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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916681/circannual-testis-and-moult-cycles-persist-under-photoperiods-that-disrupt-circadian-activity-and-clock-gene-cycles-in-spotted-munia
#1
Neha Agarwal, Ila Mishra, Ruchi Komal, Sangeeta Rani, Vinod Kumar
We investigated if circannual rhythms underlying annual testis maturation and moult cycles were independent of the duration and frequency of light period and the circadian clock control in non-photoperiodic spotted munia. Birds were subjected to an aberrant light-dark (LD) cycle (3.5L:3.5D; T7, T=period length of LD cycle) and continuous light (LL, 24L:0D), with controls on 12L:12D (T24, 24 h LD cycle). Initial experiment measured the activity pattern and 24 h mRNA oscillations of circadian clock genes (bmal1, clock, per2, cry1, cry2) in the hypothalamus, putative site of the seasonal timing...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912161/disruption-of-bmal1-impairs-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-via-pericyte-dysfunction
#2
Ryota Nakazato, Kenji Kawabe, Daisuke Yamada, Shinsuke Ikeno, Michihiro Mieda, Shigeki Shimba, Eiichi Hinoi, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada
Circadian rhythm disturbances are well-established in neurological diseases. However, how these disruptions cause homeostatic imbalances remains poorly understood. Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1) is a major circadian clock transcriptional activator, and Bmal1 deficiency in male Bmal1nestin(-/-) mice induced marked astroglial activation without affecting the number of astrocytes in the brain and spinal cord. Bmal1 deletion caused blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability with an age-dependent loss of pericyte coverage of blood vessels in the brain...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903391/cancer-testis-antigen-piwil2-suppresses-circadian-rhythms-by-regulating-the-stability-and-activity-of-bmal1-and-clock
#3
Yilu Lu, Xulei Zheng, Wei Hu, Shasha Bian, Zhiwei Zhang, Dachang Tao, Yunqiang Liu, Yongxin Ma
Circadian rhythms are regulated by transcriptional and post-translational feedback loops generated by appropriate functions of clock proteins. Rhythmic degradation of the circadian clock proteins is critical for maintenance of the circadian oscillations. Notably, circadian clock does not work during spermatogenesis and can be disrupted in tumors. However, the underlying mechanism that suppresses circadian rhythms in germ cells and cancer cells remains largely unknown. Here we report that the cancer/testis antigen PIWIL2 can repress circadian rhythms both in the testis and cancer cells...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886335/macromolecular-assemblies-of-the-mammalian-circadian-clock
#4
Rajindra P Aryal, Pieter Bas Kwak, Alfred G Tamayo, Michael Gebert, Po-Lin Chiu, Thomas Walz, Charles J Weitz
The mammalian circadian clock is built on a feedback loop in which PER and CRY proteins repress their own transcription. We found that in mouse liver nuclei all three PERs, both CRYs, and Casein Kinase-1δ (CK1δ) are present together in an ∼1.9-MDa repressor assembly that quantitatively incorporates its CLOCK-BMAL1 transcription factor target. Prior to incorporation, CLOCK-BMAL1 exists in an ∼750-kDa complex. Single-particle electron microscopy (EM) revealed nuclear PER complexes purified from mouse liver to be quasi-spherical ∼40-nm structures...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884339/altered-expression-of-circadian-clock-genes-in-polyglandular-autoimmune-syndrome-type-iii
#5
Anna Angelousi, Narjes Nasiri-Ansari, Eliana Spilioti, Emilia Mantzou, Vasiliki Kalotyxou, George Chrousos, Gregory Kaltsas, Eva Kassi
PURPOSE: Circadian timing system is a highly conserved, ubiquitous molecular "clock" which creates internal circadian rhythmicity. Dysregulation of clock genes expression is associated with various diseases including immune dysregulation. In this study we investigated the circadian pattern of Clock-related genes in patients with polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III (PAS type III). METHODS: Nineteen patients diagnosed with PAS type III and 12 healthy controls were enrolled...
September 7, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877456/distinct-circadian-signatures-in-liver-and-gut-clocks-revealed-by-ketogenic-diet
#6
Paola Tognini, Mari Murakami, Yu Liu, Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, John C Newman, Eric Verdin, Pierre Baldi, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
The circadian clock orchestrates rhythms in physiology and behavior, allowing organismal adaptation to daily environmental changes. While food intake profoundly influences diurnal rhythms in the liver, how nutritional challenges are differentially interpreted by distinct tissue-specific clocks remains poorly explored. Ketogenic diet (KD) is considered to have metabolic and therapeutic value, though its impact on circadian homeostasis is virtually unknown. We show that KD has profound and differential effects on liver and intestine clocks...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869341/egcg-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-hepg2-cells-involvement-of-bmal1
#7
Yashi Mi, Guoyuan Qi, Yuqi Gao, Runnan Li, Yiwen Wang, Xingyu Li, Shuxian Huang, Xuebo Liu
SCOPE: Normal physiological processes require a robust biological timer called the circadian clock. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms contributes to a variety of metabolic syndrome, including obesity and insulin resistance. EGCG has been demonstrated to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective bioactivities. The objective of this study was to explore whether circadian clock is involved in the protective effect of EGCG against insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: The results demonstrated that EGCG reverses the relatively shallow daily oscillations of circadian clock genes transcription and protein expression induced by glucosamine in HepG2 cells...
September 4, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869038/the-genomic-landscape-of-human-cellular-circadian-variation-points-to-a-novel-role-for-the-signalosome
#8
Ludmila Gaspar, Cedric Howald, Konstantin Popadin, Bert Maier, Daniel Mauvoisin, Ermanno Moriggi, Maria Gutierrez-Arcelus, Emilie Falconnet, Christelle Borel, Dieter Kunz, Achim Kramer, Frederic Gachon, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Stylianos E Antonarakis, Steven A Brown
The importance of natural gene expression variation for human behavior is undisputed, but its impact on circadian physiology remains mostly unexplored. Using umbilical cord fibroblasts, we have determined by genome-wide association how common genetic variation impacts upon cellular circadian function. Gene set enrichment points to differences in protein catabolism as one major source of clock variation in humans. The two most significant alleles regulated expression of COPS7B, a subunit of the COP9 signalosome...
September 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868166/day-time-isoflurane-administration-suppresses-circadian-gene-expressions-in-both-the-brain-and-a-peripheral-organ-liver
#9
Necati Gökmen, İbrahim Barış, Elvan Öçmen, Osman Yılmaz, Ali Günerli, İbrahim Halil Kavaklı
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of light and administration time of isoflurane on circadian gene expression in the brains and liver tissues of rats kept in light-dark cycle. METHODS: Seventy two 15-days-old rats pups were divided into four groups. All animals were exposed to 1.5% concentration of isoflurane or to 6 L min(-1) O2 for six hours between Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 0-ZT06 (day-time administration) or ZT12-ZT18 (night-time administration)...
August 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862300/interaction-of-per2-with-the-constitutive-androstane-receptor-possibly-links-circadian-rhythms-to-metabolism
#10
Tomaž Martini, Jurij Stojan, Damjana Rozman, Uršula Prosenc Zmrzljak
Period 2 (PER2) is an important factor in daily oscillations called circadian rhythms, which are emerging as one of the most important regulatory networks, responsible for homeostasis and transcriptional regulation of a number of genes. Our work shows that PER2 could act as a co-activator of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a key nuclear receptor (NR) that regulates the metabolism of endobiotics and xenobiotics. Bioinformatic analysis shows that PER2 and CAR possess structural elements that could enable them to interact which was confirmed experimentally by CoIP experiment...
September 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860071/circadian-clock-as-possible-protective-mechanism-to-pollution-induced-keratinocytes-damage
#11
Mascia Benedusi, Elena Frigato, Mattia Beltramello, Cristiano Bertolucci, Giuseppe Valacchi
Ozone is among the most toxic environmental stressors to which we are continuously exposed. Due to its critical location, skin is one of the most susceptible tissues to oxidative stress damaging effect of ozone. An increasing collection of data suggests a significant role of circadian system in regulation of cellular response to oxidative stress. However, the molecular mechanism linking circadian clock and antioxidant pathway it is not completely understood. Here we investigated a possible protective role of entrained circadian clock to ozone induced damage in keratinocytes, the main cellular component of human epidermis...
August 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851928/calorie-restriction-effects-on-circadian-rhythms-in-gene-expression-are-sex-dependent
#12
Artem A Astafev, Sonal A Patel, Roman V Kondratov
The rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes are affected by calorie restriction (CR), a dietary paradigm known to increase lifespan. Many physiological effects of CR differ between males and females; here we investigated if the sex of animals affects the CR induced changes in the circadian rhythms. The liver expression of some circadian clock genes such as Bmal1 and three Periods (Per1, Per2 and Per3) and the effect of CR on the expression of these genes were sex independent, while the expression of Rev-Erb alpha, Ror gamma and both Cryptochome (Cry1 and Cry2) genes was different between males and females...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831003/vertebrate-like-cryptochrome-2-from-monarch-regulates-circadian-transcription-via-independent-repression-of-clock-and-bmal1-activity
#13
Ying Zhang, Matthew J Markert, Shayna C Groves, Paul E Hardin, Christine Merlin
Circadian repression of CLOCK-BMAL1 by PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) in mammals lies at the core of the circadian timekeeping mechanism. CRY repression of CLOCK-BMAL1 and regulation of circadian period are proposed to rely primarily on competition for binding with coactivators on an α-helix located within the transactivation domain (TAD) of the BMAL1 C terminus. This model has, however, not been tested in vivo. Here, we applied CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), which possesses a vertebrate-like CRY (dpCRY2) and an ortholog of BMAL1, to show that insect CRY2 regulates circadian repression through TAD α-helix-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
August 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830875/influences-of-breakfast-on-clock-gene-expression-and-postprandial-glycemia-in-healthy-individuals-and-individuals-with-diabetes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Daniela Jakubowicz, Julio Wainstein, Zohar Landau, Itamar Raz, Bo Ahren, Nava Chapnik, Tali Ganz, Miriam Menaged, Maayan Barnea, Yosefa Bar-Dayan, Oren Froy
OBJECTIVE: The circadian clock regulates glucose metabolism by mediating the activity of metabolic enzymes, hormones, and transport systems. Breakfast skipping and night eating have been associated with high HbA1c and postprandial hyperglycemia after lunch and dinner. Our aim was to explore the acute effect of breakfast consumption or omission on glucose homeostasis and clock gene expression in healthy individuals and individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a cross-over design, 18 healthy volunteers and 18 volunteers with 14...
August 22, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828400/calcium-circadian-rhythmicity-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-cell-autonomy-and-network-modulation
#15
Takako Noguchi, Tanya L Leise, Nathaniel J Kingsbury, Tanja Diemer, Lexie L Wang, Michael A Henson, David K Welsh
Circadian rhythms of mammalian physiology and behavior are coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus. Within SCN neurons, various aspects of cell physiology exhibit circadian oscillations, including circadian clock gene expression, levels of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i), and neuronal firing rate. [Ca(2+)]i oscillates in SCN neurons even in the absence of neuronal firing. To determine the causal relationship between circadian clock gene expression and [Ca(2+)]i rhythms in the SCN, as well as the SCN neuronal network dependence of [Ca(2+)]i rhythms, we introduced GCaMP3, a genetically encoded fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator, into SCN neurons from PER2::LUC knock-in reporter mice...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817668/titanium-biomaterials-with-complex-surfaces-induced-aberrant-peripheral-circadian-rhythms-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#16
Nathaniel Hassan, Kirstin McCarville, Kenzo Morinaga, Cristiane M Mengatto, Peter Langfelder, Akishige Hokugo, Yu Tahara, Christopher S Colwell, Ichiro Nishimura
Circadian rhythms maintain a high level of homeostasis through internal feed-forward and -backward regulation by core molecules. In this study, we report the highly unusual peripheral circadian rhythm of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) induced by titanium-based biomaterials with complex surface modifications (Ti biomaterial) commonly used for dental and orthopedic implants. When cultured on Ti biomaterials, human BMSCs suppressed circadian PER1 expression patterns, while NPAS2 was uniquely upregulated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816632/the-liver-circadian-clock-modulates-biochemical-and-physiological-responses-to-metformin
#17
Emma Henriksson, Anne-Laure Huber, Erin K Soto, Anna Kriebs, Megan E Vaughan, Drew Duglan, Alanna B Chan, Stephanie J Papp, Madelena Nguyen, Megan E Afetian, Katja A Lamia
Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes to lower blood glucose. Although metformin is a relatively safe and effective drug, its clinical efficacy is variable and under certain circumstances it may contribute to life-threatening lactic acidosis. Thus, additional understanding of metformin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics could provide important information regarding therapeutic use of this widely prescribed drug. Here we report a significant effect of time of day on acute blood glucose reduction in response to metformin administration and on blood lactate levels in healthy mice...
August 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803917/sca1-cells-from-the-heart-possess-a-molecular-circadian-clock-and-display-circadian-oscillations-in-cellular-functions
#18
Bastiaan C Du Pré, Evelyne J Demkes, Dries A M Feyen, Pieterjan Dierickx, Sandra Crnko, Bart J M Kok, Joost P G Sluijter, Pieter A Doevendans, Marc A Vos, Toon A B Van Veen, Linda W Van Laake
Stem cell antigen 1-positive (SCA1(+)) cells (SPCs) have been investigated in cell-based cardiac repair and pharmacological research, although improved cardiac function after injection has been variable and the mode of action remains unclear. Circadian (24-hr) rhythms are biorhythms regulated by molecular clocks that play an important role in (patho)physiology. Here, we describe (1) the presence of a molecular circadian clock in SPCs and (2) circadian rhythmicity in SPC function. We isolated SPCs from human fetal heart and found that these cells possess a molecular clock based on typical oscillations in core clock components BMAL1 and CRY1...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802827/the-novel-heme-dependent-inducible-protein-srrd-regulates-heme-biosynthesis-and-circadian-rhythms
#19
Yuka Adachi, Mana Umeda, Asako Kawazoe, Tetsuya Sato, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Sakihito Kitajima, Shingo Izawa, Ikuko Sagami, Shigeru Taketani
Heme plays a role in the regulation of the expression of genes related to circadian rhythms and heme metabolism. In order to identify new heme-regulated proteins, an RNA sequence analysis using mouse NIH3T3 cells treated without or with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was performed. Among the changes observed in the levels of various mRNAs including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and ALA synthase-1 (ALAS1), a mouse homologue of the plant circadian-regulating protein SRR1, SRR1 domain containing (SRRD) was induced by the ALA treatment...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797635/circadian-rhythmicity-a-functional-connection-between-differentiated-embryonic-chondrocyte-1-dec1-and-small-heterodimer-partner-shp
#20
Marek M Marczak, Bingfang Yan
Circadian rhythm misalignment has been increasingly recognized to pose health risk for a wide range of diseases, particularly metabolic disorders. The liver maintains metabolic homeostasis and expresses many circadian genes, such as differentiated embryo chondrocyte-1 (DEC1) and small heterodimer partner (SHP). DEC1 is established to repress transcription through E-box elements, and SHP belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors and has multiple E-box elements in its promoter. Importantly, DEC1 and SHP are inversely oscillated...
October 1, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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