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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772494/effects-of-ceftriaxone-induced-intestinal-dysbacteriosis-on-regulatory-t-cells-validated-by-anaphylactic-mice
#1
Xia Luo, Zengfeng Pan, Shuang Luo, Qi Liu, Shaowei Huang, Guanghua Yang, Feifei Nong, Yajun Fu, Xiangliang Deng, Lian Zhou
Both probiotics and pathogens in the human gut express pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and die with the release of endotoxin and bacterial DNA, which can stimulate our immune system and cause immune reaction. However, it's interesting and fascinating to address why the normal intestinal flora will not generate immunological rejection like the pathogen does. By investigating the changes in cells and molecules relevant to immune tolerance in mice with ceftriaxone-induced dysbacteriosis, our study discovered that both the Evenness indexes and Shannon Wiener index of intestinal flora showed a decrease in dysbacteriosis mice...
May 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765579/antagonistic-effect-of-isolated-probiotic-bacteria-from-natural-sources-against-intestinal-escherichia-coli-pathotypes
#2
Sahar Karimi, Ehsan Rashidian, Mehdi Birjandi, Leila Mahmoodnia
Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms which are beneficial bacteria that are normal flora of the digestive system which, in determined amounts, show beneficial effects on host health, and can balance gastrointestinal microflora. Digestive tract diseases such as diarrhea are one of the major causes of child mortality in developing countries. Different pathotypes of Escherichia coli cause diarrhea that affects children, therefore reduction of these colonization strains in humans or animals can decline gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762899/metagenomics-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mouse-model-fed-with-epigallocatechin-3-o-3-o-methyl-gallate-egcg3-me
#3
Xin Zhang, Yuhui Chen, Jieyu Zhu, Man Zhang, Chi-Tang Ho, Qingrong Huang, Jinxuan Cao
SCOPE: (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3''Me) has been shown to have a modulatory effect on human intestinal microbiota, and the relationship between intestinal flora and obesity has attracted more and more attention recently. Here, we investigated the potential link between EGCG3''Me and gut microbiota composition, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the anti-obesity activity of EGCG3''Me. METHODS AND RESULTS: EGCG3''Me was prepared from oolong tea by column chromatography, and the influence of EGCG3''Me on intestinal microbiota was analysed using a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model by metagenomics...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756138/carboxymethyl-pachyman-cmp-reduces-intestinal-mucositis-and-regulates-the-intestinal-microflora-in-5-fluorouracil-treated-ct26-tumour-bearing-mice
#4
Canhong Wang, Shuxian Yang, Li Gao, Lili Wang, Li Cao
The compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the first choice chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), but intestinal mucositis is a primary limiting factor in anticancer therapy. There is currently no broadly effective targeted treatment to cure this side effect. Carboxymethylated pachyman (CMP) is a polysaccharide that is modified from the structure of pachyman isolated from Poria cocos (Chinese name: Fu Ling). Meanwhile, recent studies have shown that CMP exhibits immune regulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities...
May 14, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754180/diversity-roles-and-biotechnological-applications-of-symbiotic-microorganisms-in-the-gut-of-termite
#5
REVIEW
Jing Zhou, Jiwei Duan, Mingkun Gao, Ying Wang, Xiaohua Wang, Kai Zhao
Termites are global pests and can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, and plantation forests. The symbiotic intestinal flora plays an important role in the digestion of cellulose and nitrogen in the life of termites. Termites and their symbiotic microbes in the gut form a synergistic system. These organism work together to digest lignocellulose to make the termites grow on nitrogen deficient food. In this paper, the diversity of symbiotic microorganisms in the gut of termites, including protozoan, spirochetes, actinomycetes, fungus and bacteria, and their role in the digestion of lignocellulose and also the biotechnological applications of these symbiotic microorganisms are discussed...
May 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749694/trimethylamine-n-oxide-promotes-brain-aging-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#6
Dang Li, Yilang Ke, Rui Zhan, Changjie Liu, Mingming Zhao, Aiping Zeng, Xiaoyun Shi, Liang Ji, Si Cheng, Bing Pan, Lemin Zheng, Huashan Hong
Gut microbiota can influence the aging process and may modulate aging-related changes in cognitive function. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of intestinal flora, has been shown to be closely associated with cardiovascular disease and other diseases. However, the relationship between TMAO and aging, especially brain aging, has not been fully elucidated. To explore the relationship between TMAO and brain aging, we analysed the plasma levels of TMAO in both humans and mice and administered exogenous TMAO to 24-week-old senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) and age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice for 16 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744928/parasutterella-in-associated-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-intestinal-chronic-inflammation
#7
Yan-Jie Chen, Hao Wu, Sheng-Di Wu, Nan Lu, Yi-Ting Wang, Hai-Ning Liu, Ling Dong, Tao-Tao Liu, Xi-Zhong Shen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder. Recent studies have showed increasing important role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiological changes of IBS. Our study aims to elaborate the association between intestinal flora with the genesis and the development of IBS. METHODS: Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate microbial communities of IBS patients and healthy donors...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734661/nad-p-h-oxidase-activity-in-the-small-intestine-is-predominantly-found-in-enterocytes-not-professional-phagocytes
#8
Randall L Lindquist, Jannike Bayat-Sarmadi, Ruth Leben, Raluca Niesner, Anja E Hauser
The balance between various cellular subsets of the innate and adaptive immune system and microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract is carefully regulated to maintain tolerance to the normal flora and dietary antigens, while protecting against pathogens. The intestinal epithelial cells and the network of dendritic cells and macrophages in the lamina propria are crucial lines of defense that regulate this balance. The complex relationship between the myeloid compartment (dendritic cells and macrophages) and lymphocyte compartment (T cells and innate lymphoid cells), as well as the impact of the epithelial cell layer have been studied in depth in recent years, revealing that the regulatory and effector functions of both innate and adaptive immune compartments exhibit more plasticity than had been previously appreciated...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731838/analysis-of-changes-in-intestinal-flora-and-intravascular-inflammation-and-coronary-heart-disease-in-obese-patients
#9
Xv Li, Chuantao Li
Changes in intestinal flora in obese patients and intravascular C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and coronary heart disease (CHD) were analyzed. A total of 75 cases of obese patients were divided into obesity (OB) alone (n=40) and OB with CHD group (n=35). There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, pre-existing basic diabetes, history of hypertension, and body mass index (P>0.05). Results showed that total bacterial load of CHD was obviously higher than that of OB group...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728993/the-crosstalk-of-gut-microbiota-and-chronic-kidney-disease-role-of-inflammation-proteinuria-hypertension-and-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Mehmet Kanbay, Emine M Onal, Baris Afsar, Tuncay Dagel, Aslihan Yerlikaya, Adrian Covic, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to result in profound changes in the composition and functions of the gut microbial flora which by disrupting intestinal epithelial barrier and generating toxic by-products contributes to systemic inflammation and the associated complications. On the other hand, emerging evidence points to the role of the gut microbiota in the development and progression of CKD by provoking inflammation, proteinuria, hypertension, and diabetes. These observations demonstrate the causal interconnection between the gut microbial dysbiosis and CKD...
May 4, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724256/gut-kidney-crosstalk-in-septic-acute-kidney-injury
#11
REVIEW
Jingxiao Zhang, Ghada Ankawi, Jian Sun, Kumar Digvijay, Yongjie Yin, Mitchell H Rosner, Claudio Ronco
Sepsis is the leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Septic AKI is a complex and multifactorial process that is incompletely understood. During sepsis, the disruption of the mucus membrane barrier, a shift in intestinal microbial flora, and microbial translocation may lead to systemic inflammation, which further alters host immune and metabolic homeostasis. This altered homeostasis may promote and potentiate the development of AKI. As part of this vicious cycle, when AKI develops, the clearance of inflammatory mediators and metabolic products is decreased...
May 3, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719393/biological-responses-to-core-shell-structured-fe-3-o-4-sio-2-nh-2-nanoparticles-in-rats-by-a-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-metabonomic-strategy
#12
Zhongxue Yuan, Rui Xu, Jinquan Li, Yueli Chen, Binghui Wu, Jianghua Feng, Zhong Chen
Background: Core-shell-structured nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much scientific attention due to their promising potential in biomedical fields in recent years. However, their underlying mechanisms of action and potential adverse effects following administration remain unknown. Methods: In the present study, a 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic strategy was applied to investigate the metabolic consequences in rats following the intravenous administration of parent NPs of core-shell-structured nanoparticles, Fe3 O4 @SiO2 -NH2 (Fe@Si) NPs...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#13
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705516/icones-plantarum-malabaricarum-early-18th-century-botanical-drawings-of-medicinal-plants-from-colonial-ceylon
#14
Tinde Van Andel, Ariane Scholman, Mieke Beumer
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: From 1640-1796, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) occupied the island of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Several VOC officers had a keen interest in the medicinal application of the local flora. The Leiden University Library holds a two-piece codex entitled: Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum, adscriptis nominibus et viribus, Vol. I. & II. (Illustrations of Plants from the Malabar, assigned names and strength). This manuscript contains 262 watercolour drawings of medicinal plants from Sri Lanka, with handwritten descriptions of local names, habitus, medicinal properties and therapeutic applications...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705426/potential-probiotic-characterization-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-from-traditional-chinese-highland-barley-wine-and-application-for-room-temperature-storage-drinkable-yogurt
#15
Su Chen, Lin Chen, Lie Chen, Xueliang Ren, Hongjuan Ge, Baolei Li, Guanghui Ma, Xueqin Ke, Jun Zhu, Li Li, Yuhong Feng, Yanjun Li
The aim of this study was to select probiotic strains that could be used in drinkable yogurt to yield viable cells following storage at room temperature (RT). The uniquely high altitude conditions in Tibet and the alcoholic environment of certain products, such as the highland barley wine homemade in Tibet, may induce unusual characteristics of microbial strains. A total of 27 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from homemade highland barley wines. One strain, Lactobacillus reuteri WHH1689, demonstrated no ability for lactose utilization, exhibited a high survival rate during storage at RT in drinkable yogurts, and produced very weak post-acidification...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699808/vitamin-a-and-retinoic-acid-exhibit-protective-effects-on-necrotizing-enterocolitis-by-regulating-intestinal-flora-and-enhancing-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier
#16
Sa Xiao, Qiuping Li, Kun Hu, Yu He, Qing Ai, Liuhong Hu, Jialin Yu
BACKGROUND: Exaggerated inflammation that characterizes necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is caused by the invasion of pathogens through an immature intestinal barrier. Vitamin A (VA) and retinoic acid (RA) play important roles in the growth of epithelial tissue and in modulating immune function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the roles of VA and RA in the development of NEC. METHODS: Levels of serum retinol in patients and in a NEC mouse model were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography...
April 23, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698134/dental-diseases-and-intestinal-dysbiosis-among-children
#17
T Shishniashvili, T Suladze, M Makhviladze, M Kalandaze, V Margvelashvili
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study correlates dental hard tissue mineralization, mucosal pathologies in the oral cavity and different degrees of intestinal dysbiosis. STUDY DESIGN: the study examined two groups: the study group (Group I) included 229 children and adolescents aged 1-17 (mean age 5±1years) with oral pathologies (caries, acute or chronic candidiasis) and confirmed dysbiosis of varying severity and stages as well. Group II (the Control Group) was composed of 50 patients aged 1 - 16 (mean age 5±1years) with oral pathologies but with no detected changes in gastrointestinal (GI) flora...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693787/integrated-strategy-based-on-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-coupled-with-multiple-data-mining-techniques-for-the-metabolic-profiling-of-xanthoceras-sorbifolia-bunge-husks-in-rat-plasma-urine-and-feces
#18
Weiwei Rong, Sirui Guo, Kewen Ding, Ziyue Yuan, Qing Li, Kaishun Bi
An integrated strategy based on high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with multiple data mining techniques was developed to screen the metabolites in rat biological fluids after the oral administration of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge husks. Mass defect filtering, product ions filtering and neutral loss filtering were applied to detect metabolites from the complex matrix. As a result, a total of 55 metabolites were tentatively identified, among which, 45 barrigenol type triterpenoids metabolites were detected in the feces, six flavonoids and four coumarins metabolites were in the urine...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688623/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-inhibition-of-intestinal-glucose-transport-by-guava-psidium-guajava-extracts
#19
Ulrike Müller, Flora Stübl, Bettina Schwarzinger, Georg Sandner, Marcus Iken, Markus Himmelsbach, Clemens Schwarzinger, Nicole Ollinger, Verena Stadlbauer, Otmar Höglinger, Tobias Kühne, Peter Lanzerstorfer, Julian Weghuber
SCOPE: Known pharmacological activities of guava (Psidium guajava) include modulation of blood glucose levels. However, mechanistic details remain unclear in many cases. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study investigated the effects of different guava leaf and fruit extracts on intestinal glucose transport in vitro and on postprandial glucose levels in vivo. Substantial dose- and time-dependent glucose transport inhibition (up to 80%) was observed for both guava fruit and leaf extracts, at conceivable physiological concentrations in Caco-2 cells...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678466/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-oral-probiotics-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-in-children-and-adolescents
#20
Na Li, Bin Zheng, Hong-Fu Cai, Yan-Hui Chen, Ming-Qi Qiu, Mao-Bai Liu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in hospitalized children and adolescents has been increasing year-on-year. Paediatric CDAD represents a significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Probiotics are live organisms thought to improve the microbial balance of the host, counteract disturbances in intestinal flora, and reduce the risk of colonization by pathogenic bacteria. AIM: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the economy of probiotics for the prevention of CDAD in children and adolescents receiving antibiotics...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
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