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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055110/host-conservatism-geography-and-elevation-in-the-evolution-of-a-neotropical-moth-radiation
#1
Joshua P Jahner, Matthew L Forister, Thomas L Parchman, Angela M Smilanich, James S Miller, Joseph S Wilson, Thomas R Walla, Eric J Tepe, Lora A Richards, Mario Alberto Quijano-Abril, Andrea E Glassmire, Lee A Dyer
The origins of evolutionary radiations are often traced to the colonization of novel adaptive zones, including unoccupied habitats or unutilized resources. For herbivorous insects, the predominant mechanism of diversification is typically assumed to be a shift onto a novel lineage of host plants. However, other drivers of diversification are important in shaping evolutionary history, especially for groups residing in regions with complex geological histories. We evaluated the contributions of shifts in host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation to diversification in Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a hyper-diverse genus of moths found throughout the Neotropics...
October 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053868/lagos-ne-a-multi-scaled-geospatial-and-temporal-database-of-lake-ecological-context-and-water-quality-for-thousands-of-u-s-lakes
#2
Patricia A Soranno, Linda C Bacon, Michael Beauchene, Karen E Bednar, Edward G Bissell, Claire K Boudreau, Marvin G Boyer, Mary T Bremigan, Stephen R Carpenter, Jamie W Carr, Kendra S Cheruvelil, Samuel T Christel, Matt Claucherty, Sarah M Collins, Joseph D Conroy, John A Downing, Jed Dukett, C Emi Fergus, Christopher T Filstrup, Clara Funk, Maria J Gonzalez, Linda T Green, Corinna Gries, John D Halfman, Stephen K Hamilton, Paul C Hanson, Emily N Henry, Elizabeth M Herron, Celeste Hockings, James R Jackson, Kari Jacobson-Hedin, Lorraine L Janus, William W Jones, John R Jones, Caroline M Keson, Katelyn B S King, Scott A Kishbaugh, Jean-Francois Lapierre, Barbara Lathrop, Jo A Latimore, Yuehlin Lee, Noah R Lottig, Jason A Lynch, Leslie J Matthews, William H McDowell, Karen E B Moore, Brian P Neff, Sarah J Nelson, Samantha K Oliver, Michael L Pace, Donald C Pierson, Autumn C Poisson, Amina I Pollard, David M Post, Paul O Reyes, Donald O Rosenberry, Karen M Roy, Lars G Rudstam, Orlando Sarnelle, Nancy J Schuldt, Caren E Scott, Nicholas K Skaff, Nicole J Smith, Nick R Spinelli, Joseph J Stachelek, Emily H Stanley, John L Stoddard, Scott B Stopyak, Craig A Stow, Jason M Tallant, Pang-Ning Tan, Anthony P Thorpe, Michael J Vanni, Tyler Wagner, Gretchen Watkins, Kathleen C Weathers, Katherine E Webster, Jeffrey D White, Marcy K Wilmes, Shuai Yuan
Background: Understanding the factors that affect water quality and the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems is an urgent global environmental issue. Predicting how water quality will respond to global changes not only requires water quality data, but also information about the ecological context of individual water bodies across broad spatial extents. Because lake water quality is usually sampled in limited geographic regions, often for limited time periods, assessing the environmental controls of water quality requires compilation of many datasets across broad regions and across time into an integrated database...
October 19, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052021/a-new-approach-to-predict-user-mobility-using-semantic-analysis-and-machine-learning
#3
Roshan Fernandes, Rio D'Souza G L
Mobility prediction is a technique in which the future location of a user is identified in a given network. Mobility prediction provides solutions to many day-to-day life problems. It helps in seamless handovers in wireless networks to provide better location based services and to recalculate paths in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). In the present study, a framework is presented which predicts user mobility in presence and absence of mobility history. Naïve Bayesian classification algorithm and Markov Model are used to predict user future location when user mobility history is available...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050975/disaster-waste-management-in-italy-analysis-of-recent-case-studies
#4
Francesco Gabrielli, Alessia Amato, Susanna Balducci, Lorenzo Magi Galluzzi, Francesca Beolchini
The geomorphology of the Italian territory causes the incidence of many disasters like earthquakes and floods, with the consequent production of large volumes of waste. The management of such huge flows, produced in a very short time, may have a high impact on the whole emergency response. Moreover, historical data related to disaster waste management are often not easily accessible; on the other hand, the availability of data concerning previous events could support the emergency managers, that have to take a decision in a very short time...
October 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050851/validation-of-a-new-device-to-quantify-groundwater-surface-water-exchange
#5
Mackenzie M Cremeans, J F Devlin
Distributions of flow across the groundwater-surface water interface should be expected to be as complex as the geologic deposits associated with stream or lake beds and their underlying aquifers. In these environments, the conventional Darcy-based method of characterizing flow systems (near streams) has significant limitations, including reliance on parameters with high uncertainties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity), the common use of drilled wells in the case of streambank investigations, and potentially lengthy measurement times for aquifer characterization and water level measurements...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048391/downhole-applications-of-magnetic-sensors
#6
REVIEW
Chinthaka P Gooneratne, Bodong Li, Timothy E Moellendick
In this paper we present a review of the application of two types of magnetic sensors-fluxgate magnetometers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors-in the oil/gas industry. These magnetic sensors play a critical role in drilling wells safely, accurately and efficiently into a target reservoir zone by providing directional data of the well and acquiring information about the surrounding geological formations. Research into magnetic sensors for oil/gas drilling has not been explored by researchers to the same extent as other applications, such as biomedical, magnetic storage and automotive/aerospace applications...
October 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048259/tracings-of-the-north-of-europe-robert-chambers-in-search-of-the-ice-age
#7
Geir Hestmark
Scottish publisher and naturalist Robert Chambers pursued an amateur interest in geology through much of his life. His early measurements of raised beaches in Scotland earned him membership in the Geological Society of London in 1844, a recognition much appreciated by the anonymous author of the 'scandalous' Vestiges published the same year. Although familiar with emerging ice age theories, Chambers remained with most British geologists a sceptic through the 1840s, even after a trip to the glaciers of the Alps in 1848, which nevertheless prepared him for the turning point, which came in 1849 during an extensive field trip in Norway and Sweden...
October 19, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047210/environmental-insights-from-high-resolution-sims-sulfur-isotope-analyses-of-sulfides-in-proterozoic-microbialites-with-diverse-mat-textures
#8
M L Gomes, D A Fike, K D Bergmann, C Jones, A H Knoll
In modern microbial mats, hydrogen sulfide shows pronounced sulfur isotope (δ(34) S) variability over small spatial scales (~50‰ over <4 mm), providing information about microbial sulfur cycling within different ecological niches in the mat. In the geological record, the location of pyrite formation, overprinting from mat accretion, and post-depositional alteration also affect both fine-scale δ(34) S patterns and bulk δ(34) Spyrite values. We report μm-scale δ(34) S patterns in Proterozoic samples with well-preserved microbial mat textures...
October 19, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047057/strategies-of-heavy-metal-uptake-by-three-armeria-species-growing-on-different-geological-substrates-in-serbia
#9
Gordana Tomović, Uroš Buzurović, Sanja Đurović, Dražen Vicić, Nevena Mihailović, Ksenija Jakovljević
This study surveyed three species of the genus Armeria Willd. from five ultramafic outcrops, two non-ultramafic (schist) soils, and one tailing heap of an abandoned iron-copper mine from Serbia. Similarities and differences among the three Armeria species growing on different geological substrates in the ability to control uptake and translocate nine metals were examined. Chemical characteristics of the soil and plant samples (concentrations of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Cd, and Pb) are presented...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046566/the-pliocene-marine-megafauna-extinction-and-its-impact-on-functional-diversity
#10
Catalina Pimiento, John N Griffin, Christopher F Clements, Daniele Silvestro, Sara Varela, Mark D Uhen, Carlos Jaramillo
The end of the Pliocene marked the beginning of a period of great climatic variability and sea-level oscillations. Here, based on a new analysis of the fossil record, we identify a previously unrecognized extinction event among marine megafauna (mammals, seabirds, turtles and sharks) during this time, with extinction rates three times higher than in the rest of the Cenozoic, and with 36% of Pliocene genera failing to survive into the Pleistocene. To gauge the potential consequences of this event for ecosystem functioning, we evaluate its impacts on functional diversity, focusing on the 86% of the megafauna genera that are associated with coastal habitats...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046383/preservation-of-uropygial-gland-lipids-in-a-48-million-year-old-bird
#11
Shane O'Reilly, Roger Summons, Gerald Mayr, Jakob Vinther
Although various kinds of organic molecules are known to occur in fossils and rocks, most soft tissue preservation in animals is attributed to melanin or porphyrins. Lipids are particularly stable over time-as diagenetically altered 'geolipids' or as major molecular constituents of kerogen or fossil 'geopolymers'-and may be expected to be preserved in certain vertebrate tissues. Here we analysed lipid residues from the uropygial gland of an early Eocene bird using pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectroscopy...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043784/estimating-the-high-arsenic-domestic-well-population-in-the-conterminous-united-states
#12
Joseph D Ayotte, Laura Medalie, Sharon L Qi, Lorraine C Backer, Bernard T Nolan
Arsenic concentrations from 20 450 domestic wells in the U.S. were used to develop a logistic regression model of the probability of having arsenic >10 μg/L ("high arsenic"), which is presented at the county, state, and national scales. Variables representing geologic sources, geochemical, hydrologic, and physical features were among the significant predictors of high arsenic. For U.S. Census blocks, the mean probability of arsenic >10 μg/L was multiplied by the population using domestic wells to estimate the potential high-arsenic domestic-well population...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042575/role-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-uplift-in-the-northern-hemisphere-disjunction-evidence-from-two-herbaceous-genera-of-rubiaceae
#13
Tao Deng, Jian-Wen Zhang, Ying Meng, Sergei Volis, Hang Sun, Ze-Long Nie
To assess the role of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift in shaping the intercontinental disjunction in Northern Hemisphere, we analyzed the origin and diversification within a geological timeframe for two relict herbaceous genera, Theligonum and Kelloggia (Rubiaceae). Phylogenetic relationships within and between Theligonum and Kelloggia as well as their relatives were inferred using five chloroplast markers with parsimony, Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches. Migration routes and evolution of these taxa were reconstructed using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock and ancestral area reconstruction...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039682/on-the-habitability-of-desert-varnish-a-combined-study-by-micro-raman-spectroscopy-x-ray-diffraction-and-methylated-pyrolysis-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#14
C Malherbe, I B Hutchinson, R Ingley, A Boom, A S Carr, H Edwards, B Vertruyen, B Gilbert, G Eppe
In 2020, the ESA ExoMars and NASA Mars 2020 missions will be launched to Mars to search for evidence of past and present life. In preparation for these missions, terrestrial analog samples of rock formations on Mars are studied in detail in order to optimize the scientific information that the analytical instrumentation will return. Desert varnishes are thin mineral coatings found on rocks in arid and semi-arid environments on Earth that are recognized as analog samples. During the formation of desert varnishes (which takes many hundreds of years), organic matter is incorporated, and microorganisms may also play an active role in the formation process...
October 17, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036373/summary-of-the-eighth-conference-on-protection-against-radon-at-home-and-at-work-and-the-13th-workshop-on-the-geological-aspects-of-radon-risk-mapping
#15
K Navratilova Rovenska, L Thinova, M Neznal
This paper provides summary of the 8th Conference on Protection against Radon at Home and at Work and 13th Workshop on the Geological Aspects of Radon Risk Mapping held in September 2016 in Prague, Czech Republic.
September 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036340/226ra-222rn-and-permeability-of-belgian-soils-in-relation-with-indoor-radon-risk
#16
C Licour, F Tondeur, I Gerardy, N Medaghri Alaoui, N Dubois, R Perreaux, N Gerardy, D Christiaens
Knowing the concentration of 226Ra in soil and of 222Rn in soil gas is important for the analysis of indoor radon data and the prediction of radon-prone areas. Except for soil Rn in Ardenne, the data concerning these two radionuclides in Belgian soils are very scarce. In the context of Master theses and international courses, students made 92 measurements of 226Ra in soil samples, 105 of 222Rn in soil gas, and 74 of soil permeability, a significant addition to the existing similar data. The data are analysed in relation with soil texture, geological units and indoor radon risk...
September 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036179/extreme-strontium-concentrations-reveal-specific-biomineralization-pathways-in-certain-coccolithophores-with-implications-for-the-sr-ca-paleoproductivity-proxy
#17
Michaël Hermoso, Benjamin Lefeuvre, Fabrice Minoletti, Marc de Rafélis
The formation of the coccolith biominerals by a group of marine algae (the Coccolithophores) offers fascinating research avenues both from the biological and geological sides. It is surprising how biomineralisation by a key phytoplanktonic group remains underconstrained, yet is influential on ocean alkalinity and responsible for the built up of our paleoclimatic archive over the last 200 Myrs. Here, we report two close relative coccolith taxa exhibiting substantial bioaccumulation of strontium: Scyphosphaera and Pontosphaera grown in the laboratory or retrieved from Pliocene sediments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035418/multi-criteria-evaluation-of-hydro-geological-and-anthropogenic-parameters-for-the-groundwater-vulnerability-assessment
#18
Prashant Kumar, Praveen K Thakur, Baban Ks Bansod, Sanjit K Debnath
Groundwater contamination assessment is a challenging task due to inherent complex dynamisms associated with the groundwater. DRASTIC is a very widely used rapid regional tool for the assessment of vulnerability of groundwater to contamination. DRASTIC has many lacunas in the form of subjectivities associated with weights and ratings of its hydro-geological parameters, and, therefore, the accuracy of the DRASTIC-based vulnerability map is questioned. The present study demonstrates the optimisation of the DRASTIC parameters along with a scientific consideration to the anthropogenic factors causing groundwater contamination...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035265/hydrothermal-impacts-on-trace-element-and-isotope-ocean-biogeochemistry
#19
C R German, K A Casciotti, J-C Dutay, L E Heimbürger, W J Jenkins, C I Measures, R A Mills, H Obata, R Schlitzer, A Tagliabue, D R Turner, H Whitby
Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035263/developing-a-test-bed-for-robust-research-governance-of-geoengineering-the-contribution-of-ocean-iron-biogeochemistry
#20
Philip W Boyd, Matthieu Bressac
Geoengineering to mitigate climate change has long been proposed, but remains nebulous. Exploration of the feasibility of geoengineering first requires the development of research governance to move beyond the conceptual towards scientifically designed pilot studies. Fortuitously, 12 mesoscale (approx. 1000 km(2)) iron enrichments, funded to investigate how ocean iron biogeochemistry altered Earth's carbon cycle in the geological past, provide proxies to better understand the benefits and drawbacks of geoengineering...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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