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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102710/development-and-validation-of-a-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-fotagliptin-and-its-two-major-metabolites-in-human-plasma-and-urine
#1
Zhenlei Wang, Ji Jiang, Pei Hu, Qian Zhao
AIM: Fotagliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor under clinical development for the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a specific and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of fotagliptin and its two major metabolites in human plasma and urine. Methodology & results: After being pretreated using an automatized procedure, the plasma and urine samples were separated and detected using a UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method, which was validated following the international guidelines...
January 19, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101822/lupinus-albus-conglutin-gamma-modifies-the-gene-expressions-of-enzymes-involved-in-glucose-hepatic-production-in-vivo
#2
Ana E González-Santiago, Belinda Vargas-Guerrero, Pedro M García-López, Alma L Martínez-Ayala, José A Domínguez-Rosales, Carmen M Gurrola-Díaz
Lupinus albus seeds contain conglutin gamma (Cγ) protein, which exerts a hypoglycemic effect and positively modifies proteins involved in glucose homeostasis. Cγ could potentially be used to manage patients with impaired glucose metabolism, but there remains a need to evaluate its effects on hepatic glucose production. The present study aimed to analyze G6pc, Fbp1, and Pck1 gene expressions in two experimental animal models of impaired glucose metabolism. We also evaluated hepatic and renal tissue integrity following Cγ treatment...
January 18, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101310/effectiveness-and-safety-of-sitagliptin-in-patients-with-beta-thalassaemia-major-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-case-series
#3
Shahrzad Zonoozi, Maria Barnard, Emma Prescott, Romilla Jones, Farrukh T Shah, Ploutarchos Tzoulis
Sitagliptin, a modern antidiabetic agent which is weight neutral and associated with low rate of hypoglycaemias, is being increasingly used in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there is a paucity of data about its efficacy and safety in beta-thalassaemia major (β-TM). This retrospective case series of five patients (mean age of 45 years) is the first study evaluating the use of sitagliptin in patients with β-TM and DM. Four patients responded well to sitagliptin, as evidenced by a decrease in fructosamine by 77 and 96μmol/L (equivalent reduction in HbA1c of 1...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101124/reduced-up-regulation-of-the-nitric-oxide-pathway-and-impaired-endothelial-and-smooth-muscle-functions-in-the-female-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rat-heart
#4
Martine Desrois, Carole Lan, Jamileh Movassat, Monique Bernard
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with greater relative risk of cardiovascular diseases in women than in men, which is not well understood. Consequently, we have investigated if male and female displayed differences in cardiac function, energy metabolism, and endothelial function which could contribute to increased cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetic female. METHODS: Male and female Control and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) isolated rat hearts were perfused during 28 min with a physiological buffer before freeze-clamping for biochemical assays...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100774/loss-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-2-in-the-pancreas-links-primary-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-to-progressive-depletion-of-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-diabetes
#5
So Yoon Kim, Ji-Hyeon Lee, Matthew J Merrins, Oksana Gavrilova, Xavier Bisteau, Philipp Kaldis, Leslie S Satin, Sushil G Rane
The failure of pancreatic islet β-cells is a major contributor to the etiology of Type 2 diabetes. β-cell dysfunction and declining β-cell mass are two mechanisms that contribute to this failure, although it is unclear if they are molecularly linked. Here, we show that the cell cycle regulator, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), couples primary β-cell dysfunction to the progressive deterioration of β-cell mass in diabetes. Mice with pancreas-specific deletion of Cdk2 are glucose intolerant primarily due to defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099206/is-a-%C3%AE-cell-a-%C3%AE-cell
#6
Chaoxing Yang, Feorillo Galivo, Craig Dorrell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This report examines recent publications identifying phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among pancreatic β cells and investigating their potential roles in normal and abnormal islet function. The development of new methods and tools for the study of individual islet cells has produced a surge of interest in this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of β cell maturation and pregnancy-induced proliferation have identified changes in serotonin and transcription factors SIX2/3 expression as markers of temporal heterogeneity...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098839/continuous-glucose-monitoring-enables-the-detection-of-losses-in-infusion-set-actuation-lisas
#7
Daniel P Howsmon, Faye Cameron, Nihat Baysal, Trang T Ly, Gregory P Forlenza, David M Maahs, Bruce A Buckingham, Juergen Hahn, B Wayne Bequette
Reliable continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) enables a variety of advanced technology for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. In addition to artificial pancreas algorithms that use CGM to automate continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), CGM can also inform fault detection algorithms that alert patients to problems in CGM or CSII. Losses in infusion set actuation (LISAs) can adversely affect clinical outcomes, resulting in hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin delivery. Prolonged hyperglycemia may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis-a serious metabolic complication in type 1 diabetes...
January 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098780/adding-salt-to-meals-as-a-risk-factor-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-case-control-study
#8
Lina Radzeviciene, Rytas Ostrauskas
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is thought to arise from the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors that may help to reduce the risk of diabetes. Data on salt intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between adding salt to prepared meals and the risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a case-control study, we included 234 cases, all of whom were patients aged 35-86 years with a newly confirmed diagnosis of T2DM, and 468 controls that were free of the disease...
January 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097614/comprehensive-and-medically-appropriate-food-support-is-associated-with-improved-hiv-and-diabetes-health
#9
Kartika Palar, Tessa Napoles, Lee L Hufstedler, Hilary Seligman, Fredrick M Hecht, Kimberly Madsen, Mark Ryle, Simon Pitchford, Edward A Frongillo, Sheri D Weiser
Food insecurity is associated with negative chronic health outcomes, yet few studies have examined how providing medically appropriate food assistance to food-insecure individuals may improve health outcomes in resource-rich settings. We evaluated a community-based food support intervention in the San Francisco Bay Area for people living with HIV and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of the intervention on nutritional, mental health, disease management, healthcare utilization, and physical health outcomes...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097367/impaired-glucose-homeostasis-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Toby Pillinger, Katherine Beck, Cristian Gobjila, Jacek G Donocik, Sameer Jauhar, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clear whether schizophrenia confers an inherent risk for glucose dysregulation in the absence of the effects of chronic illness and long-term treatment. Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis examining whether individuals with first-episode schizophrenia already exhibit alterations in glucose homeostasis compared with controls. Data Sources: The EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases were systematically searched for studies examining measures of glucose homeostasis in antipsychotic-naive individuals with first-episode schizophrenia compared with individuals serving as controls...
January 11, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096825/determination-of-the-value-of-glycated-hemoglobin-hba1c-and-fructosamine-in-assessing-the-risk-of-perioperative-complications-after-cardiac-surgery-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Anetta M Kowalczuk-Wieteska, Marta Wróbel, Dominika Rokicka, Aleksandra Szymborska-Kajanek, Jerzy Foremny, Paweł Nadziakiewicz, Marian Zembala, Krzysztof Strojek
INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes have a worse postoperative course and longer length of hospital stay after surgery. A good indicator of proper long-term (3 months) glycemic control is glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fructosamine in the short term (2-3 weeks). AIM: To determine the degree of glycemic control evaluated preoperatively by HbA1c and/or fructosamine influence on the postoperative course of patients with diabetes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 2014-2015...
December 2016: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096308/-re-building-a-kidney
#12
Leif Oxburgh, Thomas J Carroll, Ondine Cleaver, Daniel R Gossett, Deborah K Hoshizaki, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Benjamin D Humphreys, Sanjay Jain, Jan Jensen, David L Kaplan, Carl Kesselman, Christian J Ketchum, Melissa H Little, Andrew P McMahon, Stuart J Shankland, Jason R Spence, M Todd Valerius, Jason A Wertheim, Oliver Wessely, Ying Zheng, Iain A Drummond
(Re)Building a Kidney is a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-led consortium to optimize approaches for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of appropriate kidney cell types and the integration of these cells into complex structures that replicate human kidney function. The ultimate goals of the consortium are two-fold: to develop and implement strategies for in vitro engineering of replacement kidney tissue, and to devise strategies to stimulate regeneration of nephrons in situ to restore failing kidney function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096259/bariatric-surgery-enhances-splanchnic-vascular-responses-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Henri Honka, Jukka Koffert, Saila Kauhanen, Jarmo Teuho, Saija Hurme, Andrea Mari, Andreas Lindqvist, Nils Wierup, Leif Groop, Pirjo Nuutila
Bariatric surgery results in notable weight loss and alleviates hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we aimed to characterize the vascular effects of a mixed-meal and of infusion of exogenous glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in the splanchnic region in ten obese patients with T2D before and after bariatric surgery and in ten lean controls. The experiments were carried out on two separate days. Pancreatic and intestinal blood flow (BF) were measured at baseline, 20 and 50 minutes with (15)O-water using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI)...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096127/formation-of-fructose-mediated-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-their-roles-in-metabolic-and-inflammatory-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Alejandro Gugliucci
Fructose is associated with the biochemical alterations that promote the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. Its consumption has increased in parallel with MetS. It is metabolized by the liver, where it stimulates de novo lipogenesis. The triglycerides synthesized lead to hepatic insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Fructose-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be involved via the Maillard reaction. Fructose has not been a main focus of glycation research because of the difficulty in measuring its adducts, and, more importantly, because although it is 10 times more reactive than glucose, its plasma concentration is only 1% of that of glucose...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095899/what-is-the-relationship-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-status-and-the-neuroradiological-correlates-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#15
Clark Funnell, Mary M Doyle-Waters, Samuel Yip, Thalia Field
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common cause of stroke, dementia, and functional decline. In recent years, neuroradiologic correlates of CSVD have been identified. These imaging findings, best characterized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), include some combination of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, enlarged perivascular spaces, and cerebral atrophy. Though some cohorts have reported that participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), an important risk factor for CSVD, may have a distinct neuroradiologic phenotype, this relationship is not well-characterized...
January 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095743/adult-murine-pancreatic-progenitors-require-egf-and-nicotinamide-for-self-renewal-and-differentiation-in-a-serum-and-conditioned-medium-free-culture
#16
Lena Wedeken, Angela Luo, Jacob R Tremblay, Jeffrey Rawson, Liang Jin, Dan Gao, Janine Quijano, Hsun Teresa Ku
Adult pancreatic stem and progenitor cells may serve as an alternative source of insulin-secreting endocrine cells in cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes, but much remained unknown about these cells. We previously identified adult murine pancreatic progenitor-like cells that displayed in vitro self-renewal and tri-lineage differentiation activities in a 3-dimensional colony/organoid assay containing 1% methylcellulose and 5% Matrigel. However, the presence of other undefined culture components, such as serum and conditioned medium, has prevented a complete understanding of the signals required for progenitor cell growth...
January 17, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095294/a-novel-slc12a1-gene-mutation-associated-with-hyperparathyroidism-hypercalcemia-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus-and-nephrocalcinosis-in-four-patients
#17
Sariya Wongsaengsak, Alaina P Vidmar, Ananta Addala, Elaine S Kamil, Paola Seqeira, Benjamin Fass, Pisit Pitukcheewanont
Solute Carrier Family 12 member 1 (SLC12A1) gene encodes the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) at the apical membrane of the thick ascending loop of Henle (TAL). Bartter's syndrome (BS) type I is a rare, autosomal recessive, renal tubular disorder associated with mutation of the SLC12A1 gene. Presenting features include: hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. The many allelic variants reported present with a spectrum of phenotypes, biochemical abnormalities and clinical severities...
January 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095040/consensus-statement-by-the-american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-on-the-comprehensive-type-2-diabetes-management-algorithm-2017-executive-summary
#18
Alan J Garber, Martin J Abrahamson, Joshua I Barzilay, Lawrence Blonde, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Michael A Bush, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Ralph A DeFronzo, Daniel Einhorn, Vivian A Fonseca, Jeffrey R Garber, W Timothy Garvey, George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, Irl B Hirsch, Paul S Jellinger, Janet B McGill, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Paul D Rosenblit, Guillermo E Umpierrez
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This algorithm for the comprehensive management of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) was developed to provide clinicians with a practical guide that considers the whole patient, their spectrum of risks and complications, and evidence-based approaches to treatment. It is now clear that the progressive pancreatic beta-cell defect that drives the deterioration of metabolic control over time begins early and may be present before the diagnosis of diabetes (1). In addition to advocating glycemic control to reduce microvascular complications, this document highlights obesity and prediabetes as underlying risk factors for the development of T2D and associated macrovascular complications...
January 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093873/diagnostic-and-management-challenges-from-childhood-puberty-through-to-transition-in-severe-insulin-resistance-due-to-insulin-receptor-mutations
#19
Christina Wei, Christine P Burren
Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15.3 mg/L) and heterozygous p.Pro1205Leu mutation in the INSR gene encoding the insulin receptor. She experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia on metformin; acarbose was trialled and discontinued aged 16 years, as she became normoglycaemic...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093853/randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-treatment-with-the-once-weekly-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-dpp-4-inhibitor-omarigliptin-or-the-once-daily-dpp-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-on-metformin
#20
Ronald Goldenberg, Ira Gantz, Paula J Andryuk, Edward A O'Neill, Keith D Kaufman, Eseng Lai, Yin Na Wang, Shailaja Suryawanshi, Samuel S Engel
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of the once-weekly oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor omarigliptin or once-daily DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and inadequate glycaemic control on metformin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with T2DM with a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration ≥6.5% to ≤9.0% while on a stable dose of metformin (≥1500 mg/d) were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive omarigliptin 25 mg once weekly (n = 322) or sitagliptin 100 mg once daily (n = 320)...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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