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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441734/chloroviruses-have-a-sweet-tooth
#1
REVIEW
James L Van Etten, Irina Agarkova, David D Dunigan, Michela Tonetti, Christina De Castro, Garry A Duncan
Chloroviruses are large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that infect certain isolates of chlorella-like green algae. They contain up to approximately 400 protein-encoding genes and 16 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. This review summarizes the unexpected finding that many of the chlorovirus genes encode proteins involved in manipulating carbohydrates. These include enzymes involved in making extracellular polysaccharides, such as hyaluronan and chitin, enzymes that make nucleotide sugars, such as GDP-L-fucose and GDP-D-rhamnose and enzymes involved in the synthesis of glycans attached to the virus major capsid proteins...
April 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441606/growth-inhibition-and-antibiofilm-potential-of-ag-nanoparticles-coated-with-lectin-an-arthropod-immune-molecule
#2
Sangily Jayanthi, Sathappan Shanthi, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Narayanan Gopi, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
Lectins from the haemolymph of arthropods, including crustaceans, are molecules potentially involved in the immune recognition and phagocytosis. Here, lectin was purified from the haemolymph of blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus, using mannose-coupled sepharose CL-4B affinity column chromatography. In SDS-PAGE analysis, lectin showed a molecular mass of approximately 155kDa. The synthesis of lectin-coated silver nanoparticles (lectin-coated AgNPs) was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, SAED, and EDX analysis...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440420/wound-healing-effect-of-an-astragalus%C3%A2-membranaceus-polysaccharide-and-its-mechanism
#3
Bingjiang Zhao, Xuanfen Zhang, Wei Han, Ju Cheng, Yonghong Qin
In the present study, a novel polysaccharide, APS2-1, was isolated and purified from Astragalus membranaceus using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The effect of APS2‑1 on the promotion of wound healing was evaluated and its preliminary mechanism was investigated. In vitro experiments showed that APS2‑1 was able to promote human skin fibroblast (HSF) propagation and accelerate cell cycle progression. For further examination, a scalded mice model was used to verify the effect of APS2‑1 and investigate its mechanism of action...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440301/the-environmental-yeast-cryptococcus-liquefaciens-produces-capsular-and-secreted-polysaccharides-with-similar-pathogenic-properties-to-those-of-c-neoformans
#4
Glauber R de S Araújo, Gustavo J C Freitas, Fernanda L Fonseca, Paulo Emilio C Leite, Gustavo Miranda Rocha, Wanderley de Souza, Daniel A Santos, Susana Frases
Invasive fungal infections, including cryptococcosis, are a growing threat to immunocompromised patients. Although Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main agents of human cryptococcosis, opportunistic infections by environmental species, such as C. liquefaciens, have been observed recently. The main Cryptococcus virulence factor is the production and secretion of polysaccharides (PS). Previously, we showed that both species produce PS of similar composition. Here, we examined the ultrastructure and biological activity of capsular and secreted PS from C...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440190/characterization-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-iron-iii-complex-and-its-anti-anemia-and-nonspecific-immune-regulating-activities
#5
Yun Zhang, Fanyi Ma, Jinhua Zhu, Zuliang Du, Yingyong Zhao, Xiuhua Liu
Dioscorea opposita Thunb. is the famous food and traditional medicine in China and it was rich in polysaccharides. Polysaccharides of D. Opposita Thunb. possess immunoregulatory activity, free radical scavenging activity and anti-diabetic activity. A novel polysaccharide-iron(III) complex (CYPIC) was synthesized by using crude polysaccharide extracted from Dioscorea opposita Thunb. The component, structure, morphology and molecular weights of CYPIC were analysed, and the anti-anemia, acute toxicity and nonspecific immune regulating activities of CYPIC were assayed...
April 24, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439812/amylase-assisted-extraction-and-antioxidant-activity-of-polysaccharides-from-gracilaria-lemaneiformis
#6
Shengjun Wu, Mingsheng Lu, Shujun Wang
Gracilaria lemaneiformis (G. lemaneiformis) is rich in polysaccharides that have many functional activities. In this study, the thermostable α-amylase-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from G. lemaneiformis were investigated. The extraction conditions were optimized as follows: time, 40 min; temperature, 95 °C; pH, 5 and enzyme amount, 6000 U/g, under which the yield of G. lemaneiformis polysaccharides (GPs) reached 49.15% dry base. The GPs were characterized by monosaccharide composition, FTIR spectrum, UV spectrum and antioxidant activities...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439294/impact-of-lignin-polymer-backbone-esters-on-ionic-liquid-pretreatment-of-poplar
#7
Kwang Ho Kim, Tanmoy Dutta, John Ralph, Shawn D Mansfield, Blake A Simmons, Seema Singh
BACKGROUND: Biomass pretreatment remains an essential step in lignocellulosic biofuel production, largely to facilitate the efficient removal of lignin and increase enzyme accessibility to the polysaccharides. In recent years, there have been significant efforts in planta to reduce lignin content or modify its composition to overcome the inherent recalcitrance that it imposes on lignocellulosic biomass during processing. Here, transgenic poplar lines in which monolignol ferulate conjugates were synthesized during cell wall development to introduce, during lignification, readily cleavable ester linkages into the lignin polymer backbone (i...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439022/structure-of-a-protective-epitope-of-group-b-streptococcus-type-iii-capsular-polysaccharide
#8
Filippo Carboni, Roberto Adamo, Monica Fabbrini, Riccardo De Ricco, Vittorio Cattaneo, Barbara Brogioni, Daniele Veggi, Vittoria Pinto, Irene Passalacqua, Davide Oldrini, Rino Rappuoli, Enrico Malito, Immaculada Y Ros Margarit, Francesco Berti
Despite substantial progress in the prevention of group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease with the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, this pathogen remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. Capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have been tested in phase I/II clinical studies, showing promise for further development. Mapping of epitopes recognized by protective antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanism of action of vaccines and for enabling antigen design. In this study, we report the structure of the epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody with opsonophagocytic activity and representative of the protective response against type III GBS polysaccharide...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438996/morphotype-of-bacteroids-in-different-legumes-correlates-with-the-number-and-type-of-symbiotic-ncr-peptides
#9
Jesús Montiel, J Allan Downie, Attila Farkas, Péter Bihari, Róbert Herczeg, Balázs Bálint, Peter Mergaert, Attila Kereszt, Éva Kondorosi
In legume nodules, rhizobia differentiate into nitrogen-fixing forms called bacteroids, which are enclosed by a plant membrane in an organelle-like structure called the symbiosome. In the Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade (IRLC) of legumes, this differentiation is terminal due to irreversible loss of cell division ability and is associated with genome amplification and different morphologies of the bacteroids that can be swollen, elongated, spherical, and elongated-branched, depending on the host plant. In Medicago truncatula, this process is orchestrated by nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptides (NCRs) delivered into developing bacteroids...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438927/the-role-of-psl-genes-in-antibiotic-tolerance-of-adherent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Keiji Murakami, Tsuneko Ono, Darija Viducic, Yoko Somiya, Reiko Kariyama, Kenji Hori, Takashi Amoh, Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromi Kumon, Matthew R Parsek, Yoichiro Miyake
Bacteria attached to a surface are generally more tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts, even without the formation of a biofilm. The mechanism of antibiotic tolerance in biofilm communities is multifactorial, and the genetic backgound underlying this antibiotic tolerance has not yet been fully elucidated. Using transposon mutagenesis, we isolated a mutant with reduced tolerance to biapenem (relative to the wild-type) from adherent cells. Sequencing analysis revealed a mutation in the pslL gene, which is a part of the polysaccharide biosynthesis operon...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438703/multilayered-membranes-with-tuned-well-arrays-to-be-used-as-regenerative-patches
#11
Nádia I Martins, Maria P Sousa, Catarina A Custódio, Vânia C Pinto, Paulo J Sousa, Graça Minas, Franck Cleymand, João F Mano
Membranes have been explored as patches in tissue repair and regeneration, most of them presenting a flat geometry or a patterned texture at the nano/micrometer scale. Herein, a new concept of a flexible membrane featuring well arrays forming pore-like environments to accommodate cell culture is proposed. The processing of such membranes using polysaccharides is based on the production of multilayers using the layer-by-layer methodology over a patterned PDMS substrate. The detached multilayered membrane exhibits a layer of open pores at one side and a total thickness of 38 ± 2...
April 21, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437231/capsular-polysaccharide-types-and-virulence-related-traits-of-epidemic-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-in-a-chinese-university-hospital
#12
Yang Liu, Pan-Pan Liu, Lian-Hui Wang, Dan-Dan Wei, La-Gen Wan, Wei Zhang
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important human pathogen associated with a variety of diseases and the prevalence of blaKPC carrying K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is rapidly increasing. Capsule is an important virulence factor in K. pneumoniae. In this study, we determined to first systematically characterize capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and virulence traits in KPC-Kp strains. A total of 56 KPC-Kp isolates were recovered from clinical samples in a Chinese hospital, which were assigned to clonal lineages by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
February 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436508/purification-characterization-and-bioactivities-of-polysaccharides-from-pleurotus-ferulae
#13
Jinyu Li, Pengfei Yuan, Xinhui Wang, Adila Aipire, Minjing Li, Jie Yang, Hong Tao, Tianlei Ying, Changshuang Fu, Xianxian Wei, Fuchun Zhang, Jinyao Li
Pleurotus ferulae is an edible mushroom and has been used in Uygur medicine for a long time. In this study, we purified polysaccharides from P. ferulae (PFPS) and investigated its structural characteristics. We obtained a homogeneous PFPS with a molecular weight of around 1600 kDa and prominent characteristic polysaccharide groups, which mainly contained glucose (97%), followed by mannose and galactose (3%). Both (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra indicated that PFPS contained both α- and β-anomeric configurations...
April 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436323/new-germplasms-of-the-culinary-medicinal-button-mushroom-agaricus-bisporus-agaricomycetes-two-wild-strains-from-the-tibetan-plateau-china
#14
Bin-Bin Li, Si-Ping Jiang, Ai-Guo Xu, Phurbu Dorji, Wen-Jing Wang, Xiao-Liang Wang, Tie-Zheng Wei, Zu-Tang Zhang, Yi-Jian Yao
Agaricus bisporus is one of the most important commercially cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms worldwide. In China, most of the cultivated strains of the fungus were introduced from other countries and cultivated in the eastern provinces. In this study, 2 wild strains of A. bisporus, 2091 and 2094, isolated from fresh specimens collected from the Tibetan Plateau, were domesticated and cultivated alongside a commercial hybrid strain, As2796, in Lhasa, China, for comparison in order to provide new germplasms for cultivation...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436320/antibacterial-activity-of-desert-truffles-from-saudi-arabia-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Domenico Schillaci, Maria Grazia Cusimano, Stella Maria Cascioferro, Vita Di Stefano, Vincenzo Arizza, Marco Chiaramonte, Luigi Inguglia, Abdulhakim Bawadekji, Salvatore Davino, Maria Letizia Gargano, Giuseppe Venturella
Medicinal mushrooms represent an unlimited source of polysaccharides with nutritional, antitumoral, antibacterial, and immune-stimulating properties. Traditional studies of epigeous higher Basidiomycetes have recently been joined by studies of hypogeous fungi and, in particular, of so-called desert truffles. With the aim to obtain novel agents against bacteria of clinical importance, we focused on the edible desert truffle mushrooms Tirmania pinoyi, Terfezia claveryi, and Picoa juniperi as sources of new antimicrobial agents...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436118/enantioselective-potential-of-polysaccharide-based-chiral-stationary-phases-in-supercritical-fluid-chromatography
#16
Gabriela Kucerova, Kveta Kalikova, Eva Tesarova
The enantioselective potential of two polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases for analysis of chiral structurally diverse biologically active compounds was evaluated in supercritical fluid chromatography using a set of 52 analytes. The chiral selectors immobilized on 2.5 μm silica particles were tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarmabate) derivatives of cellulose or amylose. The influence of the polysaccharide backbone, different organic modifiers, and different mobile phase additives on retention and enantioseparation was monitored...
April 24, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435909/self-assembled-particulate-psaa-as-vaccine-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#17
Majela González-Miro, Laura Rodríguez-Noda, Mildrey Fariñas-Medina, Dagmar García-Rivera, Vicente Vérez-Bencomo, Bernd H A Rehm
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen responsible for the majority of childhood pneumonia and media otitis cases worldwide. The diversity of its capsular polysaccharides (CPS) results in more than 91 serotypes of which at least 23 are virulent. Various CPS conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins are currently licensed and provide protection against the infection caused by the respective serotypes but not against new and emerging virulent serotypes. In this study, we considered the conserved protein antigen PsaA, the pneumococcal surface adhesin A, in order to overcome the limitations of CPS antigens...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435262/linseed-hydrogel-mediated-green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-for-antimicrobial-and-wound-dressing-applications
#18
Muhammad Tahir Haseeb, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Khawar Abbas, Bahaa Gm Youssif, Sajid Bashir, Soon Hong Yuk, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
Polysaccharides are being extensively employed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having diverse morphology and applications. Herein, we present a novel and green synthesis of Ag NPs without using any physical reaction conditions. Linseed hydrogel (LSH) was used as a template to reduce Ag(+) to Ag(0). AgNO3 (10, 20, and 30 mmol) solutions were mixed with LSH suspension in deionized water and exposed to diffused sunlight. Reaction was monitored by noting the change in the color of reaction mixture up to 10 h...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435055/cloning-and-characterization-of-a-new-cold-adapted-and-thermo-tolerant-%C3%AE-carrageenase-from-marine-bacterium-flavobacterium-sp-ys-80-122
#19
Shangyong Li, Jianhua Hao, Mi Sun
ι-Carrageenases play a role in marine ι-carrageenan degradation, and their enzymatic hydrolysates are thought to be excellent antioxidants. In this study, we identified a new ι-carrageenase, encoded by cgiF, in psychrophilic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122. The deduced ι-carrageenase, CgiF, belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 82 and shows less than 40% amino acid identity with characterized ι-carrageenases. The activity of recombinant CgiF peaked at 30°C (1,207.8U/mg). Notably, CgiF is a cold-adapted ι-carrageenase, which showed 36...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434996/effect-of-heparin-and-heparan-sulphate-on-open-promoter-complex-formation-for-a-simple-tandem-gene-model-using-ex-situ-atomic-force-microscopy
#20
Oliver Chammas, William A Bonass, Neil H Thomson
The influence of heparin and heparan sulphate (HepS) on the appearance and analysis of open promoter complex (RPo) formation by E. coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme (σ(70)RNAP) on linear DNA using ex-situ imaging by atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been investigated. Introducing heparin or HepS into the reaction mix significantly reduces non-specific interactions of the σ(70)RNAP and RNAP after RPo formation allowing for better interpretation of complexes shown within AFM images, particularly on DNA templates containing more than one promoter...
April 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
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