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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929664/-metabolism-of-paeoniflorin-by-rat-intestinal-flora-in-vitro
#1
Zhong-Cheng Ke, Nan Yang, Xue-Feng Hou, Ai-Dong Wang, Liang Feng, Xiao-Bin Jia
In order to clarify the effect of intestinal flora on the absorption and metabolism of paeoniflorin in vivo, the metabolism of paeoniflorin by rat intestinal flora was studied under the in vitro anaerobic condition. Paeoniflorin was incubated with rat anaerobic intestinal flora for 48 h, and UPLC was used to detect the changes of paeoniflorin at different incubation time points under the following chromatographic conditions:WelchromTM C₁₈ chromatographic column (4.6 mm×100 mm, 5 μm), with 0.1% formic acid(A)-acetonitrile(B) as the mobile phase for gradient elution...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918585/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-intestinal-carriage-of-ctx-m-type-esbls-in-enterobacteriaceae-from-a-thai-community
#2
P R Niumsup, U Tansawai, A Na-Udom, D Jantapalaboon, K Assawatheptawee, A Kiddee, T Romgaew, S Lamlertthon, T R Walsh
The incidence of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Thailand is increasing and human intestinal flora is an important reservoir for these organisms. This study was carried out to determine the intestinal carriage of bla CTX-M extended spectrum ß-lactamase-positive Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL + E) and AmpC-positive Enterobacteriaceae in a community setting in Northern Thailand, and to identify potential risk factors for carriage. A total of 307 fecal samples were collected from healthy volunteers in Phitsanulok province, and cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CtxRE) were isolated using selective media...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912092/comparison-of-gut-microbiota-in-adult-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-healthy-individuals
#3
Mansour Sedighi, Shabnam Razavi, Fatemeh Navab-Moghadam, Mohammad E Khamseh, Fariba Alaei-Shahmiri, Amirhosein Mehrtash, Nour Amirmozafari
Recent studies indicate that inflammatory reactions leading to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may also contribute to variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, suggesting a relation between T2DM and bacterial residents in the intestinal tract. This case-control study was designed to evaluate the composition of the gut microbiota dominant bacterial groups in patients with T2DM compared to the healthy people. A total of 36 adult subjects (18 patients diagnosed with T2DM and 18 healthy persons) were included in the study...
September 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879172/epigenetic-matters-the-link-between-early-nutrition-microbiome-and-long-term-health-development
#4
REVIEW
Flavia Indrio, Silvia Martini, Ruggiero Francavilla, Luigi Corvaglia, Fernanda Cristofori, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Josef Neu, Samuli Rautava, Giovanna Russo Spena, Francesco Raimondi, Giuseppe Loverro
Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872093/-research-progress-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#5
Huahua He, Xinfu Lian, Zhiqun Tang
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), metabolites of the intestinal microflora, is a newly discovered risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The intestinal flora converted choline and L-carnitine into trimethylamine in the food. Trimethylamine is oxidized to TMAO in liver enzymes. Lowering TMA can stimulate macrophages to reverse cholesterol transport and inhibit atherogenesis. TMAO poietin-monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is a tool for cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transpor, lowering FMO3 can slow the gallbladder's secretion of bile, delay intestinal absorption of cholesterol, and limit the synthesis of oxidized cholesterol and cholesterol esters...
August 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867695/development-of-a-prodrug-of-levofloxacin-to-avoid-chelation-with-al-3-and-of-pemetrexed-dimedoxomil-esters-for-oral-administration
#6
Kenji Matsuyama
 An ethoxycarbonyl 1-ethyl hemiacetal ester of levofloxacin (LVFX-EHE) avoids insoluble chelate formation with metal-containing drugs in the intestinal tract and is rapidly hydrolyzed to the parent drug. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentration confirms that LVFX-EHE is less likely to cause pseudomembranous colitis because of less susceptibility to normal intestinal bacteria flora. Pemetrexed dimedoxomil, the prodrug of pemetrexed, was synthesized via reaction with medoxomil bromide after modification of L-glutamate with the tert-butyloxycarbonyl protecting group (BOC), followed by hydrolysis of the BOC moiety with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in CH2Cl2 at a temperature of 0°C for 2 h...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867624/effect-of-aminoglycosides-on-the-pathogenic-characteristics-of-microbiology
#7
REVIEW
Zhenbo Xu, Xingyong Xu, Ling Yang, Bing Li, Lin Li, Xiaoxi Li, Dingqiang Chen
Infections caused by pathogen remain to be one of the most important global health issues, and scientists are devoting themselves to seeking effective treatments. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are one kind of widely used antibiotics because of the good efficiency and broad antimicrobial-spectrum. However, it causes some unexpected effects on the pathogenic characteristics of microbiology during the treatment, such as drug resistance and biofilm promotion. Drug resistance is partly due to antibiotics abuse. Simultaneously, aminoglycoside is documented to make divergent effects on biofilm based on their concentrations...
August 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865506/-anaerobic-bacteria-with-clinical-relevance-morphologic-and-taxonomic-classification-distribution-among-human-microbiota-and-microbiologic-diagnosis
#8
João Alves, Susana Peres, Elsa Gonçalves, Kamal Mansinho
The wide burden of anaerobic bacteria colonizing human body comprises about 90% of its total biomass. The biotic relationship between humans and its microbiota sets reciprocal benefits, albeit with pathogenic potencial for the human being in particular dysbiosis situations. Infections adjacent to or originating from the skin or mucous membranes of the intestinal, genitourinary and upper respiratory tracts are often polymicrobial in nature, whereby should anaerobes be invariably included in the etiological differential diagnosis of these conditions...
May 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863779/optimization-of-a-metatranscriptomic-approach-to-study-the-lignocellulolytic-potential-of-the-higher-termite-gut-microbiome
#9
Martyna Marynowska, Xavier Goux, David Sillam-Dussès, Corinne Rouland-Lefèvre, Yves Roisin, Philippe Delfosse, Magdalena Calusinska
BACKGROUND: Thanks to specific adaptations developed over millions of years, the efficiency of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition of higher termite symbiotic system exceeds that of many other lignocellulose utilizing environments. Especially, the examination of its symbiotic microbes should reveal interesting carbohydrate-active enzymes, which are of primary interest for the industry. Previous metatranscriptomic reports (high-throughput mRNA sequencing) highlight the high representation and overexpression of cellulose and hemicelluloses degrading genes in the termite hindgut digestomes, indicating the potential of this technology in search for new enzymes...
September 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862074/the-regulatory-effects-of-l-plantarum-peptidoglycan-microspheres-on-innate-and-humoral-immunity-in-mouse
#10
Xiuliang Li, Quan Sun, Yawei Wang, Dequan Han, Jiahui Fan, Jialing Zhang, Chunhai Yang, Xiaoxiong Ma, Qingshen Sun
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Lactobacillus Plantarum cell wall peptidoglycan (LPG) microspheres on mouse intestinal flora changes, peptidoglycan recognitions protein (PGRP) and cytokines expression levels. METHOD: Plate counting was used for enumeration of the intestinal flora. Real-time PCR was used for quantification PGRP in different tissues. Cytokines content were determined by ELISA kits. RESULT: The mouse administered orally with LPG microspheres showed significantly higher number of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in cecum contents (P < 0...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838334/effects-of-curcumin-plus-soy-oligosaccharides-on-intestinal-flora-of-rats-with-ulcerative-colitis
#11
G Huang, L Ye, G Du, Y Huang, Y Wu, S Ge, Z Yang, G Zhu
To explore the therapeutic effect of curcumin (Cur) and soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on ulcerative colitis (UC) through testing the intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis (UC). 80 male SD rats were selected divided into four groups with 20 rats in each group: normal group, sulfasalazine (SASP) group, model group and group of curcumin plus soy oligosaccharide. All animals were treated for 4 weeks. In the fifth week rats were decapitated. Macroscopic damage scores of colonic mucosa were calculated. A 4mL blood sample was taken to detect the contents of serum tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) by the double antibody sandwich ABC-ELISA method (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)...
August 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834270/norfloxacin-is-more-effective-than-rifaximin-in-avoiding-bacterial-translocation-in-an-animal-model-of-cirrhosis
#12
Isabel Gómez-Hurtado, Paula Gimenez, Irma García, Pedro Zapater, Rubén Francés, José Manuel González-Navajas, Chaysavanh Manichahn, José Manuel Ramos, Pablo Bellot, Francisco Guarner, José Such
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Norfloxacin administration is useful in preventing bacterial infections in cirrhosis but associated to the generation of resistant species. Rifaximin is known that reaches high concentrations in the intestinal lumen without generating relevant resistance in the intestinal flora. Our aim was to compare the effect of Norfloxacin and Rifaximin on intestinal flora composition, bacterial translocation and survival in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: Cirrhosis was induced in rats by oral administration of CCl4 ...
August 18, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822177/-berberine-regulates-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-related-with-insulin-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Cheng Li, Jin-Zhi He, Xue-Dong Zhou, Xin Xu
Insulin resistance (IR) is defined as a series of clinical manifestations for diminished effectiveness of insulin in lowering blood sugar levels caused by decreased sensitivity to insulin of liver, muscle and adipose tissue. IR is the major contributor to the etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Berberine, a traditional Chinese herb extract, has been shown to be safe and effective in lowering blood sugar, alleviating insulin resistance and moderating type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811235/sodium-butyrate-ameliorates-s100-fca-induced-autoimmune-hepatitis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-tight-junction-and-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-pathway
#14
Jin-Lu Wu, Jia-Yun Zou, En-De Hu, Da-Zhi Chen, Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ming-Fang Zhao, Yong-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent investigation revealed that dysbiosis in the gut flora and disruption of permeability of intestinal barrier are possible causes for the development of autoimmune hepatitis. Supplementation of sodium butyrate has been suggested to protect liver injury from disrupted permeability of small intestine. In current study, we employed S100/Freund's complete adjuvant induced autoimmune hepatitis to investigate therapeutic efficacy of sodium butyrate and its mechanism in the liver and upper small intestine...
August 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807914/amplification-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-gut-flora-of-patients-treated-with-ceftriaxone
#15
J Meletiadis, A Turlej-Rogacka, A Lerner, A Adler, E Taconelli, J W Mouton
Although antibacterial therapy has an impact on human intestinal flora and emergence of resistant bacteria, its role on amplification of antimicrobial resistance and the quantitative exposure-effect relationship is not clear. An observational prospective study was conducted to determine whether and how ceftriaxone exposure is related to amplification of resistance in non- ICU patients.Serial stool samples from 122 ESBL(+) hospitalized patients were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the resistant gene blaCTX-M Drug exposure was calculated for each patient using a population pharmacokinetic model...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799153/-fungi-in-the-gut-the-gut-mycobiome
#16
Herbert Hof
Many different fungi, including yeasts and molds, can be found in the intestinal tract of humans constituting the gut mycobiome. In case the bacterial flora is altered, the fungal flora may react inversely. By a so-called fungal diet, however, the composition of the mycobiome can hardly be influenced. Whereas some fungi are only transiently present in the gut after oral uptake, others, such as Candida, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, Geotrichum, amongst others, are members of the residential, autochthonous gut flora...
August 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798800/effect-of-modified-pulsatilla-powder-on-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-o101-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#17
Jiankang Yu, Yuetian Zhang, Xu Song, Yi Yang, Renyong Jia, Xu Chen, Kai Sun, Li Li, Xinghong Zhao, Qiankun Cui, Qiuting Fu, Yuanfeng Zou, Lixia Li, Zhongqiong Yin
MPP can be effective in the treatment of E. coli O101-induced diarrhea in mice. MPP can improve the weight loss caused by diarrhea, increase spleen and thymus indices, and reduce the diarrhea index. MPP can reduce the number of WBC, regulate the level of cytokines, and regulate the intestinal microbial flora. These data suggest that MPP is a promising candidate for treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea in humans and animals.
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795381/research-progress-on-prevention-and-treatment-of-glucolipid-metabolic-disease-with-integrated-traditional-chinese-and-western-medicine
#18
Jiao Guo
Hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver and many other metabolic disorder are frequently co-existing in patients. In addition, these diseases are closely related in pathophysiological settings. However, increasing of the disease incidence, lacking of comprehensive prevention and control measurements against the key pathology point concomitant occurrence with the pattern of the single disease, single target therapy, that is leading therapeutic strategy for these metabolic disorders in the setting of Western medicine (WM)...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782784/lactobacillus-casei-ccfm419-attenuates-type-2-diabetes-via-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-mechanism
#19
Gang Wang, Xiangfei Li, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Probiotics, as dietary supplements, transmit their major effects through the regulation of gut microbiota. According to a previous study, one possible mechanism of Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 protection against diabetes may involve gut flora. To test this hypothesis, high fat and streptozotocin-induced C57BL/6J mice were fed L. casei CCFM419 at 10(8), 10(9), and 10(10) colony forming units (CFU). Compared to untreated mice, 10(9) CFU of L. casei CCFM419 attenuated several symptoms of diabetes, including fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance...
August 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776206/healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infections-are-sustained-by-disease-from-the-community
#20
Angus McLure, Archie C A Clements, Martyn Kirk, Kathryn Glass
Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) are some of the most common hospital-associated infections worldwide. Approximately 5% of the general population is colonised with the pathogen, but most are protected from disease by normal intestinal flora or immune responses to toxins. We developed a stochastic compartmental model of CDI in hospitals that captures the condition of the host's gut flora and the role of adaptive immune responses. A novel, derivative-based method for sensitivity analysis of individual-level outcomes was developed and applied to the model...
August 3, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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