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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806727/formation-of-friable-embryogenic-callus-in-cassava-is-enhanced-under-conditions-of-reduced-nitrate-potassium-and-phosphate
#1
Yoshinori Utsumi, Chikako Utsumi, Maho Tanaka, Vu The Ha, Akihiro Matsui, Satoshi Takahashi, Motoaki Seki
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is an important research tool for the genetic improvement of cassava. The induction of friable embryogenic callus (FEC) is considered as a key step in cassava transformation. In the present study, the media composition was optimized for enhancing the FEC induction, and the effect of the optimized medium on gene expression was evaluated. In relative comparison to MS medium, results demonstrated that using a medium with reducing nutrition (a 10-fold less concentration of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphate), the increased amount of vitamin B1 (10 mg/L) and the use of picrolam led to reprogram non-FEC to FEC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805835/a-comparison-study-on-polysaccharides-extracted-from-laminaria-japonica-using-different-methods-structural-characterization-and-bile-acid-binding-capacity
#2
Jie Gao, Lianzhu Lin, Baoguo Sun, Mouming Zhao
In this study, the structural characterization and bile acid-binding capacity of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LP), obtained by seven different extraction methods, were investigated. The results indicated that extraction methods exhibited significant effects on extraction yield, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and the content of neutral sugar, fucose, uronic acid and sulfate of LP. AFM analysis indicated that LP extracted by different methods exhibited certain different, flexible and worm-like chains with many branches...
August 14, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805704/effects-of-adding-polysaccharides-and-citric-acid-into-sodium-dihydrogen-phosphate-mixing-solution-on-the-material-properties-of-gelatin-hybridized-calcium-phosphate-cement
#3
Keishi Kiminami, Toshiisa Konishi, Minori Mizumoto, Kohei Nagata, Michiyo Honda, Hidetoshi Arimura, Mamoru Aizawa
We have succeeded in improving the material properties of a chelate-setting calcium-phosphate cement (CPC), which is composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) the surface of which has been modified with inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) by adding α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) powder. In order to create a novel chelate-setting CPC with sufficient bioresorbability, gelatin particles were added into the IP6-HAp/α-TCP cement system to modify the material properties. The effects of adding polysaccharides (chitosan, chondroitin sulfate, and sodium alginate) into the sodium dihydrogen phosphate mixing solution on the material properties of the gelatin-hybridized CPC were evaluated...
August 12, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805701/a-pectic-polysaccharide-from-sijunzi-decoction-promotes-the-antioxidant-defenses-of-sw480-cells
#4
Chao Huang, Zhongkai Zhu, Xiyue Cao, Xingfu Chen, Yuping Fu, Zhengli Chen, Lixia Li, Xu Song, Renyong Jia, Zhongqiong Yin, Gang Ye, Bin Feng, Yuanfeng Zou
Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) is a formula used for the treatment of spleen deficiency and gastrointestinal diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Polysaccharides are reported to be the main components of SJZD responsible for its bio-functions. However, highly purified and clearly characterized polysaccharides from SJZD are not well described. Here we obtained a purified polysaccharide (SJZDP-II-I) from SJZD using ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Structure analysis by FT-IR and NMR identified SJZDP-II-I as a typical pectic polysaccharide with homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan type I regions and arabinogalactan type I and II as side chains...
August 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804933/chemical-functionalization-of-polysaccharides-towards-biocompatible-hydrogels-for-biomedical-applications
#5
Andreas Kirschning, Gerald Dräger, Nick Dibbert
Hydrogels have emerged as a highly interdisciplinary topic as they play a significant role for a vast number of applications. They have been studied extensively as materials for contact lenses, wound dressing and as filler material in soft-tissue augmentation, in which classical polymer backbones such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) are typically employed. More recently, polysaccharides have received attention, particularly in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, as ideal candidate materials for artificial extracellular matrices (ECM)...
August 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804502/purification-preliminary-characterization-and-immunological-activity-of-polysaccharides-from-crude-drugs-of-sijunzi-formula
#6
Yunfei Ji, Ruijun Wang, Ying Peng, Chongsheng Peng, Xiaobo Li
Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) is a conventional prescription for curing spleen deficiency in Traditional Chinese Medicine and polysaccharide is its main ingredient. In order to explore the effective ingredients contributing to the immunological activity of SJZD, we isolated and purified seven homogeneous polysaccharides from Radix Ginseng (RS-3-1 and RS-3-2), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (BZ-3-1, BZ-3-2, and BZ-3-3), Poria (FL-3-1), and Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC-3-1) decoctions, respectively. The molecular weight of seven homogeneous polysaccharides ranged from 5...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802999/primordial-membranes-more-than-simple-container-boundaries
#7
REVIEW
Martin M Hanczyc, Pierre-Alain Monnard
Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions of modern lipids...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802848/structure-and-intracellular-antioxidant-activity-of-pectic-polysaccharide-from-acerola-malpighia-emarginata
#8
Rafael Roberto Klosterhoff, Juliana Müller Bark, Nícolas Manzke Glänzel, Marcello Iacomini, Gláucia Regina Martinez, Sheila M B Winnischofer, Lucimara M C Cordeiro
Malpighia emarginata is a tropical fruit plant, found naturally in the Caribbean islands and South America that produces an edible fruit known as acerola or Barbados Cherry. Its polysaccharides were obtained by aqueous extraction, subjected to a freezing and thawing process and ultrafiltration. A homogeneous fraction (ACWS-01E) was analyzed by sugar composition, HPSEC, methylation and NMR spectroscopy analyses. The results showed an arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharide, with 6.1×10(4)g/mol and formed mainly by a high methyl esterified (DM=86%) homogalacturonan and branched arabinan...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802847/structural-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-polysaccharides-extracted-from-olive-leaves
#9
Ibtihel Khemakhem, Ola Abdelhedi, Ines Trigui, Mohamed Ali Ayadi, Mohamed Bouaziz
In the present study, hot-water extraction procedure was used to recover polysaccharides from olive leaves. Primary structural characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffractometry analysis. Emulsifying capacity, Zeta (ζ) potential and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) of olive leaf polysaccharides (OLP) were investigated. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were then examined...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802755/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-response-in-patients-after-community-acquired-pneumonia-differences-in-patients-with-s-pneumoniae-versus-other-pathogens
#10
G H J Wagenvoort, B J M Vlaminckx, D A van Kessel, R C L Geever, B A W de Jong, J C Grutters, W J W Bos, B Meek, G T Rijkers
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to investigate the immune response to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in former pneumococcal CAP patients. We hypothesize that an impaired or suboptimal humoral immune response against (specific) pneumococcal serotypes might explain the vulnerability for pneumococcal disease. METHODS: Hospitalised adult CAP patients who participated in two trials (2004-2006 (n=201) and, 2007-2009 (n=304)) were screened. Patients eligible for inclusion had CAP caused by either S...
August 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802264/crystal-structure-and-substrate-specificity-modification-of-acetyl-xylan-esterase-from-aspergillus-luchuensis
#11
Dai Komiya, Akane Hori, Takuya Ishida, Kiyohiko Igarashi, Masahiro Samejima, Takuya Koseki, Shinya Fushinobu
Acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the acetyl bonds present in plant cell wall polysaccharides. Here, we determined the crystal structure of AXE from Aspergillus luchuensis (AlAXEA), providing the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme in the Esterase_phb family. AlAXEA shares its core α/β-hydrolase fold structure with esterases in other families, but it has an extended central β-sheet at both its ends and an extra loop. Structural comparison with a ferulic acid esterase (FAE) from Aspergillus niger indicated that AlAXEA has conserved catalytic machinery: a catalytic triad (Ser119, His259, and Asp202) and an oxyanion hole (Cys40 and Ser120)...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802003/recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-for-efficient-conversion-of-cellodextrins-into-l-lactic-acid
#12
Chiara Gandini, Loredana Tarraran, Denis Kalemasi, Enrica Pessione, Roberto Mazzoli
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the most interesting organisms for industrial processes with a long history of application as food starters and biocontrol agents, and an underexploited potential for biorefineries converting biomass into high-value compounds. Lactic acid (LA), their main fermentation product, is among the most requested chemicals owing to its broad range of applications. Notably, LA polymers, i.e., polylactides, have high potential as biodegradable substitutes of fossil-derived plastics...
August 12, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801961/recent-advances-in-microscale-separation
#13
Yuanyuan Liu, Weiwei Wang, Mengqi Jia, Rangdong Liu, Qing Liu, Han Xiao, Jing Li, Yun Xue, Yan Wang, Chao Yan
This review focuses on the recent advances on microscale separation technology, particularly on the new development on column and detection technologies in electrophoretic and chromatographic separation modes (i.e., CE, CEC, cLC, etc.). Representative examples illustrate also applications on the small molecules, peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, chiral and so on. 247 relevant articles are cited covering the literature published from 2013 to May, 2017. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
August 12, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801857/simultaneous-addition-of-zero-valent-iron-and-activated-carbon-on-enhanced-mesophilic-anaerobic-digestion-of-waste-activated-sludge
#14
Tongyu Wang, Yujie Qin, Yan Cao, Bin Han, Junyi Ren
The performance of biogas generation and sludge degradation was studied under different zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC) ratios in detail in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge. A good enhancement of methane production was obtained at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio, and the cumulative methane production was 132.1 mL/g VS, 37.6% higher than the blank. The methane content at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio reached 68.8%, which was higher than the blank (55.2%) and the sludge-added AC alone (59.6%). For sludge degradation, the removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), proteins, and polysaccharides were all the highest at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801795/storage-lipid-and-polysaccharide-metabolism-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-and-umbelopsis-isabellina
#15
Marianna Dourou, Panagiotis Mizerakis, Seraphim Papanikolaou, George Aggelis
Complex biochemical mechanisms are being involved in oleaginous microorganisms during storage lipid and polysaccharide metabolism. Detailed biochemical analyses and monitoring of key enzymes involved in carbon metabolism were performed in Yarrowia lipolytica and Umbelopsis isabellina, which are often used as model oleaginous microorganisms. It was found that during the early oleaginous phase, the carbon source (glucose) was channeled to lipid accumulation, but also to polysaccharide biosynthesis. However, during transition from the early to the late oleaginous phase, glucose was exclusively converted to lipids, while in U...
August 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801641/polymertropism-of-rod-shaped-bacteria-movement-along-aligned-polysaccharide-fibers
#16
David J Lemon, Xingbo Yang, Pragya Srivastava, Yan-Yeung Luk, Anthony G Garza
In nature, bacteria often live in surface-associated communities known as biofilms. Biofilm-forming bacteria typically deposit a layer of polysaccharide on the surfaces they inhabit; hence, polysaccharide is their immediate environment on many surfaces. In this study, we examined how the physical characteristics of polysaccharide substrates influence the behavior of the biofilm-forming bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. M. xanthus responds to the compression-induced deformation of polysaccharide substrates by preferentially spreading across the surface perpendicular to the axis of compression...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800975/exopolysaccharides-from-lactobacillus-delbrueckii-oll1073r-1-modulate-innate-antiviral-immune-response-in-porcine-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#17
Paulraj Kanmani, Leonardo Albarracin, Hisakazu Kobayashi, Hikaru Iida, Ryoya Komatsu, A K M Humayun Kober, Wakako Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Yoshihito Suda, Hisashi Aso, Seiya Makino, Hiroshi Kano, Tadao Saito, Julio Villena, Haruki Kitazawa
Previous studies demonstrated that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLL1073R-1 (LDR-1) improve antiviral immunity, especially in the systemic and respiratory compartments. However, it was not studied before whether those EPSs are able to beneficially modulate intestinal antiviral immunity. In addition, LDR-1-host interaction has been evaluated mainly with immune cells while its interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was not addressed before. In this work, we investigated the capacity of EPSs from LDR-1 to modulate the response of porcine IECs (PIE cells) to the stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 agonist poly(I:C) and the role of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR negative regulators in the immunoregulatory effect...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799715/cloning-and-expression-of-recombinant-chondroitinase-ac-ii-and-its-comparison-to-the-arthrobacter-aurescens-enzyme
#18
Asher Williams, Wenqin He, Brady F Cress, Xinyue Liu, Jordanne Alexandria, Hiroki Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro Nishimura, Toshihiko Toida, Mattheos Koffas, Robert J Linhardt
Chondroitin sulfates are the glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans critical in the normal development and pathophysiology of all animals. Chondroitinase ACII, a polysaccharide lyase originally isolated from Arthrobacter aurescens IAM 110 65, which is widely used in the analysis and study of chondroitin structure, is no longer commercially available. The aim of the current study was to prepare recombinant versions of this critical enzyme for the glycobiology research community. Two versions of recombinant chondroitinase ACII were prepared in Escherichia coli, and their activity, stability, specificity and action pattern were examined, along with a non-recombinant version secreted by an Arthrobacter strain...
August 11, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798999/influence-of-immunostimulant-polysaccharides-nucleic-acids-and-bacillus-strains-on-the-innate-immune-and-acute-stress-response-in-turbots-scophthalmus-maximus-fed-soy-bean-and-wheat-based-diets
#19
V I Fuchs, J Schmidt, M J Slater, B H Buck, D Steinhagen
Immunostimulants are widely applied in aquaculture practice and may have beneficial effects on the immune system and physical functions allowing higher tolerance to stress. In the current study, the impact of four (i-iv) dietary active ingredients on the immune and stress response of turbot was examined in two experiments (I and II). A basal low fish meal (FM; 32%) diet was formulated and supplemented with (i) yeast β-glucan and mannan oligosaccharide (GM), (ii) alginic acid (AC), (iii) yeast nucleotides and RNA (NR), or (iv) Bacillus strains (BS)...
August 10, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798932/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-protect-rat-corneal-epithelial-cells-against-ultraviolet-b-induced-apoptosis-by-attenuating-the-mitochondrial-pathway-and-inhibiting-jnk-phosphorylation
#20
Shaobo Du, Biao Han, Kang Li, Xuan Zhang, Xueli Sha, Lan Gao
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have been shown to play a key role in protecting the eyes by reducing the apoptosis induced by certain types of damage. However, it is not known whether LBPs can protect damaged corneal cells from apoptosis. Moreover, no reports have focused on the role of LBPs in guarding against ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of LBPs against UVB-induced apoptosis in rat corneal epithelial (RCE) cells...
2017: BioMed Research International
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