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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633403/structured-populations-of-sulfolobus-acidocaldarius-with-susceptibility-to-mobile-genetic-elements
#1
Rika E Anderson, Angela Kouris, Christopher H Seward, Kate M Campbell, Rachel J Whitaker
The impact of a structured environment on genome evolution can be determined through comparative population genomics of species that live in the same habitat. Recent work comparing three genome sequences of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius suggested that highly structured, extreme, hot spring environments do not limit dispersal of this thermoacidophile, in contrast to other co-occurring Sulfolobus species. Instead, a high level of conservation among these three S. acidocaldarius genomes was hypothesized to result from rapid, global-scale dispersal promoted by low susceptibility to viruses that sets S...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631376/scale-of-human-mobility-in-the-southern-andes-argentina-and-chile-a-new-framework-based-on-strontium-isotopes
#2
Ramiro Barberena, Víctor A Durán, Paula Novellino, Diego Winocur, Anahí Benítez, Augusto Tessone, María N Quiroga, Erik J Marsh, Alejandra Gasco, Valeria Cortegoso, Gustavo Lucero, Carina Llano, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this article is to assess the scale of human paleomobility and ecological complementarity between the lowlands and highlands in the southern Andes during the last 2,300 years. By providing isotope results for human bone and teeth samples, we assess a hypothesis of "high residential mobility" suggested on the basis of oxygen isotopes from human remains. METHODS: We develop an isotopic assessment of human mobility in a mountain landscape combining strontium and oxygen isotopes...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631324/recent-origin-and-rapid-speciation-of-neotropical-orchids-in-the-world-s-richest-plant-biodiversity-hotspot
#3
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Adam P Karremans, Diego Bogarín, Nicholas J Matzke, Daniele Silvestro, Alexandre Antonelli
The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630909/dynamic-fracture-of-tantalum-under-extreme-tensile-stress
#4
Bruno Albertazzi, Norimasa Ozaki, Vasily Zhakhovsky, Anatoly Faenov, Hideaki Habara, Marion Harmand, Nicholas Hartley, Denis Ilnitsky, Nail Inogamov, Yuichi Inubushi, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Tetsuo Katayama, Takahisa Koyama, Michel Koenig, Andrew Krygier, Takeshi Matsuoka, Satoshi Matsuyama, Emma McBride, Kirill Petrovich Migdal, Guillaume Morard, Haruhiko Ohashi, Takuo Okuchi, Tatiana Pikuz, Narangoo Purevjav, Osami Sakata, Yasuhisa Sano, Tomoko Sato, Toshimori Sekine, Yusuke Seto, Kenjiro Takahashi, Kazuo Tanaka, Yoshinori Tange, Tadashi Togashi, Kensuke Tono, Yuhei Umeda, Tommaso Vinci, Makina Yabashi, Toshinori Yabuuchi, Kazuto Yamauchi, Hirokatsu Yumoto, Ryosuke Kodama
The understanding of fracture phenomena of a material at extremely high strain rates is a key issue for a wide variety of scientific research ranging from applied science and technological developments to fundamental science such as laser-matter interaction and geology. Despite its interest, its study relies on a fine multiscale description, in between the atomic scale and macroscopic processes, so far only achievable by large-scale atomic simulations. Direct ultrafast real-time monitoring of dynamic fracture (spallation) at the atomic lattice scale with picosecond time resolution was beyond the reach of experimental techniques...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630903/comment-1-on-formation-of-the-isthmus-of-panama-by-o-dea-et-al
#5
Carlos Jaramillo, Camilo Montes, Agustín Cardona, Daniele Silvestro, Alexandre Antonelli, Christine D Bacon
A review and reanalysis of geological, molecular, and paleontological data led O'Dea et al. (1) to propose (i) that reports by Montes et al. (2) and Bacon et al. (3) regarding a middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS) are unsupported, and (ii) a new age of the formation of the Isthmus at 2.8 million years ago (Ma). Here, we reject both of these conclusions.
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630902/comment-2-on-formation-of-the-isthmus-of-panama-by-o-dea-et-al
#6
Peter Molnar
O'Dea et al. challenged the inference that the Isthmus of Panama has been in place for the last 10 million years or more and from "an exhaustive review and reanalysis of geological, paleontological, and molecular records," they argued for a "formation of the Isthmus of Panama sensu stricto around 2.8 Ma." I review environmental changes since ~5 Ma throughout Earth, and I argue that environmental changes in the Central American-Caribbean region have been part of a concurrent, worldwide phenomenon that requires a global, not local, explanation...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628973/a-baseline-survey-of-dissolved-methane-in-aquifers-of-great-britain
#7
R A Bell, W G Darling, R S Ward, L Basava-Reddi, L Halwa, K Manamsa, B E Ó Dochartaigh
Interest in dissolved methane (CH4) concentrations in aquifers in England, Scotland and Wales ('Great Britain' or GB) has grown concurrently with interest in the exploitation of unconventional gas sources (UGS). Experience, mainly from North America, has shown the importance of a pre-production baseline against which changes possibly due to UGS extraction can be compared. The British Geological Survey, aided by water utilities, private users and regulators, has compiled a unique dataset for CH4 in groundwaters of GB...
June 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626598/design-concerns-of-room-and-pillar-retreat-panels
#8
Ted M Klemetti, Morgan M Sears, Ihsan B Tulu
Why do some room and pillar retreat panels encounter abnormal conditions? What factors deserve the most consideration during the planning and execution phases of mining and what can be done to mitigate those abnormal conditions when they are encountered? To help answer these questions, and to determine some of the relevant factors influencing the conditions of room and pillar (R & P) retreat mining entries, four consecutive R & P retreat panels were evaluated. This evaluation was intended to reinforce the influence of topographic changes, depth of cover, multiple-seam interactions, geological conditions, and mining geometry...
January 2017: International Journal of Mining Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624336/a-framework-for-evaluating-the-accessibility-of-raw-materials-from-end-of-life-products-and-the-earth-s-crust
#9
Sandra R Mueller, Patrick A Wäger, David A Turner, Peter J Shaw, Ian D Williams
An increasing number of geochemically scarce metallic raw materials are entering into our lives via new technologies. A reversal of this trend is not foreseeable, leading to concerns regarding the security of their supply. However, the evaluation of raw material supply is currently hampered by inconsistent use of fundamental terminologies and incomplete assessment criteria. In this paper, we aim to establish a consistent framework for evaluating raw material supply from both anthropogenic and geological sources...
June 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623835/life-cycle-assessment-of-treatment-and-handling-options-for-a-highly-saline-brine-extracted-from-a-potential-co2-storage-site
#10
Hafiz H Salih, Jiaxing Li, Ruth Kaplan, Seyed A Dastgheib
Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in deep saline aquifers is a promising option for CO2 geological sequestration. However, brine extraction may be necessary to control the anticipated increase in reservoir pressure resulting from CO2 injection. The extracted brines usually have elevated concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and other contaminants and require proper handling or treatment. Different options for the handling or treatment of a high-TDS brine extracted from a potential CO2 sequestration site (Mt...
June 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623347/updating-the-phylogenetic-dating-of-new-caledonian-biodiversity-with-a-meta-analysis-of-the-available-evidence
#11
Romain Nattier, Roseli Pellens, Tony Robillard, Hervé Jourdan, Frédéric Legendre, Maram Caesar, André Nel, Philippe Grandcolas
For a long time, New Caledonia was considered a continental island, a fragment of Gondwana harbouring old clades that originated by vicariance and so were thought to be locally ancient. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies dating diversification and geological data indicating important events of submergence during the Paleocene and Eocene (until 37 Ma) brought evidence to dismiss this old hypothesis. In spite of this, some authors still insist on the idea of a local permanence of a Gondwanan biota, justifying this assumption through a complex scenario of survival by hopping to and from nearby and now-vanished islands...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622933/evaluating-the-potential-for-tactical-hunting-in-the-middle-stone-age-insights-from-a-bonebed-of-the-extinct-bovid-rusingoryx-atopocranion
#12
Kirsten E Jenkins, Sheila Nightingale, J Tyler Faith, Daniel J Peppe, Lauren A Michel, Steven G Driese, Kieran P McNulty, Christian A Tryon
The foraging behaviors of Middle Stone Age (MSA) early modern humans have largely been based on evidence from well-stratified cave sites in South Africa. Whereas these sites have provided an abundance of data for behavioral reconstruction that are unmatched elsewhere in Africa, they are unlikely to preserve evidence of the diversity of foraging strategies employed by MSA hunters who lived in a variety of ecological and landscape settings across the African continent. Here we describe the results of recent excavations at the open-air site of Bovid Hill at Wakondo, Rusinga Island, Kenya, which yielded 24 in situ MSA artifacts within an assemblage of bones comprised exclusively of the extinct alcelaphin bovid Rusingoryx atopocranion...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622466/dissolved-co2-increases-breakthrough-porosity-in-natural-porous-materials
#13
Yi Yang, Stefan Bruns, Susan Louise Svane Stipp, Henning Osholm Sørensen
When reactive fluids flow through a dissolving porous medium, conductive channels form, leading to fluid breakthrough. This phenomenon is caused by the reactive infiltration instability and is important in geologic carbon storage where the dissolution of CO2 in flowing water increases fluid acidity. Using numerical simulations with high resolution digital models of North Sea chalk, we show that the breakthrough porosity is an important indicator of dissolution pattern. Dissolution patterns reflect the balance between the demand and supply of cumulative surface...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620233/dating-early-animal-evolution-using-phylogenomic-data
#14
Martin Dohrmann, Gert Wörheide
Information about the geological timeframe during which animals radiated into their major subclades is crucial to understanding early animal ecology and evolution. Unfortunately, the pre-Cambrian fossil record is sparse and its interpretation controversial. Relaxed molecular-clock methods provide an alternative means of estimating the timing of cladogenesis deep in the metazoan tree of life. So far, thorough molecular clock studies focusing specifically on Metazoa as a whole have been based on relatively small datasets or incomplete representation of the main non-bilaterian lineages (such as sponges and ctenophores), which are fundamental for understanding early metazoan evolution...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618665/metal-accumulation-in-soils-derived-from-volcano-sedimentary-rocks-rio-itapicuru-greenstone-belt-northeastern-brazil
#15
Laíse Milena Ribeiro Dos Santos, Thomas Vincent Gloaguen, Francisco de Souza Fadigas, Joselisa Maria Chaves, Tamires Moraes Oliveira Martins
Many countries and some Brazilian regions have defined the guideline values for metals in soils. However, the local geological features may be so heterogeneous that global or even regional guideline values cannot be applied. The Greenstone Belts are worldwide geological formations of vast extension, containing mineralization of various metals (e.g., Au, Cr, Ni, and Ag). Natural concentrations of soils must be known to correctly assess the impact of mining. We studied the soils of the Rio Itapicuru Greenstone Belt (RIGB), of Paleoproterozoic age, sampling at 24 sites (0-0...
June 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617268/hydrochemical-characterization-of-a-river-affected-by-acid-mine-drainage-in-the-iberian-pyrite-belt
#16
J A Grande, M Santisteban, T Valente, M L de la Torre, P Gomes
This paper addresses the modelling of the processes associated with acid mine drainage affecting the Trimpancho River basin, chosen for this purpose because of its location and paradigmatic hydrological, geological, mining and environmental contexts. By using physical-chemical indicators it is possible to define the contamination degree of the system from the perspective of an entire river basin, due to its reduced dimension. This allows an exhaustive monitoring of the study area, considering the particularity that the stream flows directly into a water dam used for human supply...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611382/3d-ultra-high-resolution-seismic-imaging-of-shallow-solfatara-crater-in-campi-flegrei-italy-new-insights-on-deep-hydrothermal-fluid-circulation-processes
#17
Grazia De Landro, Vincenzo Serlenga, Guido Russo, Ortensia Amoroso, Gaetano Festa, Pier Paolo Bruno, Marceau Gresse, Jean Vandemeulebrouck, Aldo Zollo
Seismic tomography can be used to image the spatial variation of rock properties within complex geological media such as volcanoes. Solfatara is a volcano located within the Campi Flegrei, a still active caldera, so it is of major importance to characterize its level of activity and potential danger. In this light, a 3D tomographic high-resolution P-wave velocity image of the shallow central part of Solfatara crater is obtained using first arrival times and a multiscale approach. The retrieved images, integrated with the resistivity section and temperature and the CO2 flux measurements, define the following characteristics: 1...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610371/water-beetles-from-the-bokkeveld-plateau-a-semi-arid-hotspot-of-freshwater-biodiversity-in-the-northern-cape-of-south-africa
#18
David T Bilton
The Bokkeveld Plateau in the Northern Cape of South Africa supports a complex transition zone between the fynbos and succulent karoo biomes on the margins of Namaqualand. A combination of regular winter rainfall, geology and strong rainfall gradients mean that the region supports a diverse and highly endemic flora. Recent sampling of aquatic beetles in the Bokkeveld demonstrates that this region also has a diverse freshwater fauna, including a number of apparent endemics. Five new species of Hydraenidae (Pterosthetops chrysomallus sp...
May 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610226/integrative-taxonomy-reveals-cryptic-diversity-in-neotropical-grasshoppers-taxonomy-phylogenetics-and-evolution-of-the-genus-i-sphenarium-i-charpentier-1842-orthoptera-pyrgomorphidae
#19
Salomón Sanabria-Urbán, Hojun Song, Ken Oyama, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Raúl Cueva Del Castillo
The genus Sphenarium Charpentier, 1842 comprises the most diverse group of the New World Pyrgomorphidae. These grasshoppers show an extensive variation in external morphology, and are culturally and economically important for Mexican people since pre-Hispanic times. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of Sphenarium has been chaotic and remained incompletely resolved until now. Following an integrative taxonomic framework, we infer the number of species in this genus by species delimitation based on morphological, phylogenetic, and geographic information...
June 8, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608820/a-multi-parametric-device-with-innovative-solid-electrodes-for-long-term-monitoring-of-ph-redox-potential-and-conductivity-in-a-nuclear-waste-repository
#20
Jordan Daoudi, Stephanie Betelu, Theodore Tzedakis, Johan Bertrand, Ioannis Ignatiadis
We present an innovative electrochemical probe for the monitoring of pH, redox potential and conductivity in near-field rocks of deep geological radioactive waste repositories. The probe is composed of a monocrystalline antimony electrode for pH sensing, four AgCl/Ag-based reference or Cl(-) selective electrodes, one Ag₂S/Ag-based reference or S(2-) selective electrode, as well as four platinum electrodes, a gold electrode and a glassy-carbon electrode for redox potential measurements. Galvanostatic electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy using AgCl/Ag-based and platinum electrodes measure conductivity...
June 13, 2017: Sensors
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