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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448503/etiologic-effects-and-optimal-intakes-of-foods-and-nutrients-for-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-and-diabetes-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-from-the-nutrition-and-chronic-diseases-expert-group-nutricode
#1
Renata Micha, Masha L Shulkin, Jose L Peñalvo, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Gitanjali M Singh, Mayuree Rao, Saman Fahimi, John Powles, Dariush Mozaffarian
BACKGROUND: Dietary habits are major contributors to coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. However, comprehensive evaluation of etiologic effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic outcomes, their quantitative effects, and corresponding optimal intakes are not well-established. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence for effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic diseases, including comprehensively assess evidence for causality; estimate magnitudes of etiologic effects; evaluate heterogeneity and potential for bias in these etiologic effects; and determine optimal population intake levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447070/ratios-of-soluble-and-insoluble-dietary-fibers-on-satiety-and-energy-intake-in-overweight-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#2
Britt Burton-Freeman, Dhanesh Liyanage, Sajida Rahman, Indika Edirisinghe
BACKGROUND: Fibers' properties impact different mechanisms involved in satiety and energy intake regulation and metabolic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of fiber types and menopausal status on satiety and metabolic responses in overweight women. METHODS: In a randomized within-subjects design, 19 overweight/obese women [9 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal] consumed 3 preloads that varied by fiber content and source: 1) 3:1 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (SF), 2) 1:3 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (IF), 3) no fiber control (NFC)...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444346/resistant-starch-as-a-novel-dietary-strategy-to-maintain-kidney-health-in-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Gar Yee Koh, Matthew J Rowling
The worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus is expected to reach 439 million by 2030. Diabetes increases the risk for developing secondary complications such as nephropathy and cardiovascular disease, critical factors that dictate the survival rate of diabetes patients. Compelling evidence has indicated that the positive impact of fermentable carbohydrates in obesity-related diabetes is mediated by the production of short-chain fatty acids and the modulation of colonic microbiota. This review summarizes the potential implications of dietary resistant starch, a class of fermentable fiber, in glucose homeostasis and kidney health in obesity-associated diabetes and examines the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of resistant starch...
April 22, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443284/fecal-short-chain-fatty-acid-variations-by-breastfeeding-status-in-infants-at-4%C3%A2-months-differences-in-relative-versus-absolute-concentrations
#4
Sarah L Bridgman, Meghan B Azad, Catherine J Field, Andrea M Haqq, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Padmaja Subbarao, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, David S Wishart, Anita L Kozyrskyj
Our gut microbiota provide a number of important functions, one of which is the metabolism of dietary fiber and other macronutrients that are undigested by the host. The main products of this fermentation process are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and other intermediate metabolites including lactate and succinate. Production of these metabolites is dependent on diet and gut microbiota composition. There is increasing evidence for the role of SCFAs in host physiology and metabolic processes as well as chronic inflammatory conditions such as allergic disease and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441866/interactions-of-insoluble-residue-from-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-brewer-s-spent-grain-with-intestinal-microbiota-in-mice
#5
Johanna Maukonen, Anna-Marja Aura, Piritta Niemi, Gulam Shere Raza, Klaus Niemela, Jaroslaw Walkowiak, Ismo Mattila, Kaisa Poutanen, Johanna Buchert, Karl-Heinz Herzig
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the major side-stream from brewing. As BSG is rich in dietary fiber and protein, it could be used in more valuable applications, such as nutritional additives for foods. Our aim was to elucidate whether a insoluble lignin-rich fraction (INS) from BSG is metabolized by mice gut microbiota and how it affects the microbiota. Our results indicated that lignin was partially degraded by the gut microbiota, degradation products were absorbed, and finally excreted in urine. Therefore, they contribute to the phenolic pool circulating in the mammalian body, and may have systemic effects on health...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437143/motivations-for-botanical-use-by-socioeconomically-diverse-urban-adults-does-evidence-support-motivation
#6
Grace F Duffy, Emily Stave Shupe, Marie Fanelli Kuczmarski, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans
OBJECTIVE: The study objectives were to characterize botanical dietary supplement (BDS) use and to compare the motivations for botanical supplement (BS) use to the efficacy of the botanical in a socioeconomically and racially diverse urban adult population. METHODS: Subjects were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, a 20-year prospective health disparities study with African American and white adults from Baltimore, Maryland...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434741/dietary-linseed-oil-increases-trans-10-cis-15-18-2-in-caprine-milk-fat
#7
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, M Juárez, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Trans-10,cis-15 18:2 has been recently detected and characterized in digestive contents and meat and adipose tissue of ruminants, but its presence in milk and dairy products is hardly known. The aim of this study was to quantify trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in milk fat, better understand its metabolic origin, and help to elucidate the mechanisms of rumen biohydrogenation when the diet composition might affect ruminal environment. To address these objectives, 16 dairy goats were allocated to 2 simultaneous experiments (2 groups of goats and 2 treatments in each experiment)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431559/effects-of-whole-grain-rye-with-and-without-resistant-starch-type-2-supplementation-on-glucose-tolerance-gut-hormones-inflammation-and-appetite-regulation-in-an-11-14-5%C3%A2-hour-perspective-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#8
Jonna C Sandberg, Inger M E Björck, Anne C Nilsson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation...
April 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431149/next-generation-non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading-multi-carbohydrase-complex-rich-in-xylanase-and-arabinofuranosidase-to-enhance-broiler-feed-digestibility
#9
Pierre Cozannet, Michael T Kidd, Roberto Montanhini Neto, Pierre-André Geraert
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a multi-carbohydrase complex ( ) rich in xylanase ( ) and arabinofuranosidase ( ) on overall broiler feed digestibility in broilers. Energy utilization and digestibility of dry matter ( ), organic matter ( ), protein, starch, fat, and insoluble and soluble fibers were measured using the mass-balance method. The experiment was carried out on 120 broilers (3-week-old chickens). Broilers were distributed over 8 treatments to evaluate the effect of the dietary arabinoxylan content and nutrient density with and without MCC (Rovabio® Advance)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429924/dietary-choice-and-health-behaviors-in-eastern-chinese-women-a-descriptive-population-based-survey-and-review-of-public-health-data
#10
Feng Wang, Fei Wang, Lixiang Yu, Zhigang Yu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urbanization in China has increased the prevalence of high-fat and low-fiber diets, and of adverse health behaviors associated with an increased risk of diet-related, non-communicable diseases (DR-NCDs) in eastern Chinese women. This study aimed to characterize the dietary intake and health behaviors in eastern Chinese women. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data of 122,058 women aged 25 to 70 who completed a multi-staged, stratified, cluster sampling epidemiological survey in eastern China in 2008, including self-report of diet and lifestyle information (sleep, physical activity, work, etc...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424190/odd-chain-fatty-acids-as-a-biomarker-for-dietary-fiber-intake-a-novel-pathway-for-endogenous-production-from-propionate
#11
Karolin Weitkunat, Sara Schumann, Daniela Nickel, Silke Hornemann, Klaus J Petzke, Matthias B Schulze, Andreas Fh Pfeiffer, Susanne Klaus
Background: The risk of type 2 diabetes is inversely correlated with plasma concentrations of odd-chain fatty acids [OCFAs; pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0)], which are considered as biomarkers for dairy fat intake in humans. However, rodent studies suggest that OCFAs are synthesized endogenously from gut-derived propionate. Propionate increases with dietary fiber consumption and has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity.Objective: We hypothesized that OCFAs are produced in humans from dietary fibers by a novel endogenous pathway...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423870/effects-of-physically-effective-neutral-detergent-fiber-content-on-dry-matter-intake-digestibility-and-chewing-activity-in-korean-native-goats-capra-hircus-coreanae-fed-with-total-mixed-ration
#12
Seyoung Jang, Eunkyung Kim, Jaehyun Park, Mirae Oh, Yujiao Tang, Yuling Ding, Hyejin Seong, Wonho Kim, Yeongsik Yun, Sangho Moon
Objective: This experiment was aimed to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content on dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR). Methods: Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae) aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg) were used in this experiment...
April 19, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423504/variations-in-the-bitterness-perception-related-genes-tas2r38-and-ca6-modify-the-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-in-koreans
#13
Jeong-Hwa Choi, Jeonghee Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Hee Jin Chang, Dae Kyung Sohn, Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim
Bitterness perception is known to be an important factor in individuals' dietary behaviors and is also associated with the sensing of nutritious/noxious molecules for subsequent metabolic responses in multiple organs. Therefore, the genetic variation in bitterness sensing may be associated with diet-related diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the influence of variations in the bitterness-sensing genes taste receptor type 2 member 38 (TAS2R38) and carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) on the consumption of food, tobacco and alcohol and the risk of CRC in Koreans...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422119/current-lifestyle-factors-that-increase-risk-of-t2dm-in-china
#14
REVIEW
N Zhang, S M Du, G S Ma
The Report on the Status of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese residents (2015) indicated that the prevalence of diabetes was 9.7% among adults aged ⩾18 years, which markedly increased from 2.6% in 2002 within 10 years. In addition to the social economic factors, transitions in food consumption, behavioral and lifestyle playing the important roles in the fast increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2010-2012, the cereal food consumption of Chinese residents was 337 g/d, vegetables consumption 269 g/d, fruit consumption 41 g/d, legume and legume products 11 g/d, dairy and dairy products consumption 25 g/d, meat consumption 90 g/d, edible oil consumption 42 g/d and dietary fiber 10...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421615/the-effects-of-oat-%C3%AE-glucan-incorporation-on-the-quality-structure-consumer-acceptance-and-glycaemic-response-of-steamed-bread
#15
Lei Wang, Fayin Ye, Liyuan Feng, Fubin Wei, Guohua Zhao
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the incorporation of oat β-glucan (OβG) on the sensory and nutritional quality of steamed bread. Wheat flour was substituted with OβG at levels varying from 0 g/100 g to 5 g/100 g. The results showed that the products containing 1 g/100 g and 3 g/100 g OβG produced a comparable overall consumer acceptance while a significantly lower score was given to the product with 5 g/100 g. Nutritionally, the presence of OβG impeded in vitro starch hydrolysis by amylolytic enzymes...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421057/gut-microbiota-modulation-and-its-relationship-with-obesity-using-prebiotic-fibers-and-probiotics-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Dinesh K Dahiya, Renuka, Monica Puniya, Umesh K Shandilya, Tejpal Dhewa, Nikhil Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Anil K Puniya, Pratyoosh Shukla
In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418519/association-of-diet-with-skin-histological-features-in-uv-b-exposed-mice
#17
Tapan K Bhattacharyya, Yvonne Hsia, David M Weeks, Tatiana K Dixon, Jessica Lepe, J Regan Thomas
Importance: Long-term exposure to solar radiation produces deleterious photoaging of the skin. It is not known if diet can influence skin photoaging. Objectives: To study the influence of a calorie-restricted diet and an obesity diet in mice exposed to long-term UV-B irradiation to assess if there is an association between diet and histopathological response to UV-B irradiation. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this animal model study in an academic setting, the dorsal skin of SKH1 hairless mice receiving normal, calorie-restricted, and obesity diets was exposed to UV-B irradiation 3 times a week for 10 weeks and were compared with corresponding controls...
April 13, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417148/relationship-between-nutritional-factors-and-hip-bone-density-in-individuals-with-chronic-stroke
#18
Samuel K Y Li, Mabel M P Wan, Frankie P L Siu, Susan Chung, Marco Y C Pang
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dietary habits and hip bone health in community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke. The usual dietary intake of 94 individuals with chronic stroke (30 women, mean age: 59.0 years) was assessed by a 3-day food record within a single week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) at both hips. The results showed that low hip bone mass was found in 59 and 50 of the participants on the affected and unaffected side, respectively...
April 17, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413639/calprotectin-in-serum-and-zonulin-in-serum-and-feces-are-elevated-after-introduction-of-a-diet-with-lower-carbohydrate-content-and-higher-fiber-fat-and-protein-contents
#19
Bodil Ohlsson, Bodil Roth, Ewa Larsson, Peter Höglund
Calprotectin is a marker of inflammation and zonulin is a marker of intestinal permeability. Diets with lower carbohydrate content and higher contents of fat, fiber and protein, e.g., Okinawan-based diet, are considered to reduce inflammation and intestinal permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate calprotectin and zonulin levels in serum and feces after intervention with an Okinawan-based Nordic diet. Thirty patients (17 women) with type 2 diabetes, mean age 57.5±8.2 years, BMI 29.9±4.1 kg/m(2), were served the diet during 12 weeks, and were followed for another 16 weeks...
April 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407904/characterization-and-functionalities-study-of-hemicellulose-and-cellulose-components-isolated-from-sorghum-bran-bagasse-and-biomass
#20
Shuang Qiu, Madhav P Yadav, Lijun Yin
This study was undertaken to isolate and characterize three carbohydrate-rich fractions: Hemicellulose A (Hemi. A), Hemicellulose B (Hemi. B) and cellulose-rich residue (CRF) from sorghum bran (SBR), sorghum bagasse (SBA) and sorghum biomass (SBI). The monosaccharide composition of the Hemi. A and Hemi. B fractions was determined, indicating that SBR has a highly branched structure. The analysis of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) showed that TDF and IDF contents in original sorghum materials were in the following order: SBA˃SBI˃SBR...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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