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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336811/the-circadian-protein-bmal1-in-myeloid-cells-is-a-negative-regulator-of-allergic-asthma
#1
Zbigniew Zaslona, Sarah Case, James O Early, Stephen J Lalor, Rachel M McLoughlin, Anne M Curtis, Luke A O'Neill
Our body clock drives rhythms in the expression of genes that have a 24-hour periodicity. BMAL1 is a transcription factor, which is a crucial component in the molecular clock. A number of physiological processes, including immune function are modulated by the circadian clock. Asthma is of particular relevance to the area of circadian control of immunity, since it is a disease with very strong clinical evidence demonstrating regulation by circadian variation. Airway hypersensitivity and asthma attacks are more common at night in humans...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335007/a-class-of-circadian-long-non-coding-rnas-mark-enhancers-modulating-long-range-circadian-gene-regulation
#2
Zenghua Fan, Meng Zhao, Parth D Joshi, Ping Li, Yan Zhang, Weimin Guo, Yichi Xu, Haifang Wang, Zhihu Zhao, Jun Yan
Circadian rhythm exerts its influence on animal physiology and behavior by regulating gene expression at various levels. Here we systematically explored circadian long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in mouse liver and examined their circadian regulation. We found that a significant proportion of circadian lncRNAs are expressed at enhancer regions, mostly bound by two key circadian transcription factors, BMAL1 and REV-ERBα. These circadian lncRNAs showed similar circadian phases with their nearby genes. The extent of their nuclear localization is higher than protein coding genes but less than enhancer RNAs...
March 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333714/novel-regulators-of-plasma-lipid-levels
#3
Natalia Loaiza, Federico Oldoni, Jan A Kuivenhoven
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight very recent studies identifying novel regulatory molecules and mechanisms in plasma lipid metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Two novel regulatory mechanisms of LDL receptor (LDLR) intracellular trafficking have been described. The "COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93" and "Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue" complexes were found to be involved in LDLR endosomal sorting and recycling, whereas the GRP94 was shown to protect LDLR from early degradation within the hepatocyte secretory pathway...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333141/npas2-promotes-cell-survival-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-transactivating-cdc25a
#4
Peng Yuan, Jibin Li, Feng Zhou, Qichao Huang, Jiansheng Zhang, Xu Guo, Zhuomin Lyu, Hongxin Zhang, Jinliang Xing
Emerging evidences show that disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with tumor initiation and progression. Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2), one of the core circadian molecules, has been proved to be a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal and breast cancers. However, to date, the potential functional roles and molecular mechanisms by which NPAS2 affects cancer cell survival are greatly unclear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first investigated the expression of NPAS2 and its clinical significance in HCC...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326728/-effect-of-clock-gene-per1-knockdown-on-clock-gene-networks-in-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Zhao Qin, Ao Yiran, Yang Kai, Su Xiaoli, Lü Xiaoqiang
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of clock gene PER1 on the expression levels of other clock genes in clock gene networks in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. METHODS: We used RNA interference mediated by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to effectively knock down PER1 in SCC15 human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect the degree of proliferation and apoptosis of the cells after PER1 knockdown, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of the clock genes CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, PER2, PER3, DEC1, DEC2, CRY1, CRY2, TIM, CKIE, RORA, NPAS2, and REV-ERBA...
February 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324022/postnatal-ontogeny-of-the-circadian-expression-of-the-adrenal-clock-genes-and-corticosterone-rhythm-in-male-rats
#6
Silvia Liliana Ruiz Roa, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez, Clarissa Silva Martins, Sonir Rauber Antonini, Margaret de Castro, Ayrton Custódio Moreira
The postnatal synchronization of the circadian variation of the adrenal clock genes in mammals remains unknown. We evaluated the postnatal ontogeny of daily variation of clock genes (Clock/Bmal1/Per1/Per2/Per3/Cry1/Cry2/Rorα/Rev-Erbα) and steroidogenesis-related genes (Star and Mc2r) in rat adrenals and its relationship with the emergence of plasma corticosterone rhythm using Cosinor analysis. Plasma corticosterone circadian rhythm was detected from postnatal day (P) P1, with morning acrophase, between zeitgeber time (ZT) ZT0 and ZT2...
January 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277108/temporal-effects-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-on-expression-of-the-circadian-genes-and-steroidogenesis-related-genes-in-human-luteinized-granulosa-cells
#7
Minghui Chen, Yanwen Xu, Benyu Miao, Hui Zhao, Jun Gao, Canquan Zhou
OBJECTIVE: It has been shown in animal models that circadian clock exists in corpora luteum which is essential for maintaining pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether circadian clock exists in corpora luteum and its relation with steroidogenesis in human ovary. STUDY DESIGN: Human luteinized granulosa cells from patients who underwent in vitro fertilization treatment were purified and cultured in vitro. Accumulation patterns of circadian gene and steroidogenesis-related gene mRNAs in human luteinized granulosa cells were observed during the 48 hours after treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) by quantitative PCR...
March 5, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276525/regulation-of-molecular-clock-oscillations-and-phagocytic-activity-via-muscarinic-ca-2-signaling-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#8
Rina Ikarashi, Honami Akechi, Yuzuki Kanda, Alsawaf Ahmad, Kouhei Takeuchi, Eri Morioka, Takashi Sugiyama, Takashi Ebisawa, Masaaki Ikeda, Masayuki Ikeda
Vertebrate eyes are known to contain circadian clocks, however, the intracellular mechanisms regulating the retinal clockwork remain largely unknown. To address this, we generated a cell line (hRPE-YC) from human retinal pigmental epithelium, which stably co-expressed reporters for molecular clock oscillations (Bmal1-luciferase) and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations (YC3.6). The hRPE-YC cells demonstrated circadian rhythms in Bmal1 transcription. Also, these cells represented circadian rhythms in Ca(2+)-spiking frequencies, which were canceled by dominant-negative Bmal1 transfections...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254568/extra-hypothalamic-brain-clocks-in-songbirds-photoperiodic-state-dependent-clock-gene-oscillations-in-night-migratory-blackheaded-buntings-emberiza-melanocephala
#9
Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
The avian circadian pacemaker system is comprised of independent clocks in the retina, pineal and hypothalamus, as shown by daily and circadian oscillations of core clock genes (Per2, Cry1, Bmal1 and Clock) in several birds including migratory blackheaded buntings (Emberiza melanocephala). This study investigated the extra-hypothalamic brain circadian clocks in blackheaded buntings, and measured Per2, Cry1, Cry2, Bmal1 and Clock mRNA expressions at 4h intervals over 24h beginning 1h after light-on in the left and right telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum, the brain regions involved in several physiological and cognitive functions...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238833/effects-of-continuous-white-light-and-12h-white-12h-blue-light-cycles-on-the-expression-of-clock-genes-in-diencephalon-liver-and-skeletal-muscle-in-chicks
#10
Kazuhisa Honda, Makoto Kondo, Daichi Hiramoto, Takaoki Saneyasu, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
The core circadian clock mechanism relies on a feedback loop comprised of clock genes, such as the brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), chriptochrome 1 (Cry1), and period 3 (Per3). Exposure to the light-dark cycle synchronizes the master circadian clock in the brain, and which then synchronizes circadian clocks in peripheral tissues. Birds have long been used as a model for the investigation of circadian rhythm in human neurobiology. In the present study, we examined the effects of continuous light and the combination of white and blue light on the expression of clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, and Per3) in the central and peripheral tissues in chicks...
February 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213822/effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-circadian-clock-genes-per2-and-bmal1-in-mouse-ovary
#11
Takashi Shimizu, Kaya Watanabe, Nozomi Anayama, Koyomi Miyazaki
In mammals, circadian rhythms are associated with multiple physiological events. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on circadian systems in the ovary. Immature female mice were received an intra-peritoneal injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and LPS. Total RNA was collected from the ovary at 6-h intervals throughout a 48 h of experimental period. The expression of the circadian genes period 2 (Per2) and brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (Bmal1) such as circadian genes was measured by quantitative PCR...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196531/enhancing-circadian-clock-function-in-cancer-cells-inhibits-tumor-growth
#12
Silke Kiessling, Lou Beaulieu-Laroche, Ian D Blum, Dominic Landgraf, David K Welsh, Kai-Florian Storch, Nathalie Labrecque, Nicolas Cermakian
BACKGROUND: Circadian clocks control cell cycle factors, and circadian disruption promotes cancer. To address whether enhancing circadian rhythmicity in tumor cells affects cell cycle progression and reduces proliferation, we compared growth and cell cycle events of B16 melanoma cells and tumors with either a functional or dysfunctional clock. RESULTS: We found that clock genes were suppressed in B16 cells and tumors, but treatments inducing circadian rhythmicity, such as dexamethasone, forskolin and heat shock, triggered rhythmic clock and cell cycle gene expression, which resulted in fewer cells in S phase and more in G1 phase...
February 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186121/astrocyte-deletion-of-bmal1-alters-daily-locomotor-activity-and-cognitive-functions-via-gaba-signalling
#13
Olga Barca-Mayo, Meritxell Pons-Espinal, Philipp Follert, Andrea Armirotti, Luca Berdondini, Davide De Pietri Tonelli
Circadian rhythms are controlled by a network of clock neurons in the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Core clock genes, such as Bmal1, are expressed in SCN neurons and in other brain cells, such as astrocytes. However, the role of astrocytic clock genes in controlling rhythmic behaviour is unknown. Here we show that ablation of Bmal1 in GLAST-positive astrocytes alters circadian locomotor behaviour and cognition in mice. Specifically, deletion of astrocytic Bmal1 has an impact on the neuronal clock through GABA signalling...
February 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174256/a-time-for-myc-metabolism-and-therapy
#14
Chi V Dang
The MYC oncogene is frequently deregulated in human cancers, whereas the proto-oncogene is exquisitely, tightly regulated in normal cells. Deregulated MYC drives transcriptional imbalance, thereby altering metabolism and disrupting the circadian Bmal1-Clock E-box-dependent transcriptional circuitry. Sustained oncogenic MYC expression drives a constitutive growth program with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation that renders cells dependent on nutrients, such that glucose or glutamine deprivation could trigger cell death and key enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and glutaminase (GLS) amenable for targeting in cancers...
February 7, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143926/formation-of-a-repressive-complex-in-the-mammalian-circadian-clock-is-mediated-by-the-secondary-pocket-of-cry1
#15
Alicia K Michael, Jennifer L Fribourgh, Yogarany Chelliah, Colby R Sandate, Greg L Hura, Dina Schneidman-Duhovny, Sarvind M Tripathi, Joseph S Takahashi, Carrie L Partch
The basic helix-loop-helix PAS domain (bHLH-PAS) transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1) sits at the core of the mammalian circadian transcription/translation feedback loop. Precise control of CLOCK:BMAL1 activity by coactivators and repressors establishes the ∼24-h periodicity of gene expression. Formation of a repressive complex, defined by the core clock proteins cryptochrome 1 (CRY1):CLOCK:BMAL1, plays an important role controlling the switch from repression to activation each day...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109907/circadian-gene-variants-and-breast-cancer
#16
Edyta Reszka, Monika Przybek, Olav Muurlink, Beata Pepłonska
The endogenous and self-sustained circadian rhythm generated and maintained in suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues can coordinate various molecular, biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms resulting in the adaptation to environmental cues, e.g. light. Multifactorial breast cancer etiology also involves circadian gene alterations, especially among individuals exposed to light at night. Indeed, shift work that causes circadian disruption has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106813/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-lungs-reveals-molecular-clock-genes-expression-changes-after-chronic-exposure-to-ambient-air-particles
#17
Pengcheng Song, Zhigang Li, Xiaoqian Li, Lixin Yang, Lulu Zhang, Nannan Li, Chen Guo, Shuyu Lu, Yongjie Wei
The symptoms of asthma, breathlessness, insomnia, etc. all have relevance to pulmonary rhythmic disturbances. Epidemiology and toxicology studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient air particles can result in pulmonary dysfunction. However, there are no data directly supporting a link between air pollution and circadian rhythm disorder. In the present study, we found that breathing highly polluted air resulted in changes of the molecular clock genes expression in lung by transcriptome profiling analyses in a rodent model...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102700/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-deficient-mice-are-protected-from-high-fat-diet-induced-changes-in-metabolic-rhythms
#18
Cassie Jaeger, Canxin Xu, Mingwei Sun, Stacey Krager, Shelley A Tischkau
High fat diet (HFD) consumption alters the synchronized circadian timing system resulting in harmful loss, gain or shift of transcriptional oscillations. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) shares structural homology to clock genes, containing both PAS domains and basic helix-loop helix structural motifs, allowing for interaction with components of the primary circadian feedback loop. Activation of AhR alters circadian rhythmicity, primarily through inhibition of Clock/Bmal1-mediated regulation of Per1. AhR-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, exhibiting enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096235/role-of-cardiotrophin-1-in-the-regulation-of-metabolic-circadian-rhythms-and-adipose-core-clock-genes-in-mice-and-characterization-of-24-h-circulating-ct-1-profiles-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-obese-subjects
#19
Miguel López-Yoldi, Kimber L Stanhope, Marta Garaulet, X Guoxia Chen, Beatriz Marcos-Gómez, María Paz Carrasco-Benso, Eva M Santa Maria, Xavier Escoté, Vivien Lee, Marinelle V Nunez, Valentina Medici, Eduardo Martínez-Ansó, Neira Sáinz, Ana E Huerta, Laura M Laiglesia, Jesús Prieto, J Alfredo Martínez, Matilde Bustos, Peter J Havel, Maria J Moreno-Aliaga
Cardiotrophin (CT)-1 is a regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed whether CT-1 also acts to peripherally regulate metabolic rhythms and adipose tissue core clock genes in mice. Moreover, the circadian pattern of plasma CT-1 levels was evaluated in normal-weight and overweight subjects. The circadian rhythmicity of oxygen consumption rate (Vo2) was disrupted in aged-obese CT-1-deficient (CT-1(-/-)) mice (12 mo). Although circadian rhythms of Vo2 were conserved in young-lean CT-1(-/-) mice (2 mo), CT-1 deficiency caused a phase shift of the acrophase...
January 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094500/chronic-mild-stress-induced-alterations-of-local-protein-synthesis-a-role-for-cognitive-impairment
#20
Francesca Calabrese, Paola Brivio, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Mariusz Papp, Marco A Riva
Depression, a major cause of disability worldwide, is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous symptomatology. With this respect, cognitive deterioration represents a major problem that has a strong impact on a patient's function. Thus, within the context of a depressive phenotype, it is important to characterize the mechanisms that sustain cognitive dysfunctions and may represent an important target for pharmacological intervention. Here, using the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm of depression, we found that, independently from the anhedonic phenotype, CMS rats showed a deficit in the novel object recognition (NOR) test, which is associated with an inability to phosphorylate GluN2B subunit on Ser1303 and to activate the mTOR pathway...
February 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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