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Intestinal flora

Dan Zhu, Yong Ma, Sujuan Ding, Hongmei Jiang, Jun Fang
This study investigated the antioxidant capacity and intestinal bacteria community in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. Twenty mice were randomly assigned to two treatments: mice with colitis induced by 5% DSS (DSS group) and mice with colitis induced by 5% DSS that also received melatonin treatment (MEL group). The DSS group showed significantly less antioxidant capability than the MEL group, but the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of diversity index (Shannon and Simpson), bacterial culture abundance (Chao1 and ACE), and coverage (Good's coverage estimator)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jinyou Yang, Yuji Shimogonya, Takuji Ishikawa
Microbial flora in the intestine has been thoroughly investigated, as it plays an important role in the health of the host. Jemielita et al. (2014) showed experimentally that Aeromonas bacteria in the intestine of zebrafish larvae have a heterogeneous spatial distribution. Although bacterial aggregation is important biologically and clinically, there is no mathematical model describing the phenomenon and its mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we developed a computational model to describe the heterogeneous distribution of bacteria in the intestine of zebrafish larvae...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Marine Blanchet, Jean Michel Brunel
Bile acids or bile salts, belong to a large family of biological steroid derivatives found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. These amphipathic molecules possess numerous functions, including eliminating cholesterol from the body, driving the flow of bile to eliminate catabolites, emulsifying fat-soluble vitamins to enable their absorption, aiding in motility and in reducing the bacteria flora found in the small intestine and biliary tract. In this review, we investigate progress towards synthetic bile acid derivatives, with special emphasis on how they might be used for various biological applications and the challenges that remain in developing these compounds as potent drugs of the future especially in the field of microbiology (antimicrobial activities) and cancer (anticancer agents)...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Humeira Badsha
Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA...
2018: Open Rheumatology Journal
Matthias Jarlborg, Deshiré Alpizar-Rodriguez, Athan Baillet, Axel Finckh
The microbiota and dysbiosis are involved in various diseases. Many studies in mice and humans demonstrate its influence on inflammatory rheumatisms. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Prevotella copri, a Gram-negative bacteria of the intestinal flora, is found to be more prevalent in the early stages of the disease. Specific antibodies against this germ have been identified in RA patients, suggesting a role of this bacteria in the initiation of the disease. Oral microorganisms involved in periodontitis have also been associated with the development and the activity of RA...
March 7, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Taher Azimi, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Alireza Salimi Chirani, Ramin Pouriran, Hossein Dabiri
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a general term used for the ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD); in addition, IBD principally refers to a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract in which mediated by immune system. Consequently, IBD could progress in individuals who are genetically prone. Infections role in the development of inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract has been studied by quite many clinical studies; furthermore, the possible role of some pathogens in the development and exacerbation of the inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract have been described...
March 6, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Mathilde J H Girard-Madoux, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Catherine Mooser, Gabrielle T Belz, Andrew J Macpherson, Eric Vivier
Biological redundancy ensures robustness in living organisms at several levels, from genes to organs. In this review, we explore the concept of redundancy and robustness through an analysis of the caecal appendix, an organ that is often considered to be a redundant remnant of evolution. However, phylogenic data show that the Appendix was selected during evolution and is unlikely to disappear once it appeared. In humans, it is highly conserved and malformations are extremely rare, suggesting a role for that structure...
March 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
István Barna, Dóra Nyúl, Tamás Szentes, Richárd Schwab
Gut flora has personal characteristics for each individual, similar to the fingerprints, consisting of a special mixture of bacterial species living in the intestines, now referred to as the gut microbiome. There is a strong correlation between the loss of microbial diversity and the functional bowel disorders, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as many autoimmune disorders. With genetic testing of stool diversity of the gut microbiome and exact analysis of the species and phylogenetic classification of the gut flora, the changes of diversity can be identified and the overgrowth of some bacteria can be revealed...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Sergej M Ostojic
Dysbiosis of the gut flora accompanies Parkinson disease (PD), yet no specific cause-effect link has been identified so far. The gut microbiota produce molecular hydrogen (H2 ), a ubiquitous molecule recently recognized as a biologically active gas with antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and signaling properties. Here, we discuss an idea that an impaired production of endogenous H2 by intestinal microbiota might play a role in PD pathogenesis, with supplemental H2 debated as a possible therapy for this progressive neurodegenerative disease...
February 22, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Tomohiko Ichikawa, Tetsuhiro Yamada, Alexander Treiber, Carmela Gnerre, Jérôme Segrestaa, Swen Seeland, Kiyoko Nonaka
1. The metabolism of the prostacyclin receptor agonist selexipag (NS-304; ACT-293987) and its active metabolite MRE-269 (ACT-333679) has been investigated in liver microsomes and hepatocytes of rats, dogs, and monkeys. MRE-269 formation is the main pathway of selexipag metabolism, irrespective of species. Some interspecies differences were evident for both compounds in terms of both metabolic turnover and metabolic profiles. The metabolism of MRE-269 was slower than that of selexipag in all three species. 2...
February 22, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
L Kintsurashvili, V Mshvildadze, T Suladze
The aim of research was to study underground parts of Aconitum orientale Mill and Aconitum nasutum Fisch exReichemb for the composition of biological active diterpenic alkaloids. The research object was underground parts of Aconitum species. Alkaloids sum was received from raw-material which was alkalined beforehand with chloroform extraction. From the results of research we established, that both species of Georgian flora's Aconitum contains alkaloids: lappaconitine, aconitine, karakoline. Underground parts of Aconitum orientale and Aconitum nasutum differ from eath other with composition of alkaloids spectrum...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
T Shishniashvili, T Suladze, M Makhviladze, M Pkhaladze
On the background of microecological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, mineral and protein metabolism is disrupted, biochemical changes occur in the phosphorus-calcium metabolism in the bones of the skeleton and hard tissues of the teeth. The aim of the research was to study the activity of the caries process, characterized by progressive decalcification, under conditions of microecological changes in the intestine and its effect on the processes of endogenous calcium assimilation in adolescence. Within the frames of the research 68 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years with various degrees of pathology of the gastrointestinal tract were examined...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Martin Resnik-Docampo, Vivien Sauer, Joseph M Schinaman, Rebecca I Clark, David W Walker, D Leanne Jones
Maladaptive changes in the intestinal flora, typically referred to as bacterial dysbiosis, have been linked to intestinal aging phenotypes, including an increase in intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation, activation of inflammatory pathways, and increased intestinal permeability1,2 . However, the causal relationships between these phenotypes are only beginning to be unravelled. We recently characterized the age-related changes that occur to septate junctions (SJ) between adjacent, absorptive enterocytes (EC) in the fly intestine...
February 19, 2018: Fly
Kun Li, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Xiong Jiang, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaoqian Dong, Jiakui Li
Diarrhea is a serious epidemic in yaks on Qinghai Tibet plateau, but the exact pathogen is not confirmed. Diarrhea is related to the changes in diversity of intestinal flora. The current study herein is performed for high-throughput sequencing of fungus microbial diversity in healthy adult yaks, diarrheal adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. A total 446726 optimized sequences were achieved. Over 250 OTUs in species level have been indentified for each sample. The Shannon and Simpson index revealed that there was no visible difference in the flora between different yak groups (p > 0...
February 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
Haizhu Zhou, Wei Guo, Tao Zhang, Bo Xu, Di Zhang, Zhanwei Teng, Dapeng Tao, Yujie Lou, Yunhang Gao
Geese are capable of digesting and making use of a high-fiber diet, but the mechanism is not well understood and would be of great significance for the development and utilization of roughage resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary fiber (source: corn stover and alfalfa, included at 5% or 8%) on microflora in goose intestines. We used 35-day-old Carlos geese in which we first studied the influence of fiber ingestion on diet digestibility and immune organ indices of geese and found that high dietary fiber (8% content) significantly increased feed intake, the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and thymus, bursa, and spleen size...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Yukari Uemura, Takanori Kanai, Reiko Kunisaki, Yasuo Suzuki, Kaoru Yokoyama, Naoki Yoshimura, Toshifumi Hibi
BACKGROUND: Fermented milk products containing Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BFM) may improve clinical status in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. AIMS: To assess efficacy of BFM in maintaining remission in Japanese patients with quiescent UC. METHODS: This double-blind study (B-FLORA) enrolled 195 patients with quiescent UC, randomized to receive one pack of BFM fermented milk per day [Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (10 billion bacteria) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (1 billion bacteria)] (n = 98) or matching placebo (n = 97) for 48 weeks...
February 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Yusuke Shono, Marcel R M van den Brink
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered to be the strongest curative immunotherapy for various malignancies (primarily, but not limited to, haematologic malignancies). However, application of allo-HSCT is limited owing to its life-threatening major complications, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse and infections. Recent advances in large-scale DNA sequencing technology have facilitated rapid identification of the microorganisms that make up the microbiota and evaluation of their interactions with host immunity in various diseases, including cancer...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Jesus Cosin-Roger, Marianne R Spalinger, Pedro A Ruiz, Claudia Stanzel, Anne Terhalle, Lutz Wolfram, Hassan Melhem, Kirstin Atrott, Silvia Lang, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Michael Fried, Michael Scharl, Martin Hausmann, Gerhard Rogler
Gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone for multiple protein substrates. Its lack in intestinal macrophages of Crohn's disease (CD) patients is correlated with loss of tolerance against the host gut flora. Gp96 has been stablished to be an essential chaperone for Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We studied the impact of gp96-knockdown on TLR-function in macrophages. TLR2 and TLR4 expression was only decreased but not abolished when gp96 was knocked-down in cell lines, whereas in a monocyte/macrophage specific knock-out mouse model (LysMCre) TLR4 was abolished, while TLR2 was still present...
2018: PloS One
Hao Zhang, Mingxu Shao, He Huang, Shujuan Wang, Lili Ma, Huining Wang, Liping Hu, Kai Wei, Ruiliang Zhu
The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM) of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shuwen Han, Jianlan Gao, Qing Zhou, Shanshan Liu, Caixia Wen, Xi Yang
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common human malignant tumors. Recent research has shown that colorectal cancer is a dysbacteriosis-induced disease; however, the role of intestinal bacteria in colorectal cancer is unclear. This review explores the role of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer. In total, 57 articles were included after identification and screening. The pertinent literature on floral metabolites in colorectal cancer from three metabolic perspectives - including carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism - was analyzed...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
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