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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331582/inositol-polyphosphates-contribute-to-cellular-circadian-rhythms-implications-for-understanding-lithium-s-molecular-mechanism
#1
Heather Wei, Dominic Landgraf, George Wang, Michael J McCarthy
Most living organisms maintain cell autonomous circadian clocks that synchronize critical biological functions with daily environmental cycles. In mammals, the circadian clock is regulated by inputs from signaling pathways including glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). The drug lithium has actions on GSK3, and also on inositol metabolism. While it is suspected that lithium's inhibition of GSK3 causes rhythm changes, it is not known if inositol polyphosphates can also affect the circadian clock. We examined whether the signaling molecule inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has effects on circadian rhythms...
January 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301134/suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-subordinate-brain-oscillators-clock-gene-desynchronization-by-neuroinflammation
#2
Leila Maria Guissoni Campos, Rogerio Leone Buchaim, Nathani Cristina da Silva, Caio Sergio Galina Spilla, Alessandre Hataka, Luciana Pinato
OBJECTIVE: The clock genes Period (per) 1 and 2 are essential components in the generation and adjustment of biological circadian rhythms by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Both genes are also rhythmically present in extrahypothalamic areas such as the hippocampus and cerebellum, considered subordinate oscillators. Several pathological conditions alter rhythmic biological phenomena, but the mechanisms behind these changes involving the clock genes are not well defined. The current study investigated changes in PER1 and PER2 immunoreactivity in the SCN, hippocampus, and cerebellum in a neuroinflammation model...
January 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300316/allyl-isothiocyanate-exhibits-no-anticancer-activity-in-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Md Abu Sayeed, Massimo Bracci, Veronica Ciarapica, Marco Malavolta, Mauro Provinciali, Ernesta Pieragostini, Simona Gaetani, Federica Monaco, Guendalina Lucarini, Venerando Rapisarda, Roberto Di Primio, Lory Santarelli
It was reported recently that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) could inhibit various types of cancer cell growth. In the present study, we further investigated whether AITC could inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells. Unexpectedly, we found that AITC did not inhibit, rather slightly promoted, the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, although it did have inhibitory effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cytofluorimetric analysis revealed that AITC (10 µM) did not induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283306/circadian-per2-protein-oscillations-do-not-persist-in-cycloheximide-treated-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts-in-culture
#4
Motomi Tainaka, Masao Doi, Yuichi Inoue, Iori Murai, Hitoshi Okamura
It is not known whether the endogenous mammalian core clock proteins sustain measurable oscillations in cells in culture where de novo translation is pharmacologically inhibited. We studied here the mammalian core clock protein PER2, which undergoes robust circadian oscillations in both abundance and phosphorylation. With a newly developed antibody that enables tracing the endogenous PER2 protein oscillations over circadian cycles with cultured mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, we provide evidence that PER2 does not persist noticeable circadian rhythms when translation is inhibited...
December 28, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227248/salt-inducible-kinase-3-regulates-the-mammalian-circadian-clock-by-destabilizing-per2-protein
#5
Naoto Hayasaka, Arisa Hirano, Yuka Miyoshi, Isao T Tokuda, Hikari Yoshitane, Junichiro Matsuda, Yoshitaka Fukada
Salt-inducible kinase 3 (SIK3) plays a crucial role in various aspects of metabolism. In the course of investigating metabolic defects in Sik3-deficient mice (Sik3-/-), we observed that circadian rhythmicity of the metabolisms was phase-delayed. Sik3-/- mice also exhibited other circadian abnormalities, including lengthening of the period, impaired entrainment to the light-dark cycle, phase variation in locomotor activities, and aberrant physiological rhythms. Ex vivosuprachiasmatic nucleus slices from Sik3-/- mice exhibited destabilized and desynchronized molecular rhythms among individual neurons...
December 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223143/neurobiological-functions-of-the-period-circadian-clock-2-gene-per2
#6
REVIEW
Mikyung Kim, June Bryan de la Peña, Jae Hoon Cheong, Hee Jin Kim
Most organisms have adapted to a circadian rhythm that follows a roughly 24-hour cycle, which is modulated by both internal (clock-related genes) and external (environment) factors. In such organisms, the central nervous system (CNS) is influenced by the circadian rhythm of individual cells. Furthermore, the period circadian clock 2 (Per2) gene is an important component of the circadian clock, which modulates the circadian rhythm. Per2 is mainly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus as well as other brain areas, including the midbrain and forebrain...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172740/the-choroid-plexus-harbors-a-circadian-oscillator-modulated-by-estrogens
#7
Telma Quintela, Tânia Albuquerque, Gabriella Lundkvist, Andrea Carmine Belin, Daniela Talhada, Isabel Gonçalves, Eva Carro, Cecília R A Santos
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is considered the master circadian oscillator in mammals. However, extra-SCN structures in the brain also display daily rhythms. Recently, we have demonstrated that the choroid plexus (CP) expresses core clock genes that are subjected to circadian regulation in a sex-dependent manner. By using CP explants cultured from female knock-in mice carrying the Period-luciferase transgene, we show that CP exhibits endogenous circadian rhythms of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE expression...
November 27, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165002/adrenal-dependent-and-independent-stress-induced-per1-mrna-in-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-male-and-female-rats
#8
Lauren E Chun, Jenny Christensen, Elizabeth R Woodruff, Sarah J Morton, Laura R Hinds, Robert L Spencer
Oscillating clock gene expression gives rise to a molecular clock that is present not only in the body's master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in extra-SCN brain regions. These extra-SCN molecular clocks depend on the SCN for entrainment to a light:dark cycle. The SCN has limited neural efferents, so it may entrain extra-SCN molecular clocks through its well-established circadian control of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. Glucocorticoids can regulate the normal rhythmic expression of clock genes in some extra-SCN tissues...
November 22, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157002/effects-of-circadian-clock-protein-per1b-on-zebrafish-visual-functions
#9
Ke Nie, Kun Wang, Deng-Feng Huang, Yu-Bin Huang, Wu Yin, Da-Long Ren, Han Wang, Bing Hu
The circadian clock is an endogenous and entrainable time-keeping mechanism with a period of approximately 24 h, operated by transcription/translation feedback loops composed of circadian clock genes and their proteins. The visual system displays robust circadian changes. Relatively little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying visual circadian rhythmicity. Zebrafish period1b (per1b), as a canonical circadian clock gene, is involved in circadian regulation. Here, we observed that zebrafish per1b mutants exhibit visual defects including reduced behavioral contrast sensitivity and significant retinal dopaminergic deficiency...
November 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154494/interplay-between-environmentally-modulated-feedback-loops-hypoxia-and-circadian-rhythms-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#10
Reinhard Depping, Henrik Oster
Sensing of environmental parameters is critically important for cells of metazoan organisms. Members of the superfamily of bHLH-PAS transcription factors, involved in oxygen sensing and circadian rhythm generation, are important players in such molecular pathways. The interplay between both networks includes a so far unknown factor, connecting PER2 (circadian clocks) to hypoxia sensing (HIF-1 α) to result in a more adapted state of homeostasis at the right time.
November 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144171/circadian-gene-methylation-in-rotating-shift-nurses-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Edyta Reszka, Edyta Wieczorek, Monika Przybek, Ewa Jabłońska, Paweł Kałużny, Agnieszka Bukowska-Damska, Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Beata Pepłońska
Investigating the methylation status of the circadian genes may contribute to a better understanding of the shift work-related circadian disruption in individuals exposed to artificial light at night. In the present study, we determined the methylation status of the circadian genes associated with a shift work pattern among nurses and midwives participating in a cross-sectional study in Lodz, Poland. Quantitative methylation polymerase chain reaction assays were used to assess promoter CpG methylation in PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 in genomic DNA from whole blood of 347 women having a rotating-shift work schedule and 363 women working days only...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138421/mperiod2-brdm1-and-other-single-period-mutant-mice-have-normal-food-anticipatory-activity
#12
Julie S Pendergast, Robert H Wendroth, Rio C Stenner, Charles D Keil, Shin Yamazaki
Animals anticipate the timing of food availability via the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO). The anatomical location and timekeeping mechanism of the FEO are unknown. Several studies showed the circadian gene, Period 2, is critical for FEO timekeeping. However, other studies concluded that canonical circadian genes are not essential for FEO timekeeping. In this study, we re-examined the effects of the Per2 (Brdm1) mutation on food entrainment using methods that have revealed robust food anticipatory activity in other mutant lines...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115399/loss-of-the-clock-gene-per2-is-associated-with-cancer-development-and-altered-expression-of-important-tumor-related-genes-in-oral-cancer
#13
Honggang Xiong, Yixin Yang, Kai Yang, Dan Zhao, Hong Tang, Xiongwen Ran
Recent studies have demonstrated that abnormal expression of the clock gene PER2 is closely associated with the development of a variety of cancer types. However, the expression of PER2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a common malignant tumor in humans, and its correlations with the clinicopathological parameters and survival time of OSCC patients and the altered expression of important tumor-related genes remain unclear. In the present study, we detected the mRNA and protein expression levels of PER2, PIK3CA, PTEN, P53, P14ARF and caspase‑8 in OSCC tissues and cancer-adjacent oral mucosa by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113166/expression-of-circadian-clock-genes-in-human-colorectal-adenoma-and-carcinoma
#14
Tomoyuki Momma, Hirokazu Okayama, Masaru Saitou, Hidekazu Sugeno, Nobuhiro Yoshimoto, Yuji Takebayashi, Shinji Ohki, Seiichi Takenoshita
Circadian rhythms are fundamental biological systems in most organisms. Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated that disruption of circadian rhythms is linked to tumor progression and mammalian tumorigenesis. However, the clinical significance of in situ clock gene expression in precancerous and cancerous colorectal lesions remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate mRNA transcript levels of circadian clock genes within human colorectal cancer and adenoma tissue sections. Using in situ hybridization, the expression of key clock genes, including period circadian protein homolog (Per) 1 and 2, cryptochrome 1 (Cry1), circadian locomoter output cycles protein kaput (Clock), brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (Bmal1) and casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε) were retrospectively examined in 51 cases of colorectal carcinoma and 10 cases of adenoma...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111822/repercussions-of-hypo-and-hyperthyroidism-on-the-heart-circadian-clock
#15
Rodrigo A Peliciari-Garcia, Paula Bargi-Souza, Martin E Young, Maria Tereza Nunes
Myocardial gene expression and metabolism fluctuate over the course of the day in association with changes in energy supply and demand. Time-of-day-dependent oscillations in myocardial processes have been linked to the intrinsic cardiomyocyte circadian clock. Triiodothyronine (T3) is an important modulator of heart metabolism and function. Recently, our group has reported time-of-day-dependent rhythms in cardiac T3 sensitivity, as well as, T3-mediated acute alterations on core clock components. Hypo and hyperthyroidism are the second most prevalent endocrine disease worldwide...
November 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108063/rapid-communication-period2-gene-silencing-increases-the-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-s-casein-protein-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#16
L Y Hu, M Z Wang, J L Ouyang, P F Li, J J Loor
(), a core clock gene, encodes a circadian rhythm protein which has been shown to control mammary metabolism in rodents. Whether regulates milk component synthesis such as α-casein protein in bovine mammary cells is unknown. Thus, we used gene silencing technology to determine if silencing could affect α-casein synthesis and cell growth in cultured primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). The BMEC were established by enzymatic digestion of mammary tissue from mid-lactation cows. A transient-transfection technique was used to insert a small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotide specific for to inhibit transcription...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106308/sleep-quality-and-methylation-status-of-core-circadian-rhythm-genes-among-nurses-and-midwives
#17
Agnieszka Bukowska-Damska, Edyta Reszka, Pawel Kaluzny, Edyta Wieczorek, Monika Przybek, Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Beata Peplonska
ABSTARCT Poor sleep quality or sleep restriction is associated with sleepiness and concentration problems. Moreover, chronic sleep restriction may affect metabolism, hormone secretion patterns and inflammatory responses. Limited recent reports suggest a potential link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic effects such as changes in DNA methylation profiles. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential association between poor sleep quality or sleep duration and the levels of 5-methylcytosine in the promoter regions of PER1, PER2, PER3, BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1 CRY2 and NPAS2 genes, taking into account rotating night work and chronotype as potential confounders or modifiers...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105092/ultraviolet-a-eye-irradiation-ameliorates-atopic-dermatitis-via-p53-and-clock-gene-proteins-in-nc-nga-mice
#18
Keiichi Hiramoto, Yurika Yamate, Satoshi Yokoyama
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widespread chronic skin condition that severely affects quality of life and can lead to more serious complications. Although ultraviolet (UV)A eye irradiation can exert various effects on the skin, it is unknown whether UVA can affect AD. To investigate potential associations, we used an NC/Nga mouse model of AD to study the effects of UVA eye irradiation. The eyes of mice were irradiated with a UVA dose of 100 kJ/m(2) using a FL20SBLB-A lamp. Our histological data demonstrated that AD symptoms could be ameliorated by UVA eye irradiation...
November 4, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054877/ontogeny-of-circadian-rhythms-and-synchrony-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#19
Vania Carmona-Alcocer, John H Abel, Tao C Sun, Linda R Petzold, Francis J Doyle, Carrie L Simms, Erik D Herzog
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus coordinates daily rhythms including sleep-wake, hormone release and gene expression. The cells of the SCN must synchronize to each other to drive these circadian rhythms in the rest of the body. The ontogeny of circadian cycling and intercellular coupling in the SCN remains poorly understood. Recent in vitro studies have recorded circadian rhythms from the whole embryonic SCN. Here, we tracked the onset and precision of rhythms in PERIOD2 (PER2), a clock protein, within the SCN isolated from embryonic and postnatal mice of undetermined sex...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050555/natural-variation-in-human-clocks
#20
Malcolm von Schantz
Our own species has a diurnal activity pattern and an average circadian period of 24.2h. Exact determination of circadian period requires expensive and intrusive protocols, and investigators are therefore using chronotype questionnaires as a proxy quantitative measure. Both measures show a normal distribution suggestive of a polygenic trait. The genetic components of the 24-h feedback loop that generates circadian rhythms within our cells have been mapped in detail, identifying a number of candidate genes which have been investigated for genetic polymorphisms relating to the phenotypic variance...
2017: Advances in Genetics
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