deep geological repository of radioactive waste. X-ray absorption and infrared spectroscopy showed that the aqueous uranium speciation has no effect on the uranium binding process by this yeast strain...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Nancy G Prouty, E Brendan Roark, Leslye M Mohon, Ching-Chih Chang
Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Marianne Deschamps, João Zilhão
We use stone tool refitting to assess palimpsest formation and stratigraphic integrity in the basal units of the Gruta da Oliveira archeo-stratigraphic sequence, layers 15-27, which TL and U-series dating places in late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 or early MIS 4. As in most karst contexts, the formation of this succession involved multiple and complex phenomena, including subsidence, bioturbation, carnivore activity and runoff as agents of potential post-depositional disturbance. During phases of stabilization, such as represented by layers 15, 21 and 22, the excavated area was inhabited and refits corroborate that post-depositional displacement is negligible...
2018: PloS One
M J Paul, S R Biegalski, D A Haas, H Jiang, H Daigle, J D Lowrey
The detection of radioactive noble gases is a primary technology for verifying compliance with the pending Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A fundamental challenge in applying this technology for detecting underground nuclear explosions is estimating the timing and magnitude of the radionuclide signatures. While the primary mechanism for transport is advective transport, either through barometric pumping or thermally driven advection, diffusive transport in the surrounding matrix also plays a secondary role...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Serku Kang, Yul Roh
The objectives of this research were to study the microbial diversity of metal-reducing bacteria enriched from sedimentary rock collected from a CO2 repository candidate site and to examine the effect that the bicarbonate concentration had on the iron reduction and biomineralization by the cultures. The enriched metal-reducing bacteria (i.e., JG-3) consisted mostly of Exiguobacterium sp. and Shewanella sp., and the microbial reduction of akaganeite (β-FeOOH), an Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, was examined over 7 days of bacterial cultivation at 30 °C under different concentrations of bicarbonate (0~210 mM)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
J Tapia, R González, B Townley, V Oliveros, F Álvarez, G Aguilar, A Menzies, M Calderón
The Atacama Desert, the driest of its kind on Earth, hosts a number of unique geological and geochemical features that make it unlike any other environment on the planet. Considering its location on the western border of South America, between 17 and 28 °S, its climate has been characterized as arid to hyperarid for at least the past 10 million years. Notably dry climatic conditions of the Atacama Desert have been related to uplift of the Andes and are believed to have played an important role in the development of the most distinctive features of this desert, including: (i) nitrates and iodine deposits in the Central Depression, (ii) secondary enrichment in porphyry copper deposits in the Precordillera, (iii) Li enrichment in salt flats of the Altiplano, and (iv) life in extreme habitats...
February 14, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ville-Veikko Telkki
Laplace NMR, dealing with NMR relaxation and diffusion experiments, reveals details of molecular motion and provides chemical resolution complementary to NMR spectra. Laplace NMR has witnessed a great progress in past decades due to the development of methodology and signal processing, and it has lots of extremely interesting applications in various fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, geology, archaeology and medicine. The aim of this minireview is to give a pedagogically oriented overview of Laplace NMR...
February 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Jan Schönig, Guido Meinhold, Hilmar von Eynatten, Nils K Lünsdorf
Finding traces of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism in the geological record has huge implications for unravelling Earth's geodynamic evolution, such as the onset of deep subduction. Usually, UHP rocks are identified by specific mineral inclusions like coesite and characteristic petrographic features resulting from its (partial) transformation to the lower-pressure polymorph quartz in thin sections of crystalline rocks. This approach relies on very small sample size and is thus limited to a few points within large regions...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fabien L Condamine, Jonathan Rolland, Sebastian Höhna, Felix A H Sperling, Isabel Sanmartín
In macroevolution, the Red Queen (RQ) model posits that biodiversity dynamics depend mainly on species-intrinsic biotic factors such as interactions among species or life-history traits, while the Court Jester (CJ) model states that extrinsic environmental abiotic factors have a stronger role. Until recently, a lack of relevant methodological approaches has prevented the unraveling of contributions from these two types of factors to the evolutionary history of a lineage. Here we take advantage of the rapid development of new macroevolution models that tie diversification rates to changes in paleoenvironmental (extrinsic) and/or biotic (intrinsic) factors...
February 9, 2018: Systematic Biology
Xin-Nan Jia, Shu-Xin Xu, Jun Bai, Yi-Fan Wang, Zong-Heng Nie, Chun-Chao Zhu, Yan Wang, Yi-Xiong Cai, Jie-Xin Zou, Xian-Min Zhou
In this study, the authors first obtained the mitochondrial genome of Somanniathelphusa boyangensis. The results showed that the mitochondrial genome is 17,032bp in length, included 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs genes, 22 tRNAs genes and 1 putative control region, and it has the characteristics of the metazoan mitochondrial genome A+T bias. All tRNA genes display the typical clover-leaf secondary structure except tRNASer(AGN), which has lost the dihydroxyuridine arm. The GenBank database contains the mitochondrial genomes of representatives of approximately 22 families of Brachyura, comprising 56 species, including 4 species of freshwater crab...
2018: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
The determination of environmental flows is one of the commonest practical actions implemented on European rivers to promote their good ecological status. In Mediterranean rivers, groundwater inflows are a decisive factor in streamflow maintenance. This work examines the relationship between the lithological composition of the Ebro basin (Spain) and dry season flows in order to establish a model that can assist in the calculation of environmental flow rates.Due to the lack of information on the hydrogeological characteristics of the studied basin, the variable representing groundwater inflows has been estimated in a very simple way...
February 1, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Kunwar K Singh, Marguerite Madden, Josh Gray, Ross K Meentemeyer
Urban ecosystem assessments increasingly rely on widely available map products, such as the U.S. Geological Service (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD), and datasets that use generic classification schemes to detect and model large-scale impacts of land-cover change. However, utilizing existing map products or schemes without identifying relevant urban class types such as semi-natural, yet managed land areas that account for differences in ecological functions due to their pervious surfaces may severely constrain assessments...
2018: PloS One
Maria Kozłowska, Michael R Brudzinski, Paul Friberg, Robert J Skoumal, Nicholas D Baxter, Brian S Currie
Understanding the causes of human-induced earthquakes is paramount to reducing societal risk. We investigated five cases of seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing (HF) in Ohio since 2013 that, because of their isolation from other injection activities, provide an ideal setting for studying the relations between high-pressure injection and earthquakes. Our analysis revealed two distinct groups: (i) deeper earthquakes in the Precambrian basement, with larger magnitudes (M > 2), b-values < 1, and many post-shut-in earthquakes, versus (ii) shallower earthquakes in Paleozoic rocks ∼400 m below HF, with smaller magnitudes (M < 1), b-values > 1...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sean T O'Donnell, Michael D Caldwell, Morton A Barlaz, Jeremy W F Morris
Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in the USA are regulated under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which includes the requirement to protect human health and the environment (HHE) during the post-closure care (PCC) period. Several approaches have been published for assessment of potential threats to HHE. These approaches can be broadly divided into organic stabilization, which establishes an inert waste mass as the ultimate objective, and functional stability, which considers long-term emissions in the context of minimizing threats to HHE in the absence of active controls...
February 8, 2018: Waste Management
Tzitziki Loeza-Quintana, Sarah J Adamowicz
During the past 50 years, the molecular clock has become one of the main tools for providing a time scale for the history of life. In the era of robust molecular evolutionary analysis, clock calibration is still one of the most basic steps needing attention. When fossil records are limited, well-dated geological events are the main resource for calibration. However, biogeographic calibrations have often been used in a simplistic manner, for example assuming simultaneous vicariant divergence of multiple sister lineages...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
J Jacobs, G Paoli, S Rocchi, A K Ksienzyk, H Sirevaag, M A Elburg
We have traced the particle path of high-pressure metasedimentary rocks on Elba Island, Northern Apennines, with the help of a U-Pb-Hf detrital zircon study. One quarter of the analysed zircons are surprisingly young, 41-30 Ma, with a main age peak at ca. 32 Ma, indicating an unexpected early Oligocene maximum deposition age. These Oligocene ages with negative εHf indicate a volcanic source region in the central-southern Alps. Though young by geological means, these zircons record an extraordinary geodynamic history...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
D Diston, R Robbi, A Baumgartner, R Felleisen
Water resources situated in areas with underlying karst geology are particularly vulnerable to fecal pollution. In such vulnerable systems, microbial source tracking (MST) methods are useful tools to elucidate the pathways of both animal and human fecal pollution, leading to more accurate water use risk assessments. Here, we describe the application of a MST toolbox using both culture-dependent bacteriophage and molecular-dependent 16S rRNA assays at spring and well sites in the karstic St Imier Valley, Switzerland...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Maria Elizabeth Zucolotto, Amanda A Tosi, Caio V N Villaça, André L R Moutinho, Diana P P Andrade, Fabiano Faulstich, Angelo M S Gomes, Debora C Rios, Marcilio C Rocha
Serra Pelada is the newest Brazilian eucrite and the first recovered fall from Amazonia (State of Pará, Brazil, June 29th 2017). In this paper, we report on its petrography, chemistry, mineralogy and its magnetic properties. Study of four thin sections reveals that the meteorite is brecciated, containing basaltic and gabbroic clasts, as well of recrystallized impact melt, embedded into a fine-medium grained matrix. Chemical analyses suggest that Serra Pelada is a monomict basaltic eucritic breccia, and that the meteorite is a normal member of the HED suite...
February 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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