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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645943/the-structure-of-the-tetanus-toxin-reveals-ph-mediated-domain-dynamics
#1
Geoffrey Masuyer, Julian Conrad, Pål Stenmark
The tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is a highly potent toxin produced by Clostridium tetani that inhibits neurotransmission of inhibitory interneurons, causing spastic paralysis in the tetanus disease. TeNT differs from the other clostridial neurotoxins by its unique ability to target the central nervous system by retrograde axonal transport. The crystal structure of the tetanus toxin reveals a "closed" domain arrangement stabilised by two disulphide bridges, and the molecular details of the toxin's interaction with its polysaccharide receptor...
June 23, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645884/investigation-of-the-effects-of-lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-against-cadmium-induced-damage-in-testis
#2
Maria Vittoria Varoni, Sergio Domenico Gadau, Valeria Pasciu, Elena Baralla, Elisa Serra, Domenico Palomba, Maria Piera Demontis
This study describes the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on testicular damage induced by cadmium (Cd). Adult male rats were i.p. injected with CdCl2 (4mg/Kg, once) with or without LBP pretreatment (300mg/Kg orally, once a day, for 30days). Testis weight, morphological/histological structure and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Several adverse effects were observed after CdCl2 injection, with a significant decrease in body/testis weight ratio (P<0.05), gross morphological changes with hyperemia of the parenchyma, increased volume and alteration in the structure of the seminiferous tubules...
June 20, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645861/protective-effect-of-lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-on-dextromethorphan-induced-mood-impairment-and-neurogenesis-suppression
#3
Kevin Kai-Ting Po, Joseph Wai-Hin Leung, Jackie Ngai-Man Chan, Timothy Kai-Hang Fung, Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vidaña, Emily Lok-Lam Sin, Kwok-Fai So, Benson Wui-Man Lau, Andrew Man-Hong Siu
Dextromethorphan (DXM) is one of the common drugs abused by adolescents. It is the active ingredient found in cough medicine which is used for suppressing cough. High dosage of DXM can induce euphoria, dissociative effects and even hallucinations. Chronic use of DXM may also lead to depressive-related symptoms. Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. A recent study has shown the potential beneficial effect of Lycium barbarum to reduce depression-like behavior...
June 20, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645765/chitosan-surface-modified-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-carbon-nanotube-composite-fibers-with-enhanced-mechanical-cell-proliferation-and-antibacterial-properties
#4
Siyu Wang, Yumei Li, Rui Zhao, Toufeng Jin, Li Zhang, Xiang Li
The surface modification is one of the most effective methods to improve the bioactivity and cell affinity effect of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers. In the present study, chitosan (CS), a cationic polysaccharide, was used to modify the surface of electrospun PCL fibers. To obtain strong interaction between CS and PCL fibers, negatively charged PCL fibers were prepared by the incorporation of acid-treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the fibers. In this way, the positively charged chitosan could be immobilized onto the surface of PCL fibers tightly by the electrostatic attraction...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645003/structure-and-gene-cluster-of-the-o-antigen-of-enterobacter-cloacae-c4115
#5
Andrei V Perepelov, Guangnan Xu, Andrei V Filatov, Xinjie Zhang, Alexander S Shashkov, Min Wang, Yuriy A Knirel
An O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Enterobacter cloacae C4115 and studied by sugar analysis along with 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the linear pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1 → 2)-α-l-Rhap-(1 → 2)-α-l-Rhap-(1 → 2)-α-d-Galp-(1 → 3)-α-d-FucpNAc-(1→ The O-antigen gene cluster of E. cloacae C4115 was sequenced. The gene functions were tentatively assigned by comparison with sequences in the available databases and found to be in consistence with the O-polysaccharide structure...
June 3, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644912/biofilm-formation-and-disinfectant-resistance-of-salmonella-spp-in-mono-and-dual-species-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Xinyi Pang, Yishan Yang, Hyun-Gyun Yuk
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the biofilm formation and disinfectant resistance of Salmonella cells in mono- and dual-species biofilms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and to investigate the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in protection of biofilms against disinfection treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: The populations of Salmonella in mono- or dual-species biofilms with P. aeruginosa on stainless steel (SS) coupons were determined before and after exposure to commercial disinfectant, 50 μg ml(-1) chlorine or 200 μg ml(-1) Ecolab(®) Whisper(™) V (a blend of four effective quaternary ammonium compounds)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644849/rapid-development-of-cyanobacterial-crust-in-the-field-for-combating-desertification
#7
Chan-Ho Park, Xin Rong Li, Yang Zhao, Rong Liang Jia, Jae-Seoun Hur
Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643951/magnetic-graphene-oxide-modified-by-imidazole-based-ionic-liquids-for-the-magnetic-based-solid-phase-extraction-of-polysaccharides-from-brown-alga
#8
Xiaoqin Wang, Guizhen Li, Kyung Ho Row
Magnetic graphene oxide was modified by four imidazole-based ionic liquids to synthesize materials for the extraction of polysaccharides by magnetic solid-phase extraction. Fucoidan and laminarin were chosen as the representative polysaccharides owing to their excellent pharmaceutical value and availability. FTIR spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the synthesized materials. Single-factor experiments showed that the extraction efficiency of polysaccharides was affected by the amount of ionic liquids for modification, solid-liquid ratio of brown alga and ethanol, the stirring time of brown alga and ionic liquid modified magnetic graphene oxide materials, and amount of 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole chloride modified magnetic graphene oxide materials added to the brown alga sample solution...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643827/anti-oxidant-and-immune-modulatory-properties-of-sulfated-alginate-derivatives-on-human-chondrocytes-and-macrophages
#9
Anne Kerschenmeyer, Øystein Arlov, Vera Malheiro, Matthias Steinwachs, Markus Rottmar, Katharina Maniura-Weber, Gemma Palazzolo, Marcy Zenobi-Wong
Degeneration of articular cartilage represents one of the most common causes of pain and disability in our aging society. Current treatments only address the symptoms of joint disease, but not their underlying causes which include oxidative stress and inflammation in cartilage and surrounding tissues. Sulfated biopolymers that mimic aspects of the native extracellular environment of cartilage are recently gaining interest as a means to slow the inflammatory events responsible for tissue degeneration. Here we show that the natural polysaccharide alginate and particularly its sulfated derivatives have potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-immunogenic properties in vitro...
June 23, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643226/capsular-polysaccharides-of-lactobacillus-spp-theoretical-and-practical-aspects-of-simple-visualization-methods
#10
Magdalena Oleksy, Elżbieta Klewicka
Lactobacillus strains can synthesize capsular polysaccharides (CPS), which are important substances in the dairy industry-they exhibit many important technological as well as health-promoting properties. Technological advancements have made it possible to detect bacterial capsules using costly and labor-intensive methods, such as serological reactions, molecular genetic techniques, and electron microscopy. Light microscopy, which is the method of interest in this paper, is one of the most widely accessible and cheapest techniques...
June 22, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642744/unexpected-dominance-of-elusive-acidobacteria-in-early-industrial-soft-coal-slags
#11
Carl-Eric Wegner, Werner Liesack
Acid mine drainage (AMD) and mine tailing environments are well-characterized ecosystems known to be dominated by organisms involved in iron- and sulfur-cycling. Here we examined the microbiology of industrial soft coal slags that originate from alum leaching, an ecosystem distantly related to AMD environments. Our study involved geochemical analyses, bacterial community profiling, and shotgun metagenomics. The slags still contained high amounts of alum constituents (aluminum, sulfur), which mediated direct and indirect effects on bacterial community structure...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642736/identification-of-an-efflux-transporter-lmrb-regulating-stress-response-and-extracellular-polysaccharide-synthesis-in-streptococcus-mutans
#12
Jia Liu, Lihong Guo, Jianwei Liu, Jianying Zhang, Huihui Zeng, Yang Ning, Xi Wei
Efflux transporters have been implicated in regulating bacterial virulence properties such as resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation and colonization. The pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of human dental caries, relies on the bacterium's ability to form biofilms on tooth surface. However, the studies on efflux transporters in S. mutans are scare and the function of these transporters remained to be clarified. In this study, we identified an efflux transporter (LmrB) in S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642597/a-single-amino-acid-polymorphism-in-the-glycosyltransferase-cpsk-defines-four-streptococcus-suis-serotypes
#13
David Roy, Taryn B T Athey, Jean-Philippe Auger, Guillaume Goyette-Desjardins, Marie-Rose Van Calsteren, Daisuke Takamatsu, Masatoshi Okura, Sarah Teatero, Martín Alcorlo, Juan A Hermoso, Mariela Segura, Marcelo Gottschalk, Nahuel Fittipaldi
The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is the major virulence factor of the emerging zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. CPS differences are also the basis for serological differentiation of the species into 29 serotypes. Serotypes 2 and 1/2, which possess identical gene content in their cps loci, express CPSs that differ only by substitution of galactose (Gal) by N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in the CPS side chain. The same sugar substitution differentiates the CPS of serotypes 14 and 1, whose cps loci are also identical in gene content...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642114/%C3%AE-d-glucan-from-antrodia-camphorata-ameliorates-lps-induced-inflammation-and-ros-production-in-human-hepatocytes
#14
Qiuli Chen, Huiling Tang, Zhengqi Zha, Hongping Yin, Ying Wang, Yufeng Wang, Haitao Li, Long Yue
A water soluble Antrodia Camphorata polysaccharide was composed of β-D-glucan, coded as ACP1. ACP1 was derived from cultured Antrodia Camphorata powder, which was extracted, separated and purified by DEAE-52 column and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The molecular weight of ACP1 was 1.72×10(4)Da, and ACP1 consisted of glucose and galactose in the mole ratio of 2.21:1. Structural identification by FTIR, GC-MS and NMR, inferred that ACP1 consisted of →1,3)-linked-β-D-Glcp-(6→, →3)-linked-β-D-Glcp-(1→, and →6)-linked-α-D-Galp-(1→, with terminal β-D-Glcp and β-D-Galp...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641930/the-role-of-the-fungal-cell-wall-in-the-infection-of-plants
#15
REVIEW
Ivey Geoghegan, Gero Steinberg, Sarah Gurr
The polysaccharide-rich wall, which envelopes the fungal cell, is pivotal to the maintenance of cellular integrity and for the protection of the cell from external aggressors - such as environmental fluxes and during host infection. This review considers the commonalities in the composition of the wall across the fungal kingdom, addresses how little is known about the assembly of the polysaccharide matrix, and considers changes in the wall of plant-pathogenic fungi during on and in planta growth, following the elucidation of infection structures requiring cell wall alterations...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641671/occurrence-of-aerobic-and-anaerobic-bacteria-in-the-consumer-end-of-a-water-distribution-system
#16
Süleyman Hoca, Miray Üstüntürk-Onan, Esra Ilhan-Sungur
  In this study, mixed species biofilm formation including sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on polypropylene surface and bacteriology of network water were investigated in a model water distribution system during a nine-month period. Water and biofilm samples were analyzed for the enumeration of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB), anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria (ANHB) and SRB. The number of live/dead bacteria was also analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy. In addition, extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) extraction, carbohydrate analysis and scanning electron microscope observation were performed...
July 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641628/-mechanisms-of-astragalus-polysaccharids-synergized-with-doxorubicin-against-drug-resistance-in-hl-60-a-cells
#17
Hong-Wei Peng, Xiao-Jie Zhang, Fei Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the synergistic anti-tumor mechanism of astragalus polysaccharids(APS) combined with doxorubicin in HL-60/A cells. METHODS: The phenotype of HL-60/A was identified by using RT-PCR, Wester blot and CCK-8, the antitumor effect of astragalus polysaccharids combined with doxorubicin on HL-60/A cells was detected by CCK-8, the apoptosis of HL-60/A after treating with different drugs was detected by Annexin-V, the caspase casade activation was detected by Wester blot, the effect of astragalus polysaccharids on expression and function of multidrug resistance protein (MRP) was detected by using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641577/a-case-report-of-septic-shock-syndrome-caused-by-s-pneumoniae-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-despite-of-vaccination
#18
Josef Singer, Christoph Testori, Peter Schellongowski, Ammon Handisurya, Catharina Müller, Eva-Maria Reitter, Wolfgang Graninger, Paul Knöbl, Thomas Staudinger, Stefan Winkler, Florian Thalhammer
BACKGROUND AND CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of septic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a patient who had undergone splenectomy due to an autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is characterized as a dysfunction of immunoregulation. Although the patient was vaccinated with a conjugated polysaccharide vaccine after the splenectomy, he was still susceptible to S. pneumoniae infection, because the isolated serovar (24F), a serovar long thought to be apathogenic, is not covered by any vaccine currently approved, neither a conjugated nor an unconjugated polysaccharide one...
June 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640204/fucoidan-does-not-exert-anti-tumorigenic-effects-on-uveal-melanoma-cell-lines
#19
Michaela Dithmer, Anna-Maria Kirsch, Elisabeth Richert, Sabine Fuchs, Fanlu Wang, Harald Schmidt, Sarah E Coupland, Johann Roider, Alexa Klettner
BACKGROUND: The polysaccharide fucoidan is widely investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Here, we tested the effect of fucoidan on uveal melanoma cell lines. METHODS: The effect of 100 µM fucoidan was investigated on five cell lines (92.1, Mel270 OMM1, OMM2.3, OMM2.5) and of 1 µg/mL-1 mg/mL fucoidan in two cell lines (OMM1, OMM2.3). Cell proliferation and viability were investigated with a WST-1 assay, migration in a wound healing (scratch) assay. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) was measured in ELISA...
June 22, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639600/effects-of-polysaccharide-fractions-isolated-from-caltha-palustris-l-on-the-activity-of-phagocytic-cells-humoral-immune-response-in-mice-with-collagen-induced-arthritis-a-comparison-with-methotrexate
#20
Agnieszka Suszko, Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The extracts from Caltha palustris L. have been shown to be beneficial for treating arthritis and rheumatism. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharide fractions B and C of C. palustris extracts were studied, using the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse arthritis experimental model. The aim was to determine the activity of blood phagocytic cells and humoral immune response in CIA mice treated with polysaccharide fractions from C. palustris...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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