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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923124/the-triassic
#1
Michael J Benton
The Triassic, lasting from 252 to 201 million years (Myr) ago, was crucial in the origin of modern ecosystems. It is the seventh of the 11 geological systems or periods into which the Phanerozoic, the fossiliferous last 540 million years, of Earth history is divided. It might seem strange to select just one of these divisions of time as somehow more significant than the others. However, this was the span of time during which all of the key modern vertebrate groups originated - the neoselachian sharks, neopterygian bony fishes, lissamphibians, turtles, lepidosaurs, crocodilomorphs, and mammals...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922128/space-geodetic-monitoring-of-engineered-structures-the-ongoing-destabilization-of-the-mosul-dam-iraq
#2
Pietro Milillo, Roland Bürgmann, Paul Lundgren, Jacqueline Salzer, Daniele Perissin, Eric Fielding, Filippo Biondi, Giovanni Milillo
We present a detailed survey of the ongoing destabilization process of the Mosul dam. The dam is located on the Tigris river and is the biggest hydraulic structure in Iraq. From a geological point of view the dam foundation is poor due to a site geology formed by alternating strata of highly soluble materials including gypsum, anhydrite, marl and limestone. Here we present the first multi-sensor cumulative deformation map for the dam generated from space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements from the Italian constellation COSMO-SkyMed and the European sensor Sentinel-1a over the period 2014-2016 that we compare to an older dataset spanning 2004-2010 acquired with the European Envisat satellite...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917255/can-ice-like-structures-form-on-non-ice-like-substrates-the-example-of-the-k-feldspar-microcline
#3
Philipp Pedevilla, Stephen J Cox, Ben Slater, Angelos Michaelides
Feldspar minerals are the most common rock formers in Earth's crust. As such they play an important role in subjects ranging from geology to climate science. An atomistic understanding of the feldspar structure and its interaction with water is therefore desirable, not least because feldspar has been shown to dominate ice nucleation by mineral dusts in Earth's atmosphere. The complexity of the ice/feldspar interface arising from the numerous chemical motifs expressed on the surface makes it a challenging system...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914387/investigation-of-horizontal-refraction-on-florida-straits-continental-shelf-using-a-three-dimensional-gaussian-ray-bundling-model
#4
Sean M Reilly, Gopu R Potty, David Thibaudeau
Acoustic transmission loss measurements from the calibration operations (CALOPS) experiment for the Shallow Water Array Performance (SWAP) program included horizontally refracted returns that were as much as 30° away from the true bearing between source and receiver. In many cases, the in-shore refracted path was 20 dB stronger than the true bearing path. In this study CALOPS transmission loss measurements at 415 Hz are compared to predictions from a three-dimensional Gaussian ray bundling model. The geoacoustic model that provides good model-data comparison is consistent with the geologic and sediment core data collected at the location but differs slightly from the bottom model used at lower frequencies (206 and 52...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910417/new-numerical-simulation-method-to-calibrate-the-regular-hexagonal-nai-tl-detector-with-radioactive-point-sources-situated-non-axial
#5
Ayman Hamzawy, Dimitar N Grozdanov, Mohamed S Badawi, Fuad A Aliyev, Abouzeid A Thabet, Mahmoud I Abbas, Ivan N Ruskov, Ahmed M El-Khatib, Yuri N Kopatch, Mona M Gouda
Scintillation crystals are usually used for detection of energetic photons at room temperature in high energy and nuclear physics research, non-destructive analysis of materials testing, safeguards, nuclear treaty verification, geological exploration, and medical imaging. Therefore, new designs and construction of radioactive beam facilities are coming on-line with these science brunches. A good number of researchers are investigating the efficiency of the γ-ray detectors to improve the models and techniques used in order to deal with the most pressing problems in physics research today...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909425/thermodynamic-and-kinetic-response-of-microbial-reactions-to-high-co2
#6
Qusheng Jin, Matthew F Kirk
Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909157/area-monitoring-of-ambient-dose-rates-in-parts-of-south-western-nigeria-using-a-gps-integrated-radiation-survey-meter
#7
I C Okeyode, J A Rabiu, O O Alatise, V Makinde, F G Akinboro, D Al-Azmi, A O Mustapha
A radiation monitoring system comprising a Geiger-Muller counter connected to a smart phone via Bluetooth was used for a dose rate survey in some parts of south-western Nigeria. The smart phone has the Geographical Positioning System, which provides the navigation information and saves it along with the dose rate data. A large number of data points was obtained that shows the dose rate distribution within the region. The results show that the ambient dose rates in the region range from 60 to 520 nSv (-1) and showed a bias that is attributable to the influence of geology on the ambient radiation dose in the region...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905827/modeling-pn2-through-geological-time-implications-for-planetary-climates-and-atmospheric-biosignatures
#8
E E Stüeken, M A Kipp, M C Koehler, E W Schwieterman, B Johnson, R Buick
Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure...
December 1, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905411/the-rapid-formation-of-sputnik-planitia-early-in-pluto-s-history
#9
Douglas P Hamilton, S A Stern, J M Moore, L A Young
Pluto's Sputnik Planitia is a bright, roughly circular feature that resembles a polar ice cap. It is approximately 1,000 kilometres across and is centred on a latitude of 25 degrees north and a longitude of 175 degrees, almost directly opposite the side of Pluto that always faces Charon as a result of tidal locking. One explanation for its location includes the formation of a basin in a giant impact, with subsequent upwelling of a dense interior ocean. Once the basin was established, ice would naturally have accumulated there...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903429/polyhydroxyalkanoate-as-a-slow-release-carbon-source-for-in-situ-bioremediation-of-contaminated-aquifers-from-laboratory-investigation-to-pilot-scale-testing-in-the-field
#10
Lucia Pierro, Bruna Matturro, Simona Rossetti, Marco Sagliaschi, Salvatore Sucato, Eduard Alesi, Ernst Bartsch, Firoozeh Arjmand, Marco Petrangeli Papini
A pilot-scale study aiming to evaluate the potential use of poly-3-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) as an electron donor source for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater was conducted. Compared with commercially available electron donors, PHB offers a restricted fermentation pathway (i.e., through acetic acid and molecular hydrogen) by avoiding the formation of any residual carbon that could potentially spoil groundwater quality. The pilot study was carried out at an industrial site in Italy, heavily contaminated by different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)...
November 27, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901016/relationships-between-arsenic-concentrations-in-drinking-water-and-lung-and-bladder-cancer-incidence-in-u-s-counties
#11
William M Mendez, Sorina Eftim, Jonathan Cohen, Isaac Warren, John Cowden, Janice S Lee, Reeder Sams
Increased risks of lung and bladder cancer have been observed in populations exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic. However, studies at lower exposures (i.e., less than 100 μg/l in water) have shown inconsistent results. We therefore conducted an ecological analysis of the association between historical drinking water arsenic concentrations and lung and bladder cancer incidence in U.S. counties. We used drinking water arsenic concentrations measured by the U.S. Geological Survey and state agencies in the 1980s and 1990s as proxies for historical exposures in counties where public groundwater systems and private wells are important sources of drinking water...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896712/applications-of-accelerators-and-radiation-sources-in-the-field-of-space-research-and-industry
#12
REVIEW
Luigi Campajola, Francesco Di Capua
Beyond their important economic role in commercial communications, satellites in general are critical infrastructure because of the services they provide. In addition to satellites providing information which facilitates a better understanding of the space environment and improved performance of physics experiments, satellite observations are also used to actively monitor weather, geological processes, agricultural development and the evolution of natural and man-made hazards. Defence agencies depend on satellite services for communication in remote locations, as well as for reconnaissance and intelligence...
December 2016: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893932/density-driven-free-convection-model-for-isotopically-fractionated-geogenic-nitrate-in-sabkha-brine
#13
Warren W Wood, J K Böhlke
Subsurface brines with high nitrate (NO3(-) ) concentration are common in desert environments as atmospheric nitrogen is concentrated by the evaporation of precipitation and little nitrogen uptake. However, in addition to having an elevated mean concentration of ∼525 mg/L (as N), NO3- in the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi is enriched in (15) N (mean δ(15) N ∼17‰), which is an enigma. A NO3(-) solute mass balance analysis of the sabkha aquifer system suggests that more than 90% of the nitrogen is from local atmospheric deposition and the remainder from ascending brine...
November 28, 2016: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891142/genetic-structure-and-evolutionary-history-of-three-alpine-sclerophyllous-oaks-in-east-himalaya-hengduan-mountains-and-adjacent-regions
#14
Li Feng, Qi-Jian Zheng, Zeng-Qiang Qian, Jia Yang, Yan-Ping Zhang, Zhong-Hu Li, Gui-Fang Zhao
The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides, and Quercus rehderiana) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890299/monte-carlo-simulations-of-the-gamma-ray-exposure-rates-of-common-rocks
#15
Daniel A Haber, Russell L Malchow, Pamela C Burnley
Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to model the gamma ray emission and attenuation properties of common rocks. In geologic materials, (40)K, (238)U, and (232)Th are responsible for most gamma ray production. If the concentration of these radioelements and attenuation factors such as degree of water saturation are known, an estimate of the gamma-ray exposure rate can be made. The results show that there are no significant differences in gamma-ray screening between major rock types. If the total number of radionuclide atoms are held constant then the major controlling factor is density of the rock...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888425/an-overview-on-common-aspects-influencing-the-dissipation-pattern-of-pesticides-a-review
#16
Waziha Farha, A M Abd El-Aty, Md Musfiqur Rahman, Ho-Chul Shin, Jae-Han Shim
The common aspects and processes influencing dissipation kinetics of pesticides are determinants of their fate in the environment. Nowadays, with increasing population, the demand for food and fodder crops has also increased. With the development in science and technology, the methods of controlling pests may improve, but the major role played by the environment cannot be altered, i.e. the environmental factors, climatic conditions, and geology of areas under cultivation. Plants play a crucial role in the dissipation kinetics, as they may vary in species and characteristics...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888329/the-origin-of-hexavalent-chromium-as-a-critical-parameter-for-remediation-of-contaminated-aquifers
#17
Dimitris Dermatas, Iraklis Panagiotakis, Thanasis Mpouras, Kostas Tettas
Two different cases of Cr(VI) contaminated ophiolitic aquifers are presented herein. The first is located at Vergina (Northern Greece), where the maximum Cr(VI) concentration measured was 64 μg/L, being one of the highest geogenic concentrations recorded globally in areas with similar geological background. The second case is located at Inofyta (Central Greece), a makeshift industrial area, where the maximum detected Cr(VI) concentration exceeds 10,000 μg/L, indicating clearly anthropogenic activities as the main source...
November 26, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887742/corrigendum-to-dentognathic-remains-of-australopithecus-afarensis-from-nefuraytu-woranso-mille-ethiopia-comparative-description-geology-and-paleoecological-context-j-hum-evol-100-2016-35-53
#18
Yohannes Haile-Selassie, Stephanie M Melillo, Timothy M Ryan, Naomi E Levin, Beverly Z Saylor, Alan Deino, Ronald Mundil, Gary Scott, Mulugeta Alene, Luis Gibert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886450/comprehending-3d-diagrams-sketching-to-support-spatial-reasoning
#19
Kristin M Gagnier, Kinnari Atit, Carol J Ormand, Thomas F Shipley
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines commonly illustrate 3D relationships in diagrams, yet these are often challenging for students. Failing to understand diagrams can hinder success in STEM because scientific practice requires understanding and creating diagrammatic representations. We explore a new approach to improving student understanding of diagrams that convey 3D relations that is based on students generating their own predictive diagrams. Participants' comprehension of 3D spatial diagrams was measured in a pre- and post-design where students selected the correct 2D slice through 3D geologic block diagrams...
November 25, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885397/assessment-of-indexes-for-heavy-metal-contamination-in-remote-areas-a-case-study-in-a-pyrenean-forest-navarra-spain
#20
Delia Rodríguez-Oroz, Esther Lasheras, David Elustondo, Jordi Garrigó
The objective of the present work was to verify and compare the performance of different geochemical indices employed to identify the anthropogenic origin of selected heavy metals and other trace elements in soils. To that end, two background values, the upper continental crust and the metal content in the bed rock, were used and obtained from a forested basin of the western Pyrenees. The enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), and contamination factor (C(i)f) were finally evaluated for their ability to determine anthropogenic contamination: Results indicate that an in-depth knowledge of the bed rock geochemistry and the geological background content is essential to distinguish between the natural variability of soils and any anthropogenic contribution of heavy metals...
November 24, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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