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Intestinal flora

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322463/selection-of-esbl-producing-e-coli-in-a-mouse-intestinal-colonization-model
#1
Frederik Boëtius Hertz, Karen Leth Nielsen, Niels Frimodt-Møller
Asymptomatic human carriage of antimicrobially drug-resistant pathogens prior to infection is increasing worldwide. Further investigation into the role of this fecal reservoir is important for combatting the increasing antimicrobial resistance problems. Additionally, the damage on the intestinal microflora due to antimicrobial treatment is still not fully understood. Animal models are powerful tools to investigate bacterial colonization subsequent to antibiotic treatment. In this chapter we present a mouse-intestinal colonization model designed to investigate how antibiotics select for an ESBL-producing E...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308184/aspirin-inhibited-the-metastasis-of-colon-cancer-cells-by-inhibiting-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-4
#2
Jun Ying, Hai-Yang Zhou, Peng Liu, Qing You, Fei Kuang, Yi-Nan Shen, Zhi-Qian Hu
Background: The metastasis of colorectal cancer frequently tends to liver, which is one of the three leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Growing evidence showed that aspirin could effectively inhibit liver metastasis of colorectal cancer. However, the potential mechanism has not been fully understood. Methods: Mouse splenic vein metastasis assay was used to examine the metastatic ability of colon cancer cells in vivo. And wound healing and transwell assay were applied to detect the metastasis potential of C26 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines in vitro...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303032/the-evaluation-of-the-quality-of-feng-huang-oolong-teas-and-their-modulatory-effect-on-intestinal-microbiota-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mice-model
#3
Yuhui Chen, Xin Zhang, Lu Cheng, Xiaojie Zheng, Zhicheng Zhang
The variations in the contents of tea catechins and free amino acids in relation to the quality of Fenghuang Oolong teas (FOT) were determined. It demonstrated that in FOT, which were grown at a high altitude, the contents of methylated estered tea catechins were relatively higher. By human flora-associated (HFA) mice model, the effect of FOT on high-fat diet-induced obesity was investigated by high-throughput sequencing. The shifts in relative abundance of the dominant taxa at the phylum, family and genus levels showed their dramatically effects...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288512/pretreatment-of-probiotic-bifico-ameliorates-colitis-associated-cancer-in-mice-transcriptome-and-gut-flora-profiling
#4
Huan Song, Weiyi Wang, Bo Shen, Hao Jia, Zhaoyuan Hou, Ping Chen, Yunwei Sun
Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at a high risk for developing colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Strategies to block the process from IBD to CAC should be considered. In the experiment, we aim to explore the chemopreventive efficacy of the probiotic cocktail Bifico and its potential mechanism in azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Oral pretreatment of Bifico was adopted to evaluate its protective effect. The colorectums of thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were collected and examined for degree of inflammation and tumorigenesis...
December 30, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286377/the-organoid-reconstitution-assay-ora-for-the-functional-analysis-of-intestinal-stem-and-niche-cells
#5
Matthias Schewe, Andrea Sacchetti, Mark Schmitt, Riccardo Fodde
The intestinal epithelium is characterized by an extremely rapid turnover rate. In mammals, the entire epithelial lining is renewed within 4 - 5 days. Adult intestinal stem cells reside at the bottom of the crypts of Lieberkühn, are earmarked by expression of the Lgr5 gene, and preserve homeostasis through their characteristic high proliferative rate1. Throughout the small intestine, Lgr5+ stem cells are intermingled with specialized secretory cells called Paneth cells. Paneth cells secrete antibacterial compounds (i...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285942/-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-as-a-component-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-causal-correlations-with-other-extrahepatic-diseases
#6
Tamás Halmos, Ilona Suba
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common non-infectious chronic liver-disease in our age, and is a spectrum of all the diseases associated with increased fat accumulation in the hepatocytes. Its development is promoted by sedentary life-style, over-feeding, and certain genetic predisposition. Prevalence in the adult population, even in Hungary is ~30%. In a part of cases, this disease may pass into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, later into fibrosis, rarely into primary hepatocellular cancer. Fatty liver is closely and bidirectionally related to the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and nowadays there is a general consensus that fatty liver is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic sycndrome...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282297/development-of-multimarker-diagnostic-models-from-metabolomics-analysis-for-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Wolin Hou, Xiyan Meng, Aihua Zhao, Weijing Zhao, Jiemin Pan, Junling Tang, Yajuan Huang, Huaping Li, Wei Jia, Fang Liu, Weiping Jia
Although metabolomics are desirable to understand the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), comprehensive metabolomic studies of GDM are rare. We aimed to offer a holistic view of metabolites alteration in GDM patients and investigate the possible multimarker models for GDM diagnosis. Biochemical parameters and perinatal data of 131 GDM cases and 138 controls were collected. Fasting serum samples at 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were used for metabolites by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry, ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple triple-quadrupole-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography- time-of- flight mass spectrometry platforms...
December 27, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280113/-relationship-between-functional-constipation-and-brain-gut-microbiota-axis
#8
Qiyi Chen, Jun Jiang
Although with the higher prevalence, the overall treatment result of functional constipation is still not satisfied at home and abroad. The diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation are still to focus on colon itself. Functional constipation has complex interactions among intestinal flora, intestinal autonomic nerve and central nervous system. Patients with functional constipation have different degrees of mental and psychological dysfunction, and abnormal brain function can result in disorders of colon dynamics, secretion and immune function...
December 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279259/change-in-gut-microbiota-for-eczema-implications-for-novel-therapeutic-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Y Kang, Y Cai, W Pan
Eczema is one of the most common inflammatory diseases, often constituting a lifelong burden for afflicted individuals. The complex interaction of host genetic and multiple environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. A relationship between maladjustment of gut microbiota and eczema has been brought into the light of day in most previous studies. In eczema preclinical models, specific intestinal microbial species have been demonstrated to prohibit or dwindle immune responsiveness, indicating that these strains among commensal gut bacteria may exert either a morbific or phylactic function in eczema progression...
December 23, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233677/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota-modifications-the-long-way-between-preclinical-studies-and-clinical-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
Recent studies have suggested the role of an infectious component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of this, research has focused on some bacteria constituting the intestinal microbial flora which can produce amyloid. Once generated, the latter hypothetically triggers a systemic inflammatory response which compromises complex brain functions, such as learning and memory. Clinical studies have shown that, in cognitively impaired elderly patients with brain amyloidosis, there is lower abundance in the gut of E...
December 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225701/cytotoxic-escherichia-coli-strains-encoding-colibactin-and-cytotoxic-necrotizing-factor-cnf-colonize-laboratory-macaques
#11
Yan Feng, Anthony Mannion, Carolyn M Madden, Alton G Swennes, Catherine Townes, Charles Byrd, Robert P Marini, James G Fox
Background: Many Escherichia coli strains are considered to be a component of the normal flora found in the human and animal intestinal tracts. While most E. coli strains are commensal, some strains encode virulence factors that enable the bacteria to cause intestinal and extra-intestinal clinically-relevant infections. Colibactin, encoded by a genomic island (pks island), and cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF), encoded by the cnf gene, are genotoxic and can modulate cellular differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225285/evaluation-of-probiotic-and-prebiotic-like-effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-bn-on-growth-of-lactobacilli
#12
Masanori Horie, Taisuke Koike, Sakiko Sugino, Aya Umeno, Yasukazu Yoshida
The aim of this study was to determine the probiotic and the prebiotic-like properties of Bacillus subtilis BN, a spore-forming bacterium, also known as "natto-kin", which is used for making the Japanese fermented food, natto. We used the spores and vegetative cells of this strain and compared their effects on the growth of lactobacilli. Culture supernatant from B. subtilis BN was added to a glucose-free MRS medium used to culture lactobacilli. When lactobacilli were cultured in the supernatant-containing medium, growth was improved...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222826/application-of-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-in-identification-of-three-isoflavone-glycosides-and-their-corresponding-metabolites
#13
Xiafen Xu, Xinhui Li, Xianrui Liang
RATIONALE: Metabolites of isoflavones raised great attention due to the potential bioactivities in recent years. However, the complex constituents of metabolic system and low level of metabolites made it difficult to analyze. Mass spectrometry (MS) method was applied in our metabolites identification and fragmentation pathways study due to the advantages of rapidity, sensitivity, and low level of sample consumption. METHODS: Three isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites were identified with using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS)...
December 8, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218946/-metabolism-of-inula-cappa-extract-by-rat-intestinal-bacteria-in-vitro
#14
Zi-Peng Gong, Jing-Yu Hou, Mei Li, Lin-Lin Wu, Ting-Ting Chen, Yong-Jun Li, Ai-Min Wang, Yan-Yu Lan, Yong-Lin Wang
To investigate the metabolism of major components in Inula cappa by rat intestinal bacteria in vitro. I. cappa extract was incubated for 24 h with rat intestinal bacteria under anaerobic environment. After the samples were precipitated by n-butanol, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was applied for the qualitative analysis of the metabolites, combined with data software such as Metabolite Tools, Data Analysis and so on. The potential metabolites in rat intestinal bacteria were analyzed by comparing the total ion current of the test samples and blank samples and analyzing the quasi-molecular ion and fragment ion of all chromatograms...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216329/characterization-of-fusobacterium-varium-fv113-g1-isolated-from-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis-based-on-complete-genome-sequence-and-transcriptome-analysis
#15
Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Yumiko Ogasawara, Toshifumi Ohkusa, Makoto Kuroda
Fusobacterium spp. present in the oral and gut flora is carcinogenic and is associated with the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium spp. is also implicated in a broad spectrum of human pathologies, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Here we report the complete genome sequence of Fusobacterium varium Fv113-g1 (genome size, 3.96 Mb) isolated from a patient with UC. Comparative genome analyses totally suggested that Fv113-g1 is basically assigned as F. varium, in particular, it could be reclassified as notable F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209124/composition-and-immuno-stimulatory-properties-of-extracellular-dna-from-mouse-gut-flora
#16
Ce Qi, Ya Li, Ren-Qiang Yu, Sheng-Li Zhou, Xing-Guo Wang, Guo-Wei Le, Qing-Zhe Jin, Hang Xiao, Jin Sun
AIM: To demonstrate that specific bacteria might release bacterial extracellular DNA (eDNA) to exert immunomodulatory functions in the mouse small intestine. METHODS: Extracellular DNA was extracted using phosphate buffered saline with 0.5 mmol/L dithiothreitol combined with two phenol extractions. TOTO-1 iodide, a cell-impermeant and high-affinity nucleic acid stain, was used to confirm the existence of eDNA in the mucus layers of the small intestine and colon in healthy Male C57BL/6 mice...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207701/characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-hospitalized-patients-and-role-of-gut-colonization
#17
Geetarani Purohit, Rajni Gaind, Reetika Dawar, P K Verma, K C Aggarwal, Raman Sardana, Monorama Deb
Introduction: Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora and have been recognized as important human pathogens. Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are global threat as this resistance is transmissible and also poses a challenge for infection control. Aim: This study was undertaken to study phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE from clinically significant infections among hospitalized patients and their association with gut colonization. Materials and Methods: Clinically significant isolates of enterococci (n=250) were studied...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200733/amelioration-of-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-by-berberine-in-the-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#18
Donghao Li, Jimin Zheng, Yiting Hu, Hongtao Hou, Shurong Hao, Na Liu, Yuzhen Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of berberine (BBR) on intestinal barrier function in nonalcoholic fat liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into three groups: normal diet group (control group [CON group]), high-fat diet feeding group (HFD group), and HFD with BBR group. After 8 weeks of HFD feeding, rats in the BBR group were given BBR intragastrically at a dose of 150 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The same volume of normal saline was given to the CON and HFD groups...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196049/chronic-glucocorticoid-treatment-induced-circadian-clock-disorder-leads-to-lipid-metabolism-and-gut-microbiota-alterations-in-rats
#19
Tao Wu, Luna Yang, Jianguo Jiang, Yinhua Ni, Jiawei Zhu, Xiaojun Zheng, Qi Wang, Xin Lu, Zhengwei Fu
AIM: Glucocorticoids (GCs), steroid hormones synthetized by the adrenal gland, are regulated by circadian cycles, and dysregulation of GC signaling can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome. The effects and potential mechanism of GCs in physiology were investigated in the present study. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were orally administered dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX, 0.01 and 0.05mg/kg body weight per day) for 7weeks. KEY FINDING: DEX treatment attenuated body weight gain and reduced food intake, whereas it induced the accumulation of fat...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186895/effects-of-adding-clostridium-sp-wj06-on-intestinal-morphology-and-microbial-diversity-of-growing-pigs-fed-with-natural-deoxynivalenol-contaminated-wheat
#20
FuChang Li, JinQuan Wang, LiBo Huang, HongJu Chen, ChunYang Wang
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly detected in cereals, and is a threat to human and animal health. The effects of microbiological detoxification are now being widely studied. A total of 24 pigs (over four months) were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment A was fed with a basal diet as the control group. Treatment B was fed with naturally DON-contaminated wheat as a negative control group. Treatment C was fed with a contaminated diet that also had Clostridium sp. WJ06, which was used as a detoxicant...
November 27, 2017: Toxins
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