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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214190/biofilm-formation-by-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-a-dental-clinic-in-konya-turkey
#1
Emrah Torlak, Emre Korkut, Ali T Uncu, Yağmur Şener
The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to form biofilm is considered to be a major virulence factor influencing its survival and persistence in both the environment and the host. Biofilm formation in S. aureus is most frequently associated with production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesion by ica operon-encoded enzymes. The present work aimed at evaluating the in vitro biofilm production and presence of the icaA and icaD genes in S. aureus isolates from a dental clinic in Konya, Turkey. The surfaces of inanimate objects were sampled over a period of six months...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213541/accurate-quantification-of-laminarin-in-marine-organic-matter-with-enzymes-from-marine-microbes
#2
Stefan Becker, André Scheffel, Martin F Polz, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann
Marine algae produce varieties of glycans, which fulfill diverse biological functions and fuel the carbon and energy demand of heterotrophic microbes. A common approach to analyze marine organic matter uses acid to hydrolyze its glycans into measurable monosaccharides. These, however, may derive from different glycans that are built with the same monosaccharides, hence this approach does not distinguish between glycans in natural samples. Here we use enzymes to selectively digest and thereby quantify laminarin in particulate organic matter...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213046/splenectomy-as-a-destination-improving-quality-of-care-among-asplenic-veterans-through-a-travel-clinic
#3
Aaron P Mitchell, Joel C Boggan, Karen Lau, David L Simel
BACKGROUND: Asplenic patients are at risk for severe infections, but adherence to recommended preventive education and vaccination is poor. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that a targeted intervention can improve vaccination rates in a population of asplenic veterans. METHODS: Surgically asplenic patients actively receiving care in our health care system were identified via a database search. Patients were contacted via mailed letters and encouraged to attend an existing travel clinic with a new process designed for asplenic patients...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212936/antihyperlipidemic-and-hepatoprotective-properties-of-selenium-modified-polysaccharide-from-lachnum-sp
#4
Maheen Mahwish Surhio, Yufen Wang, Ping Xu, Shah Faisal, Jinglei Li, Ming Ye
Hyperlipidemia is one of the major health problem people suffering throughout the world, which is also a major risk factor for chronic heart disease that can lead to death. The current study was designed to investigate antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of selenium modified exopolysaccharide of Lachnum sp (SeLEP-1b) on high-fat induced mice model. Nitric acid-sodium selenite (HNO3-Na2SeO3) method was used to selenize pure LEP-1b. FT-IR and (13)C NMR results confirmed the modification of LEP-1b into SeLEP-1b...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212929/structural-analysis-of-a-homogeneous-polysaccharide-from-achatina-fulica
#5
Jie Liu, Feigneng Shang, Zengming Yang, Mingyi Wu, Jinhua Zhao
Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (AF-1) was isolated and purified from Achatina fulica by papain enzymolysis, alcohol precipitation and strong anion exchange chromatography. Structural of the polysaccharide was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, analysis of monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC)...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212310/presence-of-calcium-lowers-the-expansion-of-bacillus-subtilis-colony-biofilms
#6
Eisha Mhatre, Anandaroopan Sundaram, Theresa Hölscher, Mike Mühlstädt, Jörg Bossert, Ákos T Kovács
Robust colony formation by Bacillus subtilis is recognized as one of the sessile, multicellular lifestyles of this bacterium. Numerous pathways and genes are responsible for the architecturally complex colony structure development. Cells in the biofilm colony secrete extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and protein components (TasA and the hydrophobin BslA) that hold them together and provide a protective hydrophobic shield. Cells also secrete surfactin with antimicrobial as well as surface tension reducing properties that aid cells to colonize the solid surface...
February 16, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211702/antimicrobial-effect-of-biocompatible-silicon-nanoparticles-activated-by-therapeutic-ultrasound
#7
Svetlana N Shevchenko, Markus Burkhardt, Eugene V Sheval, Ulyana A Natashina, Christina Große, Alexander L Nikolaev, Alexander V Gopin, Ute Neugebauer, Andrew A Kudryavtsev, Vladimir Sivakov, Liubov Andreevna Osminkina
In this study, we report on a method for suppressing of Escherichia coli (E.coli) vitality by means of therapeutic ultrasound irradiation (USI) using biocompatible silicon nanoparticles as cavitation sensitizers. Silicon nanoparticles without (SiNPs) and with polysaccharide (dextran) coating (DSiNPs) were used. Both types of nanoparticles were non-toxic to Hep 2 cells up to concentration of 2 mg/ml. The treatment of bacteria with nanoparticles and application of 1 W/cm2 USI resulted in reduction of their viability up to 35% and 72% for SiNPs and DSiNPs, respectively...
February 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210201/therapeutic-effect-of-astragalus-polysaccharides-on-hepatocellular-carcinoma-h22-bearing-mice
#8
Xiaoyu Lai, Weibiao Xia, Jing Wei, Xinghong Ding
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of astragalus polysaccharides (APSs), active constituents of astragalus, in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their potential as a promising candidate for future anticancer drug development. Astragalus polysaccharide was administered at different doses to HCC H22-bearing mice to investigate their antitumor effects. Results revealed that APS inhibited the growth of H22 cells with a tumor inhibition rate in the APS 400 mg·kg(-1) group of 59...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208790/%C3%AE-glucans-relationships-between-modification-conformation-and-functional-activities
#9
REVIEW
Qiang Wang, Xiaojing Sheng, Aimin Shi, Hui Hu, Ying Yang, Li Liu, Ling Fei, Hongzhi Liu
β-glucan is a type of polysaccharide which widely exists in bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants, and has been well known for its biological activities such as enhancing immunity, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, and wound healing activities. The conformation of β-glucan plays a crucial role on its biological activities. Therefore, β-glucans obtained from different sources, while sharing the same basic structures, often show different bioactivities. The basic structure and inter-molecular forces of polysaccharides can be changed by modification, which leads to the conformational transformation in solution that can directly affect bioactivity...
February 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208594/immunomodulatory-and-anti-ibdv-activities-of-the-polysaccharide-aex-from-coccomyxa-gloeobotrydiformis
#10
Qiang Guo, Qiang Shao, Wenping Xu, Lei Rui, Ryo Sumi, Fumio Eguchi, Zandong Li
A number of polysaccharides have been reported to show immunomodulatory and antiviral activities against various animal viruses. AEX is a polysaccharide extracted from the green algae, Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis. The aim of this study was to examine the function of AEX in regulating the immune response in chickens and its capacity to inhibit the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), to gain an understanding of its immunomodulatory and antiviral ability. Here, preliminary immunological tests in vitro showed that the polysaccharide AEX can activate the chicken peripheral blood molecular cells' (PBMCs) response by inducing the production of cytokines and NO, promote extracellular antigen presentation but negatively regulate intracellular antigen presentation in chicken splenic lymphocytes, and promote the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and DT40 cells...
February 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205313/genetic-analyses-unravel-the-crucial-role-of-a-horizontally-acquired-alginate-lyase-for-brown-algal-biomass-degradation-by-zobellia-galactanivorans
#11
Yongtao Zhu, François Thomas, Robert Larocque, Nan Li, Delphine Duffieux, Lionel Cladière, Florent Souchaud, Gurvan Michel, Mark J McBride
Comprehension of the degradation of macroalgal polysaccharides suffers from the lack of genetic tools for model marine bacteria, despite their importance for coastal ecosystem functions. We developed such tools for Zobellia galactanivorans, an algae-associated flavobacterium that digests many polysaccharides, including alginate. These tools were used to investigate the biological role of AlyA1, the only Z. galactanivorans alginate lyase known to be secreted in soluble form and to have a recognizable carbohydrate-binding domain...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203647/the-potential-of-blue-lupins-as-a-protein-source-in-the-diets-of-laying-hens
#12
Michael R F Lee, Sarah Parkinson, Hannah R Fleming, Vince J Theobald, Dave K Leemans, Tony Burgess
Layers diets typically contain 15-20% soya due to its high crude protein content (ca. 36%). Reliance on soya for protein can result in large increases in cost of feed due to the law of supply and demand as a global commodity. Lupin grains have high protein content (35-40%) but previous experience with white lupins has shown toxic effects in poultry due to high levels alkaloids and poor performance due to anti-nutritional Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Here blue lupins either processed or whole were trialled for their potential as a protein source...
December 2016: Veterinary and Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202800/discovery-of-novel-pneumococcal-serotype-35d-a-natural-wcig-deficient-variant-of-serotype-35b
#13
K Aaron Geno, Jamil S Saad, Moon H Nahm
The pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among those at the extremes of age. Its capsular polysaccharide is essential for systemic virulence. Over ninety serologically distinct pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (serotypes) are recognized, but they are unequal in prevalence. Because antibodies against the capsule are protective, polysaccharide conjugate vaccines, which are constructed against the most prevalent serotypes, have made great reductions in pneumococcal disease caused by these serotypes...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202210/investigating-adverse-events-following-immunisation-with-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-using-electronic-general-practice-data
#14
L Trinh, K Macartney, P McIntyre, C Chiu, A Dey, R Menzies
BACKGROUND: In early 2011, following an increased number of reports of severe vaccine-related injection site reactions, Australian authorities recommended against administering repeat doses of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) in otherwise healthy adults. The aim of this study was to assess a source of electronic medical record data from primary care providers (General Practitioners, GPs), for validity and ability to retrospectively detect this adverse event signal...
February 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199952/biopolymer-gold-nanoparticles-composite-plasmonic-thermal-history-indicator-to-monitor-quality-and-safety-of-perishable-bioproducts
#15
Yi-Cheng Wang, Lin Lu, Sundaram Gunasekaran
Quality and safety of perishable products such as foods, pharmaceutics, and biologicals is a constant concern. We have developed a plasmonic thermal history indicator (THI) taking advantage of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesized in situ in alginate, a natural polysaccharide. The color of the THIs becomes more intense with increased storage temperature and/or duration, with the color changing from grey to red with time of exposure at high temperature (40°C). The results suggest that decreasing viscosity with increasing number of AuNPs being synthesized in the system, along with aggregation of newly synthesized AuNPs onto larger ones and their settling are potentially responsible for the distinct color change observed...
January 26, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199083/shape-memory-hydrogels-evolution-of-structural-principles-to-enable-shape-switching-of-hydrophilic-polymer-networks
#16
Candy Löwenberg, Maria Balk, Christian Wischke, Marc Behl, Andreas Lendlein
The ability of hydrophilic chain segments in polymer networks to strongly interact with water allows the volumetric expansion of the material and formation of a hydrogel. When polymer chain segments undergo reversible hydration depending on environmental conditions, smart hydrogels can be realized, which are able to shrink/swell and thus alter their volume on demand. In contrast, implementing the capacity of hydrogels to switch their shape rather than volume demands more sophisticated chemical approaches and structural concepts...
February 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198768/long-term-follow-up-of-humoral-immune-status-in-adult-lung-transplant-recipients
#17
Diana A van Kessel, Thijs W Hoffman, Johanna M Kwakkel-van Erp, Erik-Jan D Oudijk, Pieter Zanen, Ger T Rijkers, Jan C Grutters
BACKGROUND: Lung transplant recipients have an increased risk for infections in the posttransplant period due to immunosuppressive therapy. Protection against infections can be achieved through vaccination, but the optimal vaccination schedule in lung transplant recipients is unknown. Data on long-term immunological follow up and vaccination responses after lung transplantation are scarce. METHODS: Here we present long-term immunological follow up of a cohort of 55 lung transplant recipients...
February 14, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198725/adult-pneumococcal-vaccination-advances-impact-and-unmet-needs
#18
Ricardo J José, Jeremy S Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preventing pneumonia in the elderly and study participants individuals with comorbidities is an unmet clinical need. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest bacterial cause of pneumonia, and we summarize recent findings regarding current S. pneumoniae vaccines, and debate their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in risk groups. We also discuss potential future vaccine strategies such as protein antigen vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Current vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine does not prevent S...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198663/unhindered-copper-uptake-by-glutaraldehyde-polyethyleneimine-coatings-in-an-artificial-seawater-model-system-with-adsorbed-swollen-polysaccharides-and-competing-ligand-edta
#19
Simarpreet Kaur, Ivan M Kempson, Johan B Lindén, Mikael Larsson, Magnus Nydén
Shortly after a surface is submerged in the sea, a conditioning film is generally formed by adsorption of organic molecules, such as polysaccharides. This could affect transport of molecules and ions between the seawater and the surface. An artificial seawater model system was developed to understand how adsorbed polysaccharides impact copper binding by glutaraldehyde-crosslinked polyethyleneimine coatings. Coating performance was also determined when competed against copper-chelating EDTA. Polysaccharide adsorption and copper binding and distribution were investigated using advanced analytical techniques, including depth-resolved time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
February 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197985/inonotus-obliquus-polysaccharide-regulates-gut-microbiota-of-chronic-pancreatitis-in-mice
#20
Yang Hu, Chunying Teng, Sumei Yu, Xin Wang, Jinsong Liang, Xin Bai, Liying Dong, Tao Song, Min Yu, Juanjuan Qu
Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. The aim of this study is to testify the potential effects of IOP on gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice with CP. The changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), lipase and trypsin levels were measured by commercial assay kits, meanwhile the gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed by high throughput sequencing...
December 2017: AMB Express
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