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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811235/sodium-butyrate-ameliorates-s100-fca-induced-autoimmune-hepatitis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-tight-junction-and-toll-like-receptor-signaling-pathway
#1
Jin-Lu Wu, Jia-Yun Zou, En-De Hu, Da-Zhi Chen, Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ming-Fang Zhao, Yong-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent investigation revealed that dysbiosis in the gut flora and disruption of permeability of intestinal barrier are possible causes for the development of autoimmune hepatitis. Supplementation of sodium butyrate has been suggested to protect liver injury from disrupted permeability of small intestine. In current study, we employed S100/Freund's complete adjuvant induced autoimmune hepatitis to investigate therapeutic efficacy of sodium butyrate and its mechanism in the liver and upper small intestine...
August 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807914/amplification-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-gut-flora-of-patients-treated-with-ceftriaxone
#2
J Meletiadis, A Turlej-Rogacka, A Lerner, A Adler, E Taconelli, J W Mouton
Although antibacterial therapy has an impact on human intestinal flora and emergence of resistant bacteria, its role on amplification of antimicrobial resistance and the quantitative exposure-effect relationship is not clear. An observational prospective study was conducted to determine whether and how ceftriaxone exposure is related to amplification of resistance in non- ICU patients.Serial stool samples from 122 ESBL(+) hospitalized patients were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the resistant gene blaCTX-M Drug exposure was calculated for each patient using a population pharmacokinetic model...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799153/-fungi-in-the-gut-the-gut-mycobiome
#3
Herbert Hof
Many different fungi, including yeasts and molds, can be found in the intestinal tract of humans constituting the gut mycobiome. In case the bacterial flora is altered, the fungal flora may react inversely. By a so-called fungal diet, however, the composition of the mycobiome can hardly be influenced. Whereas some fungi are only transiently present in the gut after oral uptake, others, such as Candida, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, Geotrichum, amongst others, are members of the residential, autochthonous gut flora...
August 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798800/effect-of-modified-pulsatilla-powder-on-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-o101-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#4
Jiankang Yu, Yuetian Zhang, Xu Song, Yi Yang, Renyong Jia, Xu Chen, Kai Sun, Li Li, Xinghong Zhao, Qiankun Cui, Qiuting Fu, Yuanfeng Zou, Lixia Li, Zhongqiong Yin
MPP can be effective in the treatment of E. coli O101-induced diarrhea in mice. MPP can improve the weight loss caused by diarrhea, increase spleen and thymus indices, and reduce the diarrhea index. MPP can reduce the number of WBC, regulate the level of cytokines, and regulate the intestinal microbial flora. These data suggest that MPP is a promising candidate for treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea in humans and animals.
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795381/research-progress-on-prevention-and-treatment-of-glucolipid-metabolic-disease-with-integrated-traditional-chinese-and-western-medicine
#5
Jiao Guo
Hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver and many other metabolic disorder are frequently co-existing in patients. In addition, these diseases are closely related in pathophysiological settings. However, increasing of the disease incidence, lacking of comprehensive prevention and control measurements against the key pathology point concomitant occurrence with the pattern of the single disease, single target therapy, that is leading therapeutic strategy for these metabolic disorders in the setting of Western medicine (WM)...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782784/lactobacillus-casei-ccfm419-attenuates-type-2-diabetes-via-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-mechanism
#6
Gang Wang, Xiangfei Li, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Probiotics, as dietary supplements, transmit their major effects through the regulation of gut microbiota. According to a previous study, one possible mechanism of Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 protection against diabetes may involve gut flora. To test this hypothesis, high fat and streptozotocin-induced C57BL/6J mice were fed L. casei CCFM419 at 10(8), 10(9), and 10(10) colony forming units (CFU). Compared to untreated mice, 10(9) CFU of L. casei CCFM419 attenuated several symptoms of diabetes, including fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance...
August 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776206/healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infections-are-sustained-by-disease-from-the-community
#7
Angus McLure, Archie C A Clements, Martyn Kirk, Kathryn Glass
Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) are some of the most common hospital-associated infections worldwide. Approximately 5% of the general population is colonised with the pathogen, but most are protected from disease by normal intestinal flora or immune responses to toxins. We developed a stochastic compartmental model of CDI in hospitals that captures the condition of the host's gut flora and the role of adaptive immune responses. A novel, derivative-based method for sensitivity analysis of individual-level outcomes was developed and applied to the model...
August 3, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758582/potential-novel-treatments-for-bipolar-depression-ketamine-fatty-acids-anti-inflammatory-agents-and-probiotics
#8
G H Vázquez, S Camino, L Tondo, Ross J Baldessarini
BACKGROUND: Treatments for depression in bipolar disorder (BD) are far less well developed than for unipolar major depressive disorder. Several innovative and experimental approaches have been emerging recently, including use of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine and other antagonists of central NMDA glutamate receptors, as well as unsaturated fatty acids, anti-inflammatory agents, and possibly probiotic methods. METHODS: We reviewed relevant reports from the past decade...
July 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757346/development-of-an-xbp1-agonist-hlj2-as-a-potential-therapeutic-agent-for-ulcerative-colitis
#9
HaiJing Zhang, ZhiHui Zhang, GuangMing Song, XiaoNan Tang, HuaChen Song, AnJun Deng, WenJie Wang, LianQiu Wu, Hailin Qin
There is a severe lack of effective treatments for ulcerative colitis (UC), a recurrent and intractable inflammatory bowel disease. The identification of valid targets and new drugs is an urgent need. In this study, we identified the XBP-1 agonist HLJ2 as a promising treatment candidate. In an in vivo mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, HLJ2 decreased weight loss, colon contracture, disease activity index (DAI), colon mucosa damage index (CMDI) and histopathological index (HI). HLJ2 also decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and reduced production of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757024/16s-rrna-genes-illumina-sequencing-revealed-differential-cecal-microbiome-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-infected-with-different-subgroup-of-avian-leukosis-viruses
#10
Xinxin Ma, Qi Wang, Hongmei Li, Chuantian Xu, Ning Cui, Xiaomin Zhao
Intestinal flora play important roles in the pathogenisis of many pathogens. This study examined the cecal microbiome of chickens infected with avian leukosis virus (ALV) using 16S rRNA genes Illumina sequencing. One-day-old specific pathogen free chicks were inoculated in the abdomen with subgroup J or K of ALV. At 21-day-old, chickens positive for ALV viremia were selected and their cecal contents were extracted and examined for the composition of gut microflora by illumina sequencing of the V3+V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754475/detection-of-enterotoxin-and-protease-genes-among-hungarian-clinical-bacteroides-fragilis-isolates
#11
Károly Péter Sárvári, József Sóki, Miklós Iván, Cecília Miszti, Krisztina Latkóczy, Szilvia Zsóka Melegh, Edit Urbán
Bacteroides fragilis as a commensal bacterium is a member of the human intestinal flora, but as an opportunistic pathogen it can cause serious infections as well. Some of them, harbouring an enterotoxin gene (bft), may cause diarrhoea mainly in young children. Recently it has been shown that a member of C11 proteases called fragipain (fpn) can activate the enterotoxin, while C10 protease (bfp) is suspected of playing an important role in the invasiveness of the B. fragilis isolates. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of the bft isotypes in 200 Hungarian B...
July 25, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748132/effects-of-intake-of-lactobacillus-casei-subsp-casei-327-on-skin-conditions-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-study-in-women
#12
Yuhi Saito, Toshihiro Mihara, Kentaro Maruyama, Jiro Saito, Masumi Ikeda, Akihito Tomonaga, Takehisa Kumagai
Lactic acid bacteria are gut flora that play key roles in intestinal homeostasis, which may affect a variety of physiological functions. Our preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials have suggested that intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 327 (designated L. K-1) is effective for improving skin conditions. The aim of this study was to confirm the effect of L. K-1 intake in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in healthy female volunteers...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744287/ccr6-deficiency-impairs-iga-production-and-dysregulates-antimicrobial-peptide-production-altering-the-intestinal-flora
#13
Ya-Lin Lin, Peng-Peng Ip, Fang Liao
Intestinal immunity exists as a complex relationship among immune cells, epithelial cells, and microbiota. CCR6 and its ligand-CCL20 are highly expressed in intestinal mucosal tissues, such as Peyer's patches (PPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). In this study, we investigated the role of the CCR6-CCL20 axis in intestinal immunity under homeostatic conditions. CCR6 deficiency intrinsically affects germinal center reactions in PPs, leading to impairments in IgA class switching, IgA affinity, and IgA memory B cell production and positioning in PPs, suggesting an important role for CCR6 in T-cell-dependent IgA generation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732111/characterization-of-metabolic-pathways-and-absorption-of-sea-cucumber-saponins-holothurin-a-and-echinoside-a-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Shanshan Song, Lingyu Zhang, Jian Cao, Gao Xiang, Peixu Cong, Ping Dong, Zhaojie Li, Changhu Xue, Yong Xue, Yuming Wang
Sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) exhibit a wide spectrum of bioactivities, but their metabolic characteristics are not well elucidated. In this study, the metabolism of holothurin A (HA) and echinoside A (EA), 2 major saponins in sea cucumber, by gut microflora were investigated. First, we conducted an in vitro study, where in the SCSs were incubated with intestinal microflora and the metabolites were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. We also conducted an in vivo study on rats, where in the intestinal contents, serum, urine, and feces were collected and evaluated after oral administration of SCSs...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727817/immunogenicity-of-a-novel-clade-b-hiv-1-vaccine-combination-results-of-phase-1-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-an-hiv-1-gm-csf-expressing-dna-prime-with-a-modified-vaccinia-ankara-vaccine-boost-in-healthy-hiv-1-uninfected-adults
#15
Susan P Buchbinder, Nicole A Grunenberg, Brittany J Sanchez, Kelly E Seaton, Guido Ferrari, M Anthony Moody, Nicole Frahm, David C Montefiori, Christine M Hay, Paul A Goepfert, Lindsey R Baden, Harriet L Robinson, Xuesong Yu, Peter B Gilbert, M Juliana McElrath, Yunda Huang, Georgia D Tomaras
BACKGROUND: A phase 1 trial of a clade B HIV vaccine in HIV-uninfected adults evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a DNA prime co-expressing GM-CSF (Dg) followed by different numbers and intervals of modified vaccinia Ankara Boosts (M). Both vaccines produce virus-like particles presenting membrane-bound Env. METHODS: Four US sites randomized 48 participants to receiving 1/10th the DNA dose as DgDgMMM given at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months, or full dose DgDgM_M or DgDgMM_M regimens, given at 0, 2, 4, and 8 months, and 0, 2, 4, 6, and 10 months, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721289/fluoroquinolone-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-intestinal-flora-of-patients-undergoing-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-possible-shift-in-biopsy-prophylaxis
#16
Przemysław Adamczyk, Kajetan Juszczak, Małgorzata Prondzinska, Anna Kędzierska, Hanna Szwajkert-Sobiecka, Tomasz Drewa
INTRODUCTION: Infection of prostate gland following biopsy is common complication. Most common pathogen is E.coli. Since fluorochinolones are commonly prescribed as prophylaxis, infection caused by E.coli leads to complicated infections, especially due to fluoroquinolone-resistant species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E.coli species in rectal swabs of patients undergoing prostate biopsy and to define appropriate antimicrobial agent as prostate biopsy prophylaxis...
June 30, 2017: Central European Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712163/molecular-characterization-of-fecal-microbiota-of-healthy-chinese-tobacco-smoker-subjects-in-shaanxi-province-xi-an-china
#17
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaokang Wu, Chaofeng Ma, Jiru Xu
BACKGROUND: Tobacco Smoking, most commonly, can cause the diseases affecting the lungs and heart. Human gut microbiota plays a key role to decide the health status of the host. Current study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chinese tobacco smokers and to study the alteration in diversity and similarity of gut microbiota, with comparison of healthy non-smokers. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from fourteen healthy tobacco smokers and six from healthy non-smoker individuals...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709803/an-ocular-commensal-protects-against-corneal-infection-by-driving-an-interleukin-17-response-from-mucosal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#18
Anthony J St Leger, Jigar V Desai, Rebecca A Drummond, Abirami Kugadas, Fatimah Almaghrabi, Phyllis Silver, Kumarkrishna Raychaudhuri, Mihaela Gadjeva, Yoichiro Iwakura, Michail S Lionakis, Rachel R Caspi
Mucosal sites such as the intestine, oral cavity, nasopharynx, and vagina all have associated commensal flora. The surface of the eye is also a mucosal site, but proof of a living, resident ocular microbiome remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of ocular surface disease to reveal that commensals were present in the ocular mucosa and had functional immunological consequences. We isolated one such candidate commensal, Corynebacterium mastitidis, and showed that this organism elicited a commensal-specific interleukin-17 response from γδ T cells in the ocular mucosa that was central to local immunity...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703111/clinical-and-microbiological-aspects-of-the-use-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-pl1-strains-in-proctological-patients-with-symptoms-of-chronic-proctitis
#19
K Borycka-Kiciak, M Strus, P Pietrzak, K Wawiernia, D Mikołajczyk, M Gałęcka, P Heczko, W Tarnowski
Recurrent proctitis and the symptoms associated therewith pose significant clinical problem in proctological patients. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL1 strain on the clinical presentation and composition of intestinal microbiota in patients with symptoms of proctitis in the course of hemorrhoidal disease and diverticulosis. Material consisted of 24 patients in whom no complete clinical improvement could be obtained after the treatment of the underlying disease...
June 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701620/comparative-analysis-of-the-intestinal-flora-in-type-2-diabetes-and-nondiabetic-mice
#20
Masanori Horie, Takamasa Miura, Satomi Hirakata, Akira Hosoyama, Sakiko Sugino, Aya Umeno, Kazutoshi Murotomi, Yasukazu Yoshida, Taisuke Koike
A relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and intestinal flora has been suggested since development of analysis technology for intestinal flora. An animal model of T2DM is important for investigation of T2DM. Although there are some animal models of T2DM, a comparison of the intestinal flora of healthy animals with that of T2DM animals has not yet been reported. The intestinal flora of Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice was compared with that of Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity (TSNO) mice in the present study...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Animals
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