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Polysaccharide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922724/oyster-ostrea-plicatula-gmelin-polysaccharides-intervention-ameliorates-cyclophosphamide-induced-genotoxicity-and-hepatotoxicity-in-mice-via-the-nrf2-are-pathway
#1
Shuting Lin, Gengxin Hao, Min Long, Fei Lai, Qingqin Li, Yongmei Xiong, Yan Tian, Dong Lai
In this study, we explored the protective effects of oyster (Ostrea plicatula Gmelin) polysaccharides (OPS) against genotoxicity and liver injury induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in BALB/c mice. OPS was administered to mice at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg for 7 consecutive days, then 50mg/kg CP was injected via abdomen. Then mice were sacrificed and samples were collected. Bone marrow micronuclei (MN) and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE): normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) ratio were calculated to evaluate CP induced genetic toxicity...
September 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920748/investigation-of-the-transport-and-absorption-of-angelica-sinensis-polysaccharide-through-gastrointestinal-tract-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Kaiping Wang, Fang Cheng, Xianglin Pan, Tao Zhou, Xiqiu Liu, Ziming Zheng, Li Luo, Yu Zhang
To investigate the absorption and delivery of ASP in gastrointestinal (GI) tract, cASP was successfully synthesized by chemically modifying with succinic anhydride and then conjugating with a near infrared fluorescent dye Cy5.5. Then, the capacity of oral absorption of cASP was evaluated. The results demonstrated that cASP had low toxicity and no disruption on the integrity of cell membrane. The endocytosis of cASP into the epithelial cells was time- and energy-dependent, which was mediated by macropinocytosis pathway and clathrin- and caveolae (or lipid raft)-related routes...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920414/metagenomic-analysis-of-bacterial-community-structure-and-diversity-of-lignocellulolytic-bacteria-in-vietnamese-native-goat-rumen
#3
Huyen Thi Do, Khoa Trong Dao, Viet Khanh Hoang Nguyen, Giang Ngoc Le, Phuong Thi Mai Nguyen, Lam Tung Le, Nguyet Thu Phung, Nico van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Hai Nam Truong
Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen was conducted to elucidate a role of bacterial structure for effective degradation of plant materials. Methods: The metagenomic data had been subjected into Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTX) algorithm and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (NR) sequence database...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919928/the-yeast-geotrichum-candidum-encodes-functional-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases
#4
Simon Ladevèze, Mireille Haon, Ana Villares, Bernard Cathala, Sacha Grisel, Isabelle Herpoël-Gimbert, Bernard Henrissat, Jean-Guy Berrin
BACKGROUND: Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of powerful oxidative enzymes that have revolutionized our understanding of lignocellulose degradation. Fungal LPMOs of the AA9 family target cellulose and hemicelluloses. AA9 LPMO-coding genes have been identified across a wide range of fungal saprotrophs (Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, etc.), but so far they have not been found in more basal lineages. Recent genome analysis of the yeast Geotrichum candidum (Saccharomycotina) revealed the presence of several LPMO genes, which belong to the AA9 family...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919551/identification-of-potential-antigens-from-non-classically-secreted-proteins-and-designing-novel-multitope-peptide-vaccine-candidate-against-brucella-melitensis-through-reverse-vaccinology-and-immunoinformatics-approach
#5
Udayakumar S Vishnu, Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian, Paramasamy Gunasekaran, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Brucella melitensis is an intracellular pathogen resides in the professional and non-professional phagocytes of the host, causing zoonotic disease brucellosis. The stealthy nature of the Brucella makes it's highly pathogenic, and it is hard to eliminate the bacteria completely from the infected host. Hitherto, no licensed vaccines are available for human brucellosis. In this study, we identified potential antigens for vaccine development from non-classically secreted proteins through reverse vaccinology approach...
September 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918561/marine-polysaccharides-therapeutic-efficacy-and-biomedical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Young-Eun Lee, Hyeongmin Kim, Changwon Seo, Taejun Park, Kyung Bin Lee, Seung-Yup Yoo, Seong-Chul Hong, Jeong Tae Kim, Jaehwi Lee
The ocean contains numerous marine organisms, including algae, animals, and plants, from which diverse marine polysaccharides with useful physicochemical and biological properties can be extracted. In particular, fucoidan, carrageenan, alginate, and chitosan have been extensively investigated in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields owing to their desirable characteristics, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity. Various therapeutic efficacies of marine polysaccharides have been elucidated, including the inhibition of cancer, inflammation, and viral infection...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917930/structural-characterization-and-rheological-behavior-of-a-heteroxylan-extracted-from-plantago-notata-lagasca-plantaginaceae-seeds
#7
Fatima Benaoun, Cédric Delattre, Zakaria Boual, Alina V Ursu, Christophe Vial, Christine Gardarin, Anne Wadouachi, Didier Le Cerf, Tony Varacavoudin, Mohamed Didi Ould El-Hadj, Philippe Michaud, Guillaume Pierre
Plantago notata (Plantaginaceae) is a spontaneous plant from Septentrional Algerian Sahara currently used by traditional healers to treat stomach disorders, inflammations or wound healing. A water-soluble polysaccharide, called PSPN (PolySaccharide fraction from Plantago Notata), was extracted and purified from the seeds of this semi-arid plant. The structural features of this mucilage were evaluated by colorimetric assays, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and (1)H/(13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917925/synthesis-of-synthetic-mannan-backbone-polysaccharides-found-on-the-surface-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-as-a-vaccine-adjuvant-and-their-immunological-properties
#8
Chakree Wattanasiri, Jiraporn Paha, Marisa Ponpuak, Somsak Ruchirawat, Siwarutt Boonyarattanakalin
Surface components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) play crucial roles in modulating host immune responses. Thorough understandings of immunological properties of the Mtb's surface components are essential for the development of tuberculosis treatment and prevention. Unfortunately, the accessibility to the molecules on the surface of Mtb is limited by the structural complexity due to their various macromolecular nature and the hazard of culturing Mtb. In this study, we reveal a practical synthesis of lipomannan (LM) backbone polysaccharides - the core glycans found on Mtb's surface...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917919/structural-characteristics-of-water-soluble-polysaccharides-from-norway-spruce-picea-abies
#9
Evgeny G Shakhmatov, Vladimir A Belyy, Elena N Makarova
Arabinogalactan proteins and pectic polysaccharides were isolated from greenery of Picea abies by water extraction. Main elements of their structure were determined by ion-exchange chromatography, partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, and NMR spectroscopy. It was established that the backbone of pectin macromolecules of greenery of P. abies is represented by segments of partially methyl-esterified and acetylated 1,4-α-d-galactopyranosyluronan, and partially 2-O- and/or 3-O-acetylated RG-I with side chains consisting of highly-branched 1,5-α-l-arabinan segments...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917917/characterization-of-structural-cell-wall-polysaccharides-in-cattail-typha-latifolia-evaluation-as-potential-biofuel-feedstock
#10
Diego Rebaque, Romina Martínez-Rubio, Silvia Fornalé, Penélope García-Angulo, Ana Alonso-Simón, Jesús M Álvarez, David Caparros-Ruiz, José L Acebes, Antonio Encina
Second generation bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass is attracting attention as an alternative energy source. In this study, a detailed knowledge of the composition and structure of common cattail (Typha latifolia L.) cell wall polysaccharides, obtained from stem or leaves, has been conducted using a wide set of techniques to evaluate this species as a potential bioethanol feedstock. Our results showed that common cattail cellulose content was high for plants in the order Poales and was accompanied by a small amount of cross-linked polysaccharides...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917916/quantitative-investigations-of-xylose-and-arabinose-substituents-in-hydroxypropylated-and-hydroxyvinylethylated-arabinoxylans
#11
Dominic Lorenz, Anna Knöpfle, Youssef Akil, Bodo Saake
The chemical structures obtained by the modification of arabinoxylans with the cyclic carbonates propylene carbonate (PC) and 4-vinyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (VEC) with varying degrees of substitution were investigated. Therefore, a new analytical method was developed that is based on a microwave-assisted hydrolysis of the polysaccharides with trifluoroacetic acid and the reductive amination with 2-aminobenzoic acid. The peak assignment was achieved by HPLC-MS and the carbohydrate derivatives were quantified by HPLC-fluorescence...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917908/structural-elucidation-of-the-main-water-soluble-polysaccharide-from-rubus-anatolicus-roots
#12
Neda Sahragard, Kambiz Jahanbin
An acidic heteropolysaccharide, RAPS-1, was isolated from the roots of Rubus anatolicus by water extraction (70°C) and purification using DEAE-cellulose A52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The total sugar content and specific optical rotation of RAPS-1 were 96.3% and +196°, respectively. RAPS-1 had a molecular weight of 7900Da, and was composed of glucose, galactose, and glucuronic acid with a relative molar ratio of 6.2: 1.0: 1.2. Structural features of RAPS-1 were elucidated by a combination of partial acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, methylation, GC-MS, FTIR, and NMR ((13)C and (1)H) analysis...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917901/polysaccharides-based-injectable-hydrogel-compositing-bio-glass-for-cranial-bone-repair
#13
Xiao Bai, Shaoyu Lü, Haidi Liu, Zhen Cao, Piao Ning, Zengqiang Wang, Chunmei Gao, Boli Ni, Dongyang Ma, Mingzhu Liu
Bone disease is a public health problem around the word, and it is urgent to develop novel tissue engineering scaffolds for the complicated cranial bone regeneration. The present work developed a novel triple crosslinked polysaccharides based injectable hydrogel to composite bio-glass (BG) for cranial bone repair. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed the storage modulus (G') of the hydrogel reached to ∼4000Pa. While after compositing BG, G' exceeded 4500Pa. The degradation behavior of the hydrogel is influenced by hydrogel composition, crosslinking methods and degradation environment...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917899/polysaccharides-from-brown-algae-sargassum-duplicatum-the-structure-and-anticancer-activity-in-vitro
#14
Roza V Usoltseva, Stanislav D Anastyuk, Natalia M Shevchenko, Valerii V Surits, Artem S Silchenko, Vladimir V Isakov, Tatiana N Zvyagintseva, Pham Duc Thinh, Svetlana P Ermakova
The laminaran SdL and fucoidan SdF were isolated from brown algae Sargassum duplicatum. SdL was 1,3;1,6-β-d-glucan (1,3:1,6=6:1) with a main chain, represented by 1,3-linked glucose residues, due to NMR spectroscopy data. Single glucose residues could form branches at C6. Unusual structure of fucoidan SdF was studied by chemical and enzymatic methods, NMR spectroscopy of desulfated and deacetylated polysaccharide and mass spectrometry of fucoidan fragments labeled with (18)O. Fucoidan was sulfated (31.7%) and acetylated galactofucan (Fuc:Gal∼1:1) with a main chain of 1,4-linked alternating α-l-fucose and β-d-galactose residues...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917898/physicochemical-characterization-antioxidant-activity-of-polysaccharides-from-mesona-chinensis-benth-and-their-protective-effect-on-injured-nctc-1469-cells-induced-by-h2o2
#15
Wei Tang, Mingyue Shen, Jianhua Xie, Dan Liu, Mengxia Du, Lihua Lin, He Gao, Bruce R Hamaker, Mingyong Xie
Polysaccharides MP-A, MP-U and MP-C were extracted from Mesona chinensis Benth by hot-alkali extraction (HAE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and cellulose-enzyme assisted extraction (CAE), respectively. The yields, physicochemical properties and antioxidant of polysaccharides were investigated. Results showed that the yields of MP-A (11.14%), MP-U (10.62%) and MP-C (9.70%) were similar, and they were all heteropolysaccharides with average molecular weights of 1.9×10(5)Da, 1.5×10(5)Da, 1.4×10(5)Da...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917894/structural-functional-and-ph-sensitive-release-characteristics-of-water-soluble-polysaccharide-from-the-seeds-of-albizia-lebbeck-l
#16
Chekuri Ashok Kumar Varma, K Jayaram Kumar
Plant polysaccharides, generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are gaining importance as excipients in drug delivery. Therefore, the current paper presents the studies on structural, functional and drug release study of water soluble polysaccharide (ALPS) from seeds of Albizia lebbeck L. High swelling, water holding capacity, foam stability and lower moisture content suggests its use as additive in food preparations. The apparent molecular weight of polysaccharide was found to be 1.98×10(2)kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that ALPS consists of mannose (4...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917892/a-mechanism-for-the-synergistic-gelation-properties-of-gelatin-b-and-xanthan-gum-aqueous-mixtures
#17
Chang-Sheng Wang, Nick Virgilio, Paula Wood-Adams, Marie-Claude Heuzey
Gelatin B and xanthan gum aqueous mixtures (GB/XG, (0.2-2%)/0.2% w/v) exhibit enhanced gelling properties compared to their pure component solutions at similar compositions. The mixed gels comprise co-localized networks of GB and XG-rich domains. Our results show that these domains are composed of intermolecular complexes and their aggregates stabilized by the neutralization effect of GB, and linked together by formation of GB triple helices. GB/XG mixtures display composition-dependent microstructural transitions: from discontinuous aggregates (GB/XG ratio≤1) to a continuous GB/XG network (ratio=2-6), followed by network fragmentation (ratio=8-10)...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917884/%C3%AE%C2%BA-carrageenan-locust-bean-gum-as-hard-capsule-gelling-agents
#18
Huanghuang He, Jing Ye, Xueqin Zhang, Yayan Huang, Xiaohui Li, Meitian Xiao
A novel gelling agent, comprising blended κ-carrageenan (κ-C), a seaweed polysaccharide and locust bean gum (LBG), was used to prepare hard capsules. The distinct synergism between κ-C and LBG were verified by the textural profile analysis (TPA), FTIR and rheological measurement. Afterwards, films and hard capsules were prepared with the optimized LBG/κ-C blend gel. And the mechanical properties and morphology of films and hard capsules were analyzed by tensile testing and SEM, respectively. The results showed that the LBG/κ-C at 1:3 ratio could serve as an excellent gelling agent, which endowed hard capsule with the promoted mechanical properties, homogenous and smooth surface morphology...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917882/a-review-about-brown-algal-cell-walls-and-fucose-containing-sulfated-polysaccharides-cell-wall-context-biomedical-properties-and-key-research-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Estelle Deniaud-Bouët, Kevin Hardouin, Philippe Potin, Bernard Kloareg, Cécile Hervé
Studies on brown algal cell walls have entered a new phase with the concomitant discovery of novel polysaccharides present in cell walls and the establishment of a comprehensive generic model for cell wall architecture. Brown algal cell walls are composites of structurally complex polysaccharides. In this review we discuss the most recent progress in the structural composition of brown algal cell walls, emphasizing the significance of extraction and screening techniques, and the biological activities of the corresponding polysaccharides, with a specific focus on the fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917881/structural-characterization-and-rheological-properties-of-a-galactomannan-from-astragalus-gombo-bunge-seeds-harvested-in-algerian-sahara
#20
T Chouana, G Pierre, C Vial, C Gardarin, A Wadouachi, D Cailleu, D Le Cerf, Z Boual, M D Ould El Hadj, P Michaud, C Delattre
A water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) was extracted and purified from Astragalus gombo seeds (Fabaceae) harvested in Septentrional Sahara (Ouargla, Algeria) with a yield of 6.8% (w/w of the dry seed ground). It was characterized by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC-MS), size exclusion chromatography with Multi-Angle Light Scattering analysis (SEC-MALLS), high-resolution (1)H and (13)C NMR, and rheological measurements. The structural characterization indicated that this WSP fraction is a galactomannan with a mannose/galactose ratio of 1...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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