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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728189/spontaneous-globe-rupture-due-to-rapidly-evolving-endogenous-hypermucoid-klebsiella-pneumoniae-endophthalmitis
#1
Edward H Wood, Matthew A Powers, Darius M Moshfeghi
In this retrospective report, the authors describe a rare case of spontaneous globe rupture from Klebsiella pneumoniae endophthalmitis in a middle-aged man with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. There have been only four previously reported cases of spontaneous globe rupture from endophthalmitis. Out of the now five reported cases, all have been due to endogenous endophthalmitis, four have been due to gram-negative bacteria, and three have been due to K. pneumoniae. K. pneumoniae, especially the hypermucoid variant with a protective polysaccharide capsule, is an emerging pathogen with remarkable virulence...
July 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727758/longevity-effect-of-a-polysaccharide-from-chlorophytum-borivilianum-on-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Steve Thomas Pannakal, Sibylle Jäger, Albert Duranton, Amit Tewari, Subarna Saha, Aneesha Radhakrishnan, Nita Roy, Jean François Kuntz, Soraya Fermas, Darryl James, Jane Mellor, Namita Misra, Lionel Breton
The traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, provides insights and practical solutions towards a healthy life style. Rasayana is a branch of Ayurveda known for preserving and promoting health, enhancing the quality of life and delaying the aging process. In the traditional knowledge, the Rasayana herb, Chlorophytum borivilianum (C. borivilanum) is regarded as a general health promoting tonic that delays aging and increases lifespan, cognitive function and physical strength. Aging is a complex and multifactorial physiological phenomenon that manifests itself over a wide range of biological systems, tissues, and functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727064/ileal-starch-digestibility-of-different-cereal-grains-fed-to-growing-pigs
#3
P Rosenfelder-Kuon, E J P Strang, H K Spindler, M Eklund, R Mosenthin
The objective of the present study was to determine, in growing pigs, the ileal starch digestibility and ileal digestible starch content of 8 different genotypes of barley, rye, triticale, and wheat each. Therefore, 4 experiments were conducted with 34 ileally cannulated growing pigs (initial BW of 24 to 32 kg) in total. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 1 of the 8 genotypes of each cereal grain at an inclusion level of 95%. Cereal grains were ground through a 2-mm sieve and were the sole dietary source of starch...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726952/porphyra-polysaccharide-derived-carbon-dots-for-non-viral-co-delivery-of-different-gene-combinations-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-ectodermal-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Jiaxin Chen, Qiang Wang, Jie Zhou, Wenwen Deng, Qingtong Yu, Xia Cao, Jianping Wang, Fengxia Shao, Yang Li, Ping Ma, Myron Spector, Jiangnan Yu, Ximing Xu
In this study, multifunctional fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized using a one-pot hydrothermal carbonization reaction, with the naturally-occurring porphyra polysaccharide (PPS) serving as a single carbon source for the first time and ethylenediamine (Ed) acting as the surface passivation agent. The resulting CDs enjoyed a high quantum yield (56.3%), excitation-dependent fluorescence, small size (<10 nm), spherical shape, uniform distribution, positive surface charge, low cytotoxicity and excellent ability to condense macromolecular plasmid DNA...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726737/respiratory-tract-infections-and-the-role-of-biologically-active-polysaccharides-in-their-management-and-prevention
#5
REVIEW
Milos Jesenak, Ingrid Urbancikova, Peter Banovcin
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the healthcare system. They are usually the consequence of immature immunity in children and high exposure to various respiratory pathogens. Their rational management should aim at excluding other severe chronic diseases associated with increased morbidity (e...
July 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725872/antioxidant-and-lipoxygenase-activities-of-polyphenol-extracts-from-oat-brans-treated-with-polysaccharide-degrading-enzymes
#6
Nisita Ratnasari, Mallory Walters, Apollinaire Tsopmo
This study used polysaccharide degrading enzymes and protein precipitation to extract polyphenols from oats and to determine their bioactivity. Duplicate oat brans were treated with viscozyme (Vis), cellulase (Cel) or no enzyme (control, CTL) then, proteins were removed in one set (Vis1, Cel1, CTL1) and not in the other (Vis2, Cel2, CTL2). HPLC analyses showed that for cellulase treated brans, precipitation of proteins increased phenolic acids and avenanthramides by 14%. Meanwhile, a decreased of 67% and 20% respectively was found for viscozyme and control brans...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725264/identification-of-developmental-stage-and-anatomical-fraction-contributions-to-cell-wall-recalcitrance-in-switchgrass
#7
Jacob D Crowe, Nicholas Feringa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Brian Merritt, Cliff Foster, Dayna Dines, Rebecca G Ong, David B Hodge
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity within herbaceous biomass can present important challenges for processing feedstocks to cellulosic biofuels. Alterations to cell wall composition and organization during plant growth represent major contributions to heterogeneity within a single species or cultivar. To address this challenge, the focus of this study was to characterize the relationship between composition and properties of the plant cell wall and cell wall response to deconstruction by NaOH pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for anatomical fractions (stem internodes, leaf sheaths, and leaf blades) within switchgrass at various tissue maturities as assessed by differing internode...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725262/comparison-of-four-glycosyl-residue-composition-methods-for-effectiveness-in-detecting-sugars-from-cell-walls-of-dicot-and-grass-tissues
#8
Ajaya K Biswal, Li Tan, Melani A Atmodjo, Jaclyn DeMartini, Ivana Gelineo-Albersheim, Kimberly Hunt, Ian M Black, Sushree S Mohanty, David Ryno, Charles E Wyman, Debra Mohnen
BACKGROUND: The effective use of plant biomass for biofuel and bioproduct production requires a comprehensive glycosyl residue composition analysis to understand the different cell wall polysaccharides present in the different biomass sources. Here we compared four methods side-by-side for their ability to measure the neutral and acidic sugar composition of cell walls from herbaceous, grass, and woody model plants and bioenergy feedstocks. RESULTS: Arabidopsis, Populus, rice, and switchgrass leaf cell walls, as well as cell walls from Populus wood, rice stems, and switchgrass tillers, were analyzed by (1) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of alditol acetates combined with a total uronic acid assay; (2) carbodiimide reduction of uronic acids followed by GC-MS of alditol acetates; (3) GC-MS of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives; and (4) high-pressure, anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724910/investigating-glycemic-potential-of-rice-by-unraveling-compositional-variations-in-mature-grain-and-starch-mobilization-patterns-during-seed-germination
#9
Maria Krishna de Guzman, Sabiha Parween, Vito M Butardo, Crisline Mae Alhambra, Roslen Anacleto, Christiane Seiler, Anthony R Bird, Chung-Ping Chow, Nese Sreenivasulu
Rice lines with slower starch digestibility provide opportunities in mitigating the global rise in type II diabetes and related non-communicable diseases. However, screening for low glycemic index (GI) in rice breeding programs is not possible due to time and cost constraints. This study evaluated the feasibility of using in vitro cooked grain amylolysis, starch mobilization patterns during seed germination, and variation in starch structure and composition in the mature seed to differentiate patterns of starch digestibility...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724524/assignment-of-weight-based-antibody-units-for-four-additional-serotypes-to-a-human-anti-pneumococcal-standard-reference-serum-007sp
#10
D Goldblatt, A McKeen, P Burbidge, S McElhiney, L McLaughlin, A Johnson, M Rauh, P C Giardina
The pneumococcal ELISA reference standard serum, Lot 89SF, has been in use since 1990 and was replaced with a new reference standard serum, 007sp in 2013. This serum was generated under an FDA-approved clinical protocol, where 278 adult volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumovax II®, and a unit of blood was obtained twice within 120 days following immunization. Pooled serum was prepared from the plasma, filled at 6ml per vial and lyophilised. Five independent laboratories participated in bridging the serotype specific IgG assignments for 89SF to 007sp to establish equivalent reference values for 13 pneumococcal capsular serotypes (1,3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F) using the WHO reference ELISA...
July 19, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724349/16s-rrna-gene-based-association-study-identified-microbial-taxa-associated-with-pork-intramuscular-fat-content-in-feces-and-cecum-lumen
#11
Shaoming Fang, Xingwei Xiong, Ying Su, Lusheng Huang, Congying Chen
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fat (IMF) that deposits among muscle fibers or within muscle cells is an important meat quality trait in pigs. Previous studies observed the effects of dietary nutrients and additives on improving the pork IMF. Gut microbiome plays an important role in host metabolism and energy harvest. Whether gut microbiota exerts effect on IMF remains unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the microbial community structure of 500 samples from porcine cecum and feces using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
July 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723944/application-of-mass-spectrometry-to-elucidate-the-pathophysiology-of-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-infection-in-rabbits
#12
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Maria Del Carmen Piqueras, Ana Pantin, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya, Roman Peschke, Anja Joachim, Carolyn Cray
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian species which can induce subclinical to serious disease in mammals including rabbits, a definitive natural host. The pathophysiology of infection has not been comprehensively elucidated. In this exploratory study, we utilized two mass spectrometry approaches: first, the analysis of the humoral response by profiling the microsporidian antigens as revealed by Western blot screening, and second, implementing the iTRAQ®-labeling protocol to focus on the changes within the host proteome during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722671/can-polysaccharide-k-improve-therapeutic-efficacy-and-safety-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#13
Yan Ma, Xiaofen Wu, Jingwen Yu, Jinyan Zhu, Xia Pen, Xianjun Meng
OBJECTIVE: To assess the comparative efficacy and safety of polysaccharide K (PSK), with or without chemotherapy, for patients with gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) through a systematic review and network meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a network meta-analysis to identify evidence from randomized controlled trials. We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for publications up to May 2017. The prespecified primary efficacy outcomes were 1-7 year overall survival (OS), while the secondary efficacy outcomes were 1-7 year disease-free survival (DFS); we performed subgroup analyses and meta-regressions according to the cancer type (colorectal, esophagus and gastric cancer) and treatment arms (with or without chemotherapy)...
July 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722228/combined-effect-of-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-nutritional-evaluation-of-feed-ingredients-and-non-starch-polysaccharide-carbohydrase-complex-on-performance-of-broiler-chickens
#14
Roberto Montanhini Neto, Eric N'Guetta, Cecile Gady, Maria Francesch, Aurélie Preynat
This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for nutritional evaluation of feed ingredients and the addition of non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase complex (NSP enzymes) on the growth performance of broilers fed diets produced with low-quality wheat and soybean meal. A 2 × 2 trial design was performed, with seven replicates of 40 male Ross 308 broilers per treatment, evaluating the effect of the addition of NSP enzymes and the ingredients' nutritional matrix based on table values or NIRS values...
July 19, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721855/cell-surface-physiology-and-outer-cell-envelope-impermeability-for-hydrophobic-substances-in-burkholderia-multivorans
#15
Sallie A Ruskoski, Franklin R Champlin
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between cell surface physiology and outer cellular envelope permeability for hydrophobic substances in mucoid and non-mucoid B. multivorans strains, as well as in two capsule-deficient derivatives of a mucoid parental strain. METHODOLOGY: Cell surface hydrophobicity properties were determined using the hydrocarbon adherence method, while outer cell envelope accessibility and permeability for non-polar compounds were measured using hydrophobic antimicrobial agent susceptibility and fluorescent probe assays...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721502/mucin-cross-feeding-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii
#16
Vera Bunesova, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Mucus production is initiated before birth and provides mucin glycans to the infant gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are the major bacterial group in the feces of vaginally delivered and breast milk-fed infants. Among the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium bifidum is able to degrade mucin and to release monosaccharides which can be used by other gut microbes colonizing the infant gut. Eubacterium hallii is an early occurring commensal that produces butyrate and propionate from fermentation metabolites but that cannot degrade complex oligo- and polysaccharides...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721392/the-response-to-typhi-vi-vaccination-is-compromised-in-individuals-with-primary-immunodeficiency
#17
Jeevani Kumarage, Suranjith L Seneviratne, Vijitha Senaratne, Amitha Fernando, Kirthi Gunasekera, Bandu Gunasena, Padmalal Gurugama, Sudath Peiris, Antony R Parker, Stephen Harding, Nilhan Rajiva de Silva
Measurement of an individuals ability to respond to polysaccharide antigens is a crucial test to determine adaptive immunity. Currently the response to Pneumovax(®) is utilized but with the success of Prevnar(®), measurement of the response to Pneumovax may be challenging. The aim of the study was to assess the response to Typhi Vi vaccination in both children and adult control groups and patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). In the control groups, >95% of the individuals had pre Typhi Vi vaccination concentrations <100 U/mL and there was significant increase in concentration post Typhi Vi vaccination (p<0...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720961/valorizing-guava-psidium-guajava-l-seeds-through-germination-induced-carbohydrate-changes
#18
Cheng Xian Ling, Ying Ping Chang
Guava seeds are produced as a waste product by the guava processing industry. Their high carbohydrate contents may suit the carbohydrate needs of the feed sector but their high dietary fiber content limits their feed value. The feed values of fruit seeds can be improved through germination, which involves the mobilization of nutrients through seed enzymes and alters the seed carbohydrate composition. The changes of selected carbohydrates in guava (Psidium guajava L.) seeds brought by germination to those in red bean (Vigna angularis) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719833/in-silico-search-of-inhibitors-of-streptococcus-mutans-for-the-control-of-dental-plaque
#19
Rodrigo Ochoa, María Cecilia Martínez-Pabón, María Adelaida Arismendi-Echeverri, Willer Leandro Rendón-Osorio, Carlos Enrique Muskus-López
Biofilm is an extremely complex microbial community arranged in a matrix of polysaccharides and attached to a substrate. Its development is crucial in the pathophysiology of oral infections like dental caries, as well as in periodontal, pulp, and periapical diseases. Streptococcus mutans is one of the most effective microorganisms in lactic acid production of the dental biofilm. Identifying essential Streptococcus mutans proteins using bioinformatics methods helps to search for alternative therapies. To this end, the bacterial genomes of several Streptococcus mutans strains and representative strains of other cariogenic and non-cariogenic bacteria were analysed by identifying pathogenicity islands and alignments with other bacteria, and by detecting the exclusive genes of cariogenic species in comparison to the non-pathogenic ones...
July 1, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718883/gelation-kinetics-and-characterization-of-enzymatically-enhanced-fish-scales-gelatin-pectin-coacervate
#20
Tao Huang, Zong-Cai Tu, Xinchen Shangguan, Hui Wang, Hainan-Zhang, Lu Zhang, Xiaomei Sha
BACKGROUND: Protein - polysaccharide complex coacervations have been considered extensively for the development of functional foods. The main problem of the complex coacervates is high unstable under different conditions and that cross-linking is necessary to stabilize them. In this study, the effects of pectin at different concentrations on the gel and structural properties of fish scales gelatin (FSG) - high methoxyl citrus pectin (HMP) coacervate enhanced by microbial-transglutanminase (MTGase) were studied...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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