Read by QxMD icon Read


Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Nailia R Khasbiullina, Nadezhda V Shilova, Maxim E Navakouski, Alexey Yu Nokel, Yuri A Knirel, Ola Blixt, Nicolai V Bovin
Innate immunity natural Abs (NAbs) execute a number of functions, including protection and surveillance. Despite active research, the stimuli that induce the formation of NAbs are still described only hypothetically. Here, we compared repertoires of anti-glycan Abs in the peripheral blood of mice that received per os various bacteria. The repertoires of Abs of mice primed in this way were compared using a microarray that included about 350 glycans, as well as 150 bacterial polysaccharides. Sterile mice did not possess anti-glycan Abs...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Mona Mokhtari, Michael Jackson, Alistair Brown, David Ackerley, Nigel Ritson, Robert A Keyzers, Andrew Munkacsi
Pathogenic fungi continue to develop resistance against current antifungal drugs. To explore the potential of agricultural waste products as a source of novel antifungal compounds, we obtained an unbiased GC-MS profile of 151 compounds from 16 commercial and experimental cultivars of feijoa peels. Multivariate analysis correlated 93% of the compound profile with antifungal bioactivity. Of 18 compounds that significantly correlated with antifungal activity, five had not previously been described from feijoa...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Di Wang, Qian Li, Yidi Qu, Mengya Wang, Lanzhou Li, Yang Liu, Yu Li
Gloeostereum incarnatum , a precious edible mushroom, displays anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its immunomodulatory effect has not been studied yet. The present study aimed to investigate whether polysaccharide compositions of G. incarnatum polysaccharides (GIPS) possess immunomodulatory and immuno-enhancing effects in a Cyclophosphamide monohydrate (CTX)-induced BALB/c mice model. The 28-day GIPS administration at doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 g/kg remarkably reversed the bodyweight loss, increased the thymic index and promoted T lymphocyte proliferation in CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Gairu Li, Yang Xiang, Jin Zhao, Junmin Chang
The in vitro immune activities of Saccharum Alhagi polysaccharides (SAP) have been previously studied. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of SAP-1 and SAP-2 on the activity of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. RAW264.7 cells were treated with 150, 300 and 600 mg/l concentrations of SAP-1 (a 50% alcohol precipitation) and SAP-2 (an 80% alcohol precipitation) or with 10 mg/l lipopolysaccharide. Untreated cells were used as a negative control. An MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation of the cells, and Hoechst 33528 staining was conducted in order to visualize the cell nuclei...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Dan-Dan Wang, Qing-Xi Wu, Wen-Juan Pan, Sajid Hussain, Shomaila Mehmood, Yan Chen
Background: Polysaccharides extracted from fungus that have been used widely in the food and drugs industries due to biological activities. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumor-suppressive activity and mechanism of a novel polysaccharide (SAP) extracted from Sarcodon aspratus . Methods: The SAP was extracted and purified using Sepharose CL-4B gel from S. aspratus . The cytotoxicity of SAP on cell lines was determined by MTT method...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Sujith Subesinghe, Katie Bechman, Andrew I Rutherford, David Goldblatt, James B Galloway
OBJECTIVE: Vaccination is a key strategy to reduce infection risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is advocated in internationally recognized rheumatology society guidelines. The aim was to evaluate to the effect of antirheumatic drugs on influenza and pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review and metaanalysis comparing the humoral response to influenza (pandemic and seasonal trivalent subunit vaccines) and pneumococcal (23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccines) vaccination in adult patients with RA treated with antirheumatic drugs...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Yun Tang, Zhen-Yuan Zhu, Li-Chao Pan, Huiqing Sun, Qiao-Ying Song, Yongmin Zhang
A polysaccharide was obtained from Lepidium meyenii Walp by hot water extraction and purification by Millipore (100 kD) and Sephadex G-200. The content of polysaccharide was examined to be 89.9% with phenol-sulfuric acid method. Its average molecular weight was estimated to be 2.213 × 106  Da by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HPGPC). Monosaccharide analysis showed that the polysaccharide was composed of arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose with the molar ratio of 2.134: 1: 2.78: 2...
March 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
Christine Juergens, James Trammel, Yasuko Shoji, Scott Patterson, Wendy Watson, Chris Webber, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Beate Schmoele-Thoma
Injection site reactions (ISRs; redness, swelling and pain) commonly occur within 1-2 days after vaccination. After administration of toxoid vaccines including diphtheria toxoid, a later onset of ISRs has also been observed. As the serotype capsular polysaccharides in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) are conjugated to cross-reactive material 197 (CRM197 ), a nontoxic variant of diphtheria toxin, the onset of ISRs over 14 days was explored in 8 adult studies with 19 cohorts. Subjects received PCV13 with aluminum phosphate (AlPO4 , n = 5667) or without AlPO4 (n = 304); 109 subjects received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23)...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
A W Dretler, N G Rouphael, D S Stephens
The control of meningitis, meningococcemia and other infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a significant global health challenge. Substantial progress has occurred in the last twenty years in meningococcal vaccine development and global implementation. Meningococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines to serogroups A, C, W, and Y (modeled after the Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccines) provide better duration of protection and immunologic memory, and overcome weak immune responses in infants and young children and hypo-responsive to repeated vaccine doses seen with polysaccharide vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Maiko K Okajima, Saranyoo Sornkamnerd, Tatsuo Kaneko
Cyanobacteria are regarded as very eco-friendly microreactors for the production of various biomolecules such as polysaccharides by fixing not only carbon but also nitrogen in water. Cyanobacterial polysaccharides having various functional groups such as hydroxyls, carboxyls, sulfates, etc. have the ability to interact with metals or inorganics, to create bionanocomposites. Sacran, a supergiant cyanobacterial anionic polysaccharide extracted from the extracellular matrix of Aphanothece sacrum which is mass-cultivated in freshwater, is mainly used to create functional bionanocomposites...
March 15, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
James C Barton, Jackson Clayborn Barton, Luigi F Bertoli
BACKGROUND: We sought to learn more about the utility and safety of implanted ports for monthly immunoglobulin G infusions in adults with primary immune deficiency. METHODS: We reviewed charts of adults who were referred to a single practice during the interval 2006-2016 for evaluation and management of frequent or severe upper and lower respiratory tract and other infections, subnormal total immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin G subclasses, and suboptimal responses to polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccinations; were diagnosed to have primary immune deficiency; and were advised to undergo immunoglobulin G therapy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
RaviChand Jonnadula, Md Imran, Preethi B Poduval, Sanjeev C Ghadi
Microbulbifer strain CMC-5 produces agarase, alginate lyase, xylanase, carboxymethyl cellulase and carrageenase. The extracellular production of the above carbohydrases was investigated by growing Microbulbifer strain CMC-5 in a sea water based medium containing homologous/heterologous polysaccharides as a single substrate or as a combination of mixed assorted substrate. Presence of singular homologous polysaccharides in the growth medium induces respective carbohydrase at high levels. Any two polysaccharides in various combinations produced high level of homologous carbohydrase and low level of other heterologous carbohydrase...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Chunhua Wang, Dongmei Lin, Quan Chen, Shuqian Lin, Songsheng Shi, Chunmei Chen
The Ganoderma lucidum ( G. lucidum ) mushroom is one of the most extensively studied functional foods, known for its numerous health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. The present study assessed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of a novel G. lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GL-PP) in human glioma U251 cells, which was purified from grass-cultured G. lucidum . GL-PP is a glycopeptide with an average molecular weight of 42,635 Da and a polysaccharide-to-peptide ratio of 88...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Katherine Y Le, Matthew D Park, Michael Otto
The primary virulence factor of the skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus epidermidis , is the ability to form biofilms on surfaces of implanted materials. Much of this microorganism's pathogenic success has been attributed to its ability to evade the innate immune system. The primary defense against S. epidermidis biofilm infection consists of complement activation, recruitment and subsequent killing of the pathogen by effector cells. Among pathogen-derived factors, the biofilm exopolysaccharide polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA), as well as the accumulation-associated protein (Aap), and the extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp) have been shown to modulate effector cell-mediated killing of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shih-Jeng Huang, Fu-Kuei Huang, Yu-Shan Li, Shu-Yao Tsai
Cordyceps militaris , a medicinal and edible mushroom, was used to ferment buckwheat and embryo rice by solid-state fermentation (SSF). Our aim was to investigate the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) light irradiation on the content of vitamin D2 and biologically effective components, and antioxidant properties of buckwheat and embryo rice in SSF with C. militaris . Irradiated samples of buckwheat and embryo rice fermented by C. militaris had significantly increased vitamin D2 content, from 0-0.3 to 1.18-16.79 μg/g, while the increase in fresh embryo rice fermented by C...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Jianping Quan, Gengyuan Cai, Jian Ye, Ming Yang, Rongrong Ding, Xingwang Wang, Enqin Zheng, Disheng Fu, Shaoyun Li, Shenping Zhou, Dewu Liu, Jie Yang, Zhenfang Wu
In an attempt to increase profits and sustainability in the swine industry, the gut microbiome has become a focus of much research. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the gut microbiome in the ileum, cecum, and colon of Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) pigs showing two extreme feed conversion ratios (FCRs) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that the microbial community in the cecum and colon had significantly higher alpha diversity than the ileum. We further identified 11, 55, and 55 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with significantly different relative abundances between the high and low FCR pigs among the three gut locations, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Hector M Mora-Montes, Yu Zhang, Gustavo Nino-Vega, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Sybren de Hoog
The description of cryptic species with different pathogenic potentials has changed the perspectives on sporotrichosis. Sporothrix schenckii causes a benign chronic subcutaneous mycosis, Sporothrix brasiliensis is highly virulent, and Sporothrix globosa mainly causes fixed cutaneous lesions. Furthermore, S. brasiliensis is the prevalent species related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis. Sources of infection, transmission, and distribution patterns also differ between species, and variability differs between species because of different degrees of clonality...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Md Abu Sayeed, Kamrul Islam, Motaher Hossain, Noor Jahan Akter, Md Nur Alam, Nishat Sultana, Farhana Khanam, Meagan Kelly, Richelle C Charles, Pavol Kováč, Peng Xu, Jason R Andrews, Stephen B Calderwood, Jakia Amin, Edward T Ryan, Firdausi Qadri
Recognizing cholera cases early, especially in the initial phase of an outbreak and in areas where cholera has not previously circulated, is a high public health priority. Laboratory capacity in such settings is often limited. To address this, we have developed a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) termed Cholkit that is based on an immunochromatographic lateral flow assay for the diagnosis of cholera cases using stool. Cholkit contains a monoclonal antibody (ICL-33) to the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) component of V...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Carlos M Luna, Laura Pulido, Diego Burgos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As Streptococcus pneumoniae was considered the etiological agent of nearly all the cases of pneumonia at the beginning of the 20th century, and today is identified in fewer than 10-15% of cases, we analyze the possible causes of such a decline. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive use of early empiric antimicrobial therapy, discovery of previously unrecognized pathogens, availability to newer diagnostic methods for the recognition of the pneumonia pathogens (PCR, urinary antigens, monoclonal antibodies etc...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"