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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169139/analysis-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-eps-and-ciprofloxacin-degrading-microbial-community-in-the-combined-fe-c-micro-electrolysis-ubaf-process-for-the-elimination-of-high-level-ciprofloxacin
#1
Longlong Zhang, Qinyan Yue, Kunlun Yang, Pin Zhao, Baoyu Gao
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and ciprofloxacin-degrading microbial community in the combined Fe-C micro-electrolysis and up-flow biological aerated filter (UBAF) process for the treatment of high-level ciprofloxacin (CIP) were analyzed. The research demonstrated a great potential of Fe-C micro-electrolysis-UBAF for the elimination of high-level CIP. Above 90% of CIP removal was achieved through the combined process at 100 mg L(-1) of CIP loading. In UBAF, the pollutants were mainly removed at 0-70 cm heights...
November 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169118/characterization-of-a-microbial-polysaccharide-based-bioflocculant-and-its-anti-inflammatory-and-pro-coagulant-activity
#2
Chunying Zhong, Gang Cao, Kuan Rong, Zhengwu Xia, Ting Peng, Honggao Chen, Jiangang Zhou
We describe a novel bioflocculant, MBF-15, which is an exopolysaccharide extracted from the alkaliphilic bacterium Paenibacillus jamilae. The biophysical characteristics of MBF-15 were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. MBF-15 was also evaluated for its biocompatibility by examining its inflammatory, coagulant, and hemostatic properties in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with MBF-15 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, production of nitric oxide, and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6...
November 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168868/structural-elucidation-and-immunostimulatory-activity-of-a-new-polysaccharide-from-cordyceps-militaris
#3
Sixue Bi, Yongshuai Jing, Qinqin Zhou, Xianjing Hu, Jianhua Zhu, Zhongyi Guo, Liyan Song, Rongmin Yu
A new polysaccharide (CMPB90-1) was isolated from cultured Cordyceps militaris by alkaline extraction. The chemical structure of CMPB90-1 was determined by analysis of physicochemical and spectral data. The backbone of CMPB90-1 is composed of (1→6)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl and (1→3)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl residues, with branching at O-6, which consists of (1→4)-linked β-d-mannopyranosyl and (1→6)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl residues, respectively. β-d-Galactopyranosyl residues is the terminal unit...
November 23, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168863/structure-characterization-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-from-hericium-erinaceus-fruiting-bodies-and-its-immunomodulatory-activities
#4
Fangfang Wu, Chunhui Zhou, Dandan Zhou, Shiyi Ou, Xiaoai Zhang, Huihua Huang
A novel polysaccharide fraction (HEP-S) was extracted and isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus. Structural characterization revealed that HEP-S had an average molecular weight of 1.83 × 10(4) Da and consisted of rhamnose, fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose at a molar ratio of 1.47 : 0.93 : 1.36 : 8.68 : 4.08. Periodate oxidation-Smith degradation and NMR analysis showed that the main linkage types of HEP-S were composed of (1→)-α-d-Glc, (1→3,4)-α-d-Glc, (1→6)-α-d-Gal, (1→3,4)-β-d-Man, (1→3,6)-α-Rha and (1→2)-β-l-Fuc...
November 23, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168567/preparation-and-mechanism-analysis-of-an-environment-friendly-maize-seed-coating-agent
#5
Defang Zeng, Zhao Fan, Xu Tian, Wenjin Wang, Mingchun Zhou, Haochuan Li
BACKGROUND: Traditional seed coating agents often contain toxic ingredients, which contaminate environment and threaten human health. This paper expounds a method of preparing a novel environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize and researches its mechanism of action. The natural polysaccharide polymer, which is the main active ingredient of this environment-friendly seed coating agent, has the characteristics of innocuity and harmlessness, and it can replace the toxic ingredients used in the traditional seed coating agents...
November 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167659/balancing-herbal-medicine-and-functional-food-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-cardiometabolic-diseases-through-modulating-gut-microbiota
#6
REVIEW
Ming Lyu, Yue-Fei Wang, Guan-Wei Fan, Xiao-Ying Wang, Shuang-Yong Xu, Yan Zhu
It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167423/reassessment-of-chitosanase-substrate-specificities-and-classification
#7
Tobias Weikert, Anna Niehues, Stefan Cord-Landwehr, Margareta J Hellmann, Bruno M Moerschbacher
Chitosanases can be used to produce partially acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (paCOS) for different applications, provided they are thoroughly characterized. However, recent studies indicate that the established classification system for chitosanases is too simplistic. Here, we apply a highly sensitive method for quantitatively sequencing paCOS to reassess the substrate specificities of the best-characterized class I-III chitosanases. The enzymes' abilities to cleave bonds at GlcNAc residues positioned at subsite (-1) or (+1), on which the classification system is based, vary especially when the substrates have different fractions of acetylation (F A )...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166776/the-polysaccharide-extracts-from-the-fungi-coprinus-comatus-and-coprinellus-truncorum-do-exhibit-ache-inhibitory-activity
#8
Boris Pejin, Kristina Tešanović, Dragica Jakovljević, Sonja Kaišarević, Filip Šibul, Milena Rašeta, Maja Karaman
The polysaccharide (PSH) extracts from the edible mushroom species Coprinus comatus and Coprinellus truncorum were screened in liquid for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChE) activity. Both extracts were found to display inhibition of the aforementioned enzyme reaching similar IC50 values of 0.62 ± 0.07 and 0.61 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. According to the means of FTIR spectroscopy, these PSH extracts mostly contained β-glucans. However, the presence of some proteins and polyphenolics as minor ingredients were also detected...
November 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166708/-effects-of-astragalus-polysaccharide-on-cardiac-dysfunction-in-rabbits-with-severe-scald-injury
#9
L Zhong, J H Zhan, J H Luo, X Cheng
Objective: To investigate the effects of astragalus polysaccharide (AP) on cardiac dysfunction in rabbits with severe scald injury. Methods: Sixty-four New Zealand white rabbits were divided into pure scald group and AP group according to the random number table, with 32 rabbits in each group. Rabbits in the two groups were all inflicted with 30% total body surface area full-thickness scald on the back. Immediately after injury, rabbits in two groups were intraperitoneally injected with lactated Ringer's solution once for antishock...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166575/chemical-characterization-and-pharmacological-assessment-of-cashew-gum-extract-anacardium-occidentale-l-polysaccharide-free
#10
Daiany Priscilla Bueno da Silva, Iziara Ferreira Florentino, Lorrane Kelle da Silva Moreira, Adriane Ferreira Brito, Verônica Vale Carvalho, Géssica Adriana Vasconcelos, Boniek Gontijo Vaz, Marcus Antônio Pereira-Junior, Kátia Flávia Fernandes, Elson Alves Costa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) is used in Brazilian traditional medicine in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, asthma, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disturbs. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was aimed the chemical characterization and the investigation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of cashew gum aqueous extract without the presence of polysaccharides in its composition (CGE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CGE was obtained after precipitation and removal of polysaccharides using acetone...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166531/a-polysaccharide-fraction-extracted-from-pleurotus-ostreatus-mycelial-biomass-inhibit-sarcoma-180-tumor
#11
Elisabeth Wisbeck, Jean M Facchini, Endi P Alves, Marcia L L Silveira, Regina M M Gern, Jorge L Ninow, Sandra A Furlan
Fungi of Pleurotus genus have attracted a great interest due to their medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumor. These properties are attributed mainly to polysaccharides synthesized by Pleurotus. This work aimed to study the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus in submerged culture, evaluating the influence of the initial concentration of substrate (20 and 40 g/L of glucose) and the pH (4 and 6) on kinetic parameters of production of biomass. The effectiveness of different doses (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) of a mycelium polysaccharide fraction extracted from P...
2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165235/synthesis-of-n-acetyl-d-quinovosamine-in-rhizobium-etli-ce3-is-completed-after-its-4-keto-precursor-is-linked-to-a-carrier-lipid
#12
Tiezheng Li, K Dale Noel
Bacterial O-antigens are synthesized on lipid carriers before being transferred to lipopolysaccharide core structures. Rhizobium etli CE3 lipopolysaccharide is a model for understanding O-antigen biological function. CE3 O-antigen structure and genetics are known. However, proposed enzymology for CE3 O-antigen synthesis has been examined very little in vitro, and even the sugar added to begin the synthesis is uncertain. A model based on mutagenesis studies predicts that 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (QuiNAc) is the first O-antigen sugar and that genes wreV, wreQ and wreU direct QuiNAc synthesis and O-antigen initiation...
November 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165077/physicochemical-and-toxic-properties-of-novel-genipin-drug-delivery-systems-prepared-by-mechanochemistry
#13
Wenhao Xu, Murong Wen, Weike Su, Alexander V Dushkin, Lubov P Suntsova, Irina D Markova, Olga Yu Selyutina, Nikolay E Polyakov
Complexes of Genipin and differents water-soluble adjuvant polysaccharides such as arabinogalactane, hydroxyethyl starch, fibergum,and oligosaccharides β-CD and HP-β-CD,were synthesized as drug delivery system using mechanochemical technology. We have investigated physicochemical properties, stability, and hepatotoxicity of the synthesized complexes in solid state and aqueous solution. The formation of the complexes was evidenced by different physical and spectroscopy assays, and the stability constants of our synthesized Genipin-based complexes were also calculated...
November 20, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164337/changes-in-the-midgut-cells-in-the-european-cave-spider-meta-menardi-during-starvation-in-spring-and-autumn
#14
Saška Lipovšek, Gerd Leitinger, Tone Novak, Franc Janžekovič, Szymon Gorgoń, Karolina Kamińska, Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska
During the growth period, in surface habitats, spiders catch enough prey to feed normally. In contrast, in the cave entrance zone, prey may be relatively scarce. Meta menardi inhabits this cave section, resulting in temporary starvation. We studied structural changes in the midgut epithelial cells of M. menardi during a short-term and a medium-term controlled starvation to mimic the occasional starvation in caves, during spring and autumn. Digestive cells, secretory cells and adipocytes were examined before the experimental starvation, in the middle and at the end of starvation...
November 22, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164106/complementary-sample-preparation-strategies-for-analysis-of-cereal-%C3%AE-glucan-oxidation-products-by-uplc-ms-ms
#15
Samy Boulos, Laura Nyström
The oxidation of cereal (1→3,1→4)-β-D-glucan can influence the health promoting and technological properties of this linear, soluble homopolysaccharide by introduction of new functional groups or chain scission. Apart from deliberate oxidative modifications, oxidation of β-glucan can already occur during processing and storage, which is mediated by hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)) formed by the Fenton reaction. We present four complementary sample preparation strategies to investigate oat and barley β-glucan oxidation products by hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), employing selective enzymatic digestion, graphitized carbon solid phase extraction (SPE), and functional group labeling techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163625/genome-wide-association-study-reveals-novel-genes-associated-with-culm-cellulose-content-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#16
Simerjeet Kaur, Xu Zhang, Amita Mohan, Haixiao Dong, Prashant Vikram, Sukhwinder Singh, Zhiwu Zhang, Kulvinder S Gill, Kanwarpal S Dhugga, Jaswinder Singh
Plant cell wall formation is a complex, coordinated and developmentally regulated process. Cellulose is the most dominant constituent of plant cell walls. Because of its paracrystalline structure, cellulose is the main determinant of mechanical strength of plant tissues. As the most abundant polysaccharide on earth, it is also the focus of cellulosic biofuel industry. To reduce culm lodging in wheat and for improved ethanol production, delineation of the variation for stem cellulose content could prove useful...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163452/the-opportunistic-pathogen-vibrio-vulnificus-produces-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-a-spatially-distinct-manner-related-to-capsular-polysaccharide
#17
Cheri M Hampton, Ricardo C Guerrero-Ferreira, Rachel E Storms, Jeannette V Taylor, Hong Yi, Paul A Gulig, Elizabeth R Wright
Vibrio vulnificus, a bacterial species that inhabits brackish waters, is an opportunistic pathogen of humans. V. vulnificus infections can cause acute gastroenteritis, invasive septicemia, tissue necrosis, and potentially death. Virulence factors associated with V. vulnificus include the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), lipopolysaccharide, flagellum, pili, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The aims of this study were to characterize the morphology of V. vulnificus cells and the formation and arrangement of OMVs using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163426/sugar-metabolism-of-the-first-thermophilic-planctomycete-thermogutta-terrifontis-comparative-genomic-and-transcriptomic-approaches
#18
Alexander G Elcheninov, Peter Menzel, Soley R Gudbergsdottir, Alexei I Slesarev, Vitaly V Kadnikov, Anders Krogh, Elizaveta A Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Xu Peng, Ilya V Kublanov
Xanthan gum, a complex polysaccharide comprising glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid residues, is involved in numerous biotechnological applications in cosmetics, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, food and petroleum industries. Additionally, its oligosaccharides were shown to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and few other properties. Yet, despite its extensive usage, little is known about xanthan gum degradation pathways and mechanisms. Thermogutta terrifontis, isolated from a sample of microbial mat developed in a terrestrial hot spring of Kunashir island (Far-East of Russia), was described as the first thermophilic representative of the Planctomycetes phylum...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163419/reconstruction-of-diverse-verrucomicrobial-genomes-from-metagenome-datasets-of-freshwater-reservoirs
#19
Pedro J Cabello-Yeves, Rohit Ghai, Maliheh Mehrshad, Antonio Picazo, Antonio Camacho, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera
The phylum Verrucomicrobia contains freshwater representatives which remain poorly studied at the genomic, taxonomic, and ecological levels. In this work we present eighteen new reconstructed verrucomicrobial genomes from two freshwater reservoirs located close to each other (Tous and Amadorio, Spain). These metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) display a remarkable taxonomic diversity inside the phylum and comprise wide ranges of estimated genome sizes (from 1.8 to 6 Mb). Among all Verrucomicrobia studied we found some of the smallest genomes of the Spartobacteria and Opitutae classes described so far...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162826/carrageenan-catabolism-is-encoded-by-a-complex-regulon-in-marine-heterotrophic-bacteria
#20
Elizabeth Ficko-Blean, Aurélie Préchoux, François Thomas, Tatiana Rochat, Robert Larocque, Yongtao Zhu, Mark Stam, Sabine Génicot, Murielle Jam, Alexandra Calteau, Benjamin Viart, David Ropartz, David Pérez-Pascual, Gaëlle Correc, Maria Matard-Mann, Keith A Stubbs, Hélène Rogniaux, Alexandra Jeudy, Tristan Barbeyron, Claudine Médigue, Mirjam Czjzek, David Vallenet, Mark J McBride, Eric Duchaud, Gurvan Michel
Macroalgae contribute substantially to primary production in coastal ecosystems. Their biomass, mainly consisting of polysaccharides, is cycled into the environment by marine heterotrophic bacteria using largely uncharacterized mechanisms. Here we describe the complete catabolic pathway for carrageenans, major cell wall polysaccharides of red macroalgae, in the marine heterotrophic bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans. Carrageenan catabolism relies on a multifaceted carrageenan-induced regulon, including a non-canonical polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) and genes distal to the PUL, including a susCD-like pair...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
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