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Dietary fiber

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155202/bioactive-polysaccharides-and-oligosaccharides-as-possible-feed-additives-to-manipulate-rumen-fermentation-in-rusitec-fermenters
#1
Zongjun Li, Hanxun Bai, Lixin Zheng, Huai Jiang, Huiying Cui, Yangchun Cao, Junhu Yao
Bioactive polysaccharides and oligosaccharides (POSs) have been used as safe non-antibiotic alternatives in animal diets; however, only limited data are available on their effects in rumen manipulation. This study was undertaken to systematically evaluate and compare the efficacies of six different bioactive POSs (10g/kg diet) with respect to ruminal fermentation, feed digestibility, biohydrogenation and bacterial population using a rumen simulation technique. The experiment consisted of 4 independent 12-d incubation periods (each including 8 d for acclimation, followed with 4 d for sample collection)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153856/the-effect-of-viscous-soluble-fiber-on-blood-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
K Khan, E Jovanovski, H V T Ho, A C R Marques, A Zurbau, S B Mejia, J L Sievenpiper, V Vuksan
AIMS: Dietary fiber intake, especially viscous soluble fiber, has been established as a means to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Whether this is true for blood pressure remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate the effects of viscous soluble fiber supplementation on blood pressure and quantify the effect of individual fibers. DATA SYNTHESIS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched...
October 7, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153519/invited-review-practical-feeding-management-recommendations-to-mitigate-the-risk-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-cattle
#3
E Humer, R M Petri, J R Aschenbach, B J Bradford, G B Penner, M Tafaj, K-H Südekum, Q Zebeli
Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber. We also provide background information on the importance of enhancing salivary secretions and short-chain fatty acid absorption across the stratified squamous epithelium of the rumen; thus, preventing the disruption of the ruminal acid-base balance, a process that paves the way for acidification of the rumen...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153157/a-100-year-review-protein-and-amino-acid-nutrition-in-dairy-cows
#4
Charles G Schwab, Glen A Broderick
Considerable progress has been made in understanding the protein and amino acid (AA) nutrition of dairy cows. The chemistry of feed crude protein (CP) appears to be well understood, as is the mechanism of ruminal protein degradation by rumen bacteria and protozoa. It has been shown that ammonia released from AA degradation in the rumen is used for bacterial protein formation and that urea can be a useful N supplement when lower protein diets are fed. It is now well documented that adequate rumen ammonia levels must be maintained for maximal synthesis of microbial protein and that a deficiency of rumen-degradable protein can decrease microbial protein synthesis, fiber digestibility, and feed intake...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153156/a-100-year-review-carbohydrates-characterization-digestion-and-utilization
#5
Mary Beth Hall, David R Mertens
Our knowledge of the role of carbohydrates in dairy cattle nutrition has advanced substantially in the 100 years of the publication of the Journal of Dairy Science. In this review, we trace the history of scientific investigation and discovery from crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract, and "unidentified factors" to our present analytical schemes and understanding of ruminal and whole-animal utilization and effects of dietary carbohydrates. Historically, advances in research and new feeding standards occurred in parallel with and fostered by new methods of analysis...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151923/p300-knockout-promotes-butyrate-resistance
#6
Darina L Lazarova, Michael Bordonaro
Dietary fiber is linked to a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and this protective activity is likely due to its fermentation product, butyrate. Dependent upon the hyperactivation of Wnt signaling, butyrate represses CRC cell growth and induces apoptosis. However, resistance to butyrate activity may allow for CRC development even in the context of relatively high fiber intake. We have previously determined that CRC cells resistant to butyrate are deficient in p300 expression. The histone acetylase p300 influences colonic cell signaling and physiology through effects on Wnt signaling...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151477/nutrient-derived-dietary-patterns-and-their-association-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-japanese-population
#7
Tirani Bahari, Hirokazu Uemura, Sakurako Katsuura-Kamano, Miwa Yamaguchi, Mariko Nakamoto, Keisuke Miki, Masashi Ishizu, Kokichi Arisawa
BACKGROUND: Nutrients have been proposed to be related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aims of this study were to identify dietary patterns that correlated with several nutrients using reduced rank regression (RRR) and to examine the association between extracted dietary patterns and prevalence of MetS in a Japanese population. METHODS: The study population comprised 1,092 Japanese men and women (35-69 years old) who had participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in Tokushima Prefecture...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150632/mucoadhesive-functionality-of-cell-wall-structures-from-fruits-and-grains-electrostatic-and-polymer-network-interactions-mediated-by-soluble-dietary-polysaccharides
#8
Oliver W Meldrum, Gleb E Yakubov, Ghanendra Gartaula, Michael A McGuckin, Michael J Gidley
We demonstrate the enhancement of intestinal mucin (Muc2) binding to plant cell wall structures from fruit (parenchymal apple tissue) and grain (wheat endosperm) mediated by soluble dietary fibers embedded within cellulose networks. Mucin binding occurs through two distinct mechanisms; for pectin polysaccharides characteristic of fruits and vegetables, it is governed by molecular mucoadhesive interactions, while for neutral polysaccharides, arabinoxylan and β-glucan characteristic of cereal grains, the interaction stems from the properties of their polymer network...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147976/evaluation-of-microbial-consortia-and-chemical-changes-in-spontaneous-maize-bran-fermentation
#9
Marilù Decimo, Mattia Quattrini, Giovanni Ricci, Maria Grazia Fortina, Milena Brasca, Tiziana Silvetti, Federica Manini, Daniela Erba, Franca Criscuoli, Maria Cristina Casiraghi
Sustainable exploitation of agro-industrial by-products has attracted great interest in cereal bran valorization. In this research, a polyphasic approach has been carried out to characterize maize bran at microbiological and chemical level during a sourdough like fermentation process, in order to enhance its technological and nutritional properties. Autochthonous microbiota was isolated at different refreshment steps and subjected to identification and molecular characterization. Fermentation was characterized by a rapid increase in lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, with a co-dominance, at the initial stage, of Weissella spp...
November 16, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147700/brown-rice-and-retrograded-brown-rice-alleviate-inflammatory-response-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mice
#10
Kemika Praengam, Yuraporn Sahasakul, Piengchai Kupradinun, Siriwan Sakarin, Wanwisa Sanitchua, Anudep Rungsipipat, Kasem Rattanapinyopituk, Pornpimon Angkasekwinai, Khaimuk Changsri, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
The present study was aimed to investigate the impacts of brown rice (BR) and retrograded brown rice (R-BR) consumption on colonic health and gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice. Thirty two female C57Bl/6Mlac mice were fed with modified AIN 93G diets by replacing cornstarch in the original composition with white rice (WR), BR and R-BR powder. The mice were divided into 4 groups and fed with the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: (1) negative control (WR: diet with WR), (2) positive control (DSS_WR: DSS and diet with WR), (3) DSS_BR: DSS and diet with BR, and (4) DSS_R-BR: DSS and diet with R-BR...
November 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146360/behaviour-of-trolox-with-macromolecule-bound-antioxidants-in-aqueous-medium-inhibition-of-auto-regeneration-mechanism
#11
Ecem Evrim Çelik, Jose Manuel Amigo Rubio, Vural Gökmen
This work aimed at investigating the behaviour of Trolox, vitamin E analogue, in presence of macromolecule-bound antioxidants in aqueous radical medium. Three main groups of macromolecule-bound antioxidants were assayed: dietary fiber (DF), protein and lipid-bound antioxidants, represented by whole wheat, soybean and olive oil products, respectively. Experimental studies were carried out in aqueous ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical medium. Trolox and macromolecule-bound antioxidants were added to radical separately and together in different concentrations...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144833/low-dietary-fiber-intake-increases-collinsella-abundance-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#12
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Shelley A Wilkinson, Leonie K Callaway, H David McIntyre, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of glucose metabolism in pregnancy. Abundance of the genus Collinsella is positively correlated with circulating insulin; however, it is unclear what determines Collinsella abundance. This study aims to validate the correlation between Collinsella and insulin and to elucidate if macronutrient intake alters Collinsella abundance and gut microbiota composition. Gut microbiota profiles were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing in 57 overweight and 73 obese pregnant women from the SPRING (Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes) trial at 16 weeks gestation and correlated with metabolic hormone levels and macronutrient intake...
November 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144429/does-perception-of-dietary-fiber-mediate-the-impact-of-nutrition-knowledge-on-eating-fiber-rich-bread
#13
Maria Królak, Marzena Jeżewska-Zychowicz, Marta Sajdakowska, Jerzy Gębski
The average daily intake of fiber is still too low in relation to nutritional recommendations, as was found in several studies. Therefore, it is necessary to recommend ways to increase fiber intake in the diet. Increasing the consumption of bread rich in fiber as a substitute of white bread is one of the ways to increase fiber intake. The aim of this study was to find out whether nutrition knowledge and perception of dietary fiber affected the frequency of eating wholemeal bread and white bread fortified with fiber...
November 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140151/a-comparison-of-the-nutrient-intakes-of-macronutrient-based-dieting-and-strict-dieting-bodybuilders
#14
Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems, Darryn Willoughby
The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive assessment of the nutritional habits of competitive bodybuilders and compare the nutrient intakes of macronutrient-based dieting and strict dieting individuals. Data from 41 subjects (30 males and 11 females) were used in analyses. Participants completed a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and diets were analyzed using a computer system. Males consumed an average of 2577.2 (SD=955.1) kilocalories, with an average fat intake of 83.6 g (SD=41.3), an average carbohydrate intake of 323...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137885/in-situ-examination-of-graphene-and-graphene-oxide-impact-on-the-depuration-of-phenanthrene-and-fluoranthene-adsorbed-onto-spinach-spinacia-oleracea-l-leaf-surfaces
#15
Haifeng Sun, Ruijie Feng, Yanli Nan, Zhang Chen, Nan Sang
To further assess the human being's exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through the dietary pathway, understanding the partitioning of these chemicals co-existed with nanomaterials in edible vegetable systems deserves specific consideration. In this study, the fiber-optic fluorimetry was applied to in situ examine the effects of graphene (GNS) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on the quantification and depuration of three-ringed phenanthrene (Phe) and four-ringed fluoranthene (Fla) adsorbed individually onto the living spinach (Spinacia oleracea L...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137803/dietary-fiber-intake-and-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#16
Baozhu Wei, Yang Liu, Xuan Lin, Ying Fang, Jing Cui, Jing Wan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiological studies show inconsistent findings on the association of dietary fiber intake with risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Herein, we aim to conduct a meta-analysis of published studies to determine the role of dietary fiber in prevention of MetS. METHODS: A systematical search in PubMed and Embase databases through December 2016, together with reference scrutiny of relevant literature, was performed to identify studies for inclusion...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137145/dietary-pea-fiber-supplementation-improves-glycemia-and-induces-changes-in-the-composition-of-gut-microbiota-serum-short-chain-fatty-acid-profile-and-expression-of-mucins-in-glucose-intolerant-rats
#17
Zohre Hashemi, Janelle Fouhse, Hyun Seun Im, Catherine B Chan, Benjamin P Willing
Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial impact of dried peas and their components on glucose tolerance; however, the role of gut microbiota as a potential mediator is not fully examined. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with raw and cooked pea seed coats (PSC) on glucose tolerance, microbial composition of the gut, select markers of intestinal barrier function, and short chain fatty acid profile in glucose intolerant rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks to induce glucose intolerance, followed by four weeks of feeding PSC-supplemented diets...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133979/dietary-nutrients-associated-with-preservation-of-lung-function-in-hispanic-and-non-hispanic-white-smokers-from-new-mexico
#18
Shuguang Leng, Maria A Picchi, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Guodong Wu, W James Gauderman, Fadi Xu, Frank D Gilliland, Steven A Belinsky
Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Cigarette smoking accelerates the age-related forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) decline, an important determinant for the genesis of COPD. Hispanic smokers have lower COPD prevalence and FEV1 decline than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). Patients and methods: A nutritional epidemiological study was conducted in the Lovelace Smokers cohort (LSC; n=1,829) and the Veterans Smokers cohort (n=508) to identify dietary nutrients (n=139) associated with average FEV1 and its decline and to assess whether nutrient intakes could explain ethnic disparity in FEV1 decline between Hispanics and NHW smokers...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133103/health-related-effects-and-improving-extractability-of-cereal-arabinoxylans
#19
REVIEW
Abdulmannan Fadel, Ayman M Mahmoud, Jason J Ashworth, Weili Li, Yu Lam Ng, Andrew Plunkett
Arabinoxylans (AXs) are major dietary fibers. They are composed of backbone chains of β-(1-4)-linked xylose residues to which α-l-arabinose are linked in the second and/or third carbon positions. Recently, AXs have attracted a great deal of attention because of their biological activities such as their immunomodulatory potential. Extraction of AXs has some difficulties; therefore, various methods have been used to increase the extractability of AXs with varying degrees of success, such as alkaline, enzymatic, mechanical extraction...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130716/-effect-of-quinua-chenopodium-quinoa-consumption-as-a-coadjuvant-in-nutritional-intervention-in-prediabetic-subjects
#20
María Salud Abellán Ruiz, María Dolores Barnuevo Espinosa, Carlos García Santamaría, Carlos Javier Contreras Fernández, Miriam Aldeguer García, Fulgencio Soto Méndez, Isabel Guillén Guillén, Antonio Jesús Luque Rubia, Francisco Javier Quinde Ràzuri, Antonio Martínez Garrido, Francisco Javier López Román
INTRODUCTION: Quinoa is a pseudocereal containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, dietary fiber, high biological value protein, phytosterols, and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which has generated interest in prediabetes nutritional interventions. This randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluated the effects of processed quinoa on body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
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