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Dietary fiber

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341931/bioinspired-capsules-based-on-nanocellulose-xyloglucan-and-pectin-the-influence-of-capsule-wall-composition-on-permeability-properties
#1
T Paulraj, A V Riazanova, A J Svagan
Materials based on renewable biopolymers, selective permeability and stimuli-responsive release/loading properties play an important role in biomedical applications. Here, in order to mimic the plant primary cell-wall, microcapsules have been fabricated using cell wall polysaccharides, namely pectin, xyloglucan and cellulose nanofibers. For the first time, a large amount of xyloglucan was successfully included in such capsules. These capsules demonstrated stimuli-responsive (ON/OFF) permeability and biocompatibility...
January 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340635/nutrient-digestibility-response-to-sugarcane-bagasse-addition-and-corn-particle-size-in-normal-and-high-na-diets-for-broilers
#2
S K Kheravii, R A Swick, M Choct, S-B Wu
Improving diet digestibility is important to the broiler industry. Therefore, this study focused on optimizing the physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber as strategies to improve nutrient digestibility in low and high sodium diets. A total of 672 day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 particle sizes of corn (coarse 3,576 μm or fine 1,113 μm geometric mean diameter), 2 levels of sugarcane bagasse (SB) (0 or 2%), and 2 levels of Na (0...
January 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340457/diet-quality-of-patients-with-chronic-chagas-disease-in-a-tertiary-hospital-a-case-control-study
#3
Mariana Pereira de Castilhos, Grazielle Vilas Bôas Huguenin, Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues, Emília Matos do Nascimento, Basílio de Bragança Pereira, Roberto Coury Pedrosa
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status has been implicated in the modulation of the immune response, possibly augmenting the pathogenesis of Chagas disease (Cd). We evaluated diet quality and nutritional status in adults and elderly patients with chronic Cd in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: A case-control study of Cd patients was conducted, paired for gender, age, and co-morbidities with non-Cd patients. Anthropometric measurements and food frequency questionnaire was used, and diet quality was assessed by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R)...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333817/anthropometric-and-biochemical-assessment-of-nutritional-status-and-dietary-intake-in-school-children-aged-6-14-years-province-of-buenos-aires-argentina
#4
Lorena Lázaro Cuesta, Analía Rearte, Sergio Rodríguez, Melina Niglia, Horacio Scipioni, Diego Rodríguez, Rosalía Salinas, Claudia Sosa, Stella Rasse
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. School age and adolescence are critical stages for the implementation of eating and lifestyle habits. OBJECTIVE: To assess anthropometric and biochemical assessment of nutritional status and dietary intake in children, their relationship with socioeconomic factors and georeferencing. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in schoolchildren aged 6-14 years from the District of General Pueyrredon, during August-November 2013...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333111/diet-gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer-prevention-a-review-of-potential-mechanisms-and-promising-targets-for-future-research
#5
Mingyang Song, Andrew T Chan
Diet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer. We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity...
December 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333047/assessment-of-nutritional-quality-and-global-antioxidant-response-of-banana-musa-sp-cv-nanjangud-rasa-bale-pseudostem-and-flower
#6
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, K R Anilakumar, Shivasharanappa Nayakavadi, Farhan Zameer, B L Dhananjaya, M N Nagendra Prasad
Background: The assessment of the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening of banana pseudostem (PB) and flower (FB) advocate this nonconventional food source for routine consumption, considering its various health benefits. Objectives: The aim is to assess the proximate nutrient composition, fatty acids, minerals, amino acid profile, and global antioxidant response (GAR) of PB and FB. Methods: Standard analytical procedures were used to determine the nutritional quality and GAR of PB and FB...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330956/craniomandibular-variation-in-phalangeriform-marsupials-functional-comparisons-with-primates
#7
Elizabeth M St Clair, Nicholas Reback, Jonathan M G Perry
Phalangeriform marsupials have often been compared with primates because of similarity in the range of external morphology, ecological niches, and body size between the two radiations. We explore morphological convergence in the masticatory anatomy of strepsirrhine primates and phalangeriforms, through osteological measurements of the mandible and facial skeleton, and through dissection of the masticatory musculature, presenting new data on the arrangement and proportions of jaw adductors in phalangeriforms...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330950/comparative-anatomy-of-bat-jaw-musculature-via-diffusible-iodine-based-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography
#8
Sharlene E Santana
Noctilionoid bats exhibit an extraordinary array of cranial specializations that match diverse diets, including variation in jaw musculature physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA), lever arms, and relative contribution to bite force. Although previous research in this group has linked variation in skull shape and muscle mechanics to biting performance, there are still important gaps about the anatomical underpinnings of noctilionoid dietary adaptations, including the degree of compartmentalization of the jaw musculature, and whether and how muscle attachment sites have evolved across noctilionoid species that specialize on derived diets...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330947/dietary-correlates-of-primate-masticatory-muscle-fiber-architecture
#9
Adam Hartstone-Rose, Ashley R Deutsch, Carissa L Leischner, Francisco Pastor
Analyses of masticatory muscle architecture-specifically fascicle length (FL; a correlate of muscle stretch and contraction speed) and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA; a correlate of force)-reveal soft-tissue dietary adaptations. For instance, consumers of large, soft foods are expected to have relatively long FL, while consumers of obdurate foods are expected to have relatively high PCSA. Unfortunately, only a few studies have analyzed these variables across large primate samples-an order of particular interest because it is our own...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329831/physicochemical-properties-nutritional-value-and-techno-functional-properties-of-goldenberry-physalis-peruviana-waste-powder-concise-title-composition-of-goldenberry-juice-waste
#10
Sayed M Mokhtar, Hesham M Swailam, Hassan El-Sayed Embaby
Goldenberry waste powder, contained 5.87% moisture, 15.89% protein, 13.72% fat, 3.52% ash, 16.74% dietary fiber and 61% carbohydrates. Potassium (560 mg/100 g) was the predominant element followed by sodium (170 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (130 mg/100 g). Amino acid analysis gave high levels of cystine/methionine, histidine and tyrosine/phenylalanine. Goldenberry waste powder had good levels of the techno-functional properties including water absorption index, swelling index, foaming capacity and stability (3...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322691/raspberry-supplementation-improves-insulin-signaling-and-promotes-brown-like-adipocyte-development-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#11
Tong Xing, Yifei Kang, Xinglian Xu, Bo Wang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
SCOPE: Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenolics and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321189/gut-brain-signaling-in-energy-homeostasis-the-unexpected-role-of-microbiota-derived-succinate
#12
REVIEW
Filipe de Vadder, Gilles Mithieux
In the context of the obesity epidemic, dietary fibers that are found essentially in fruit and vegetables attract more and more attention, since they exert numerous metabolic benefits resulting in the moderation of body weight. Short-chain fatty acids, such as propionate and butyrate, produced through their fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, have long been thought to be the mediators of these benefits. In fact, propionate and butyrate were recently shown to activate intestinal gluconeogenesis, a function exerting metabolic benefits via its capacity of signaling to the brain by gastrointestinal nerves...
February 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316620/could-aspirin-and-diets-high-in-fiber-act-synergistically-to-reduce-the-risk-of-colon-cancer-in-humans
#13
REVIEW
Pan Pan, Yi-Wen Huang, Kiyoko Oshima, Martha Yearsley, Jianying Zhang, Jianhua Yu, Mark Arnold, Li-Shu Wang
Early inhibition of inflammation suppresses the carcinogenic process. Aspirin is the most commonly used non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and it irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX1, COX2). Multiple randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that aspirin offers substantial protection from colon cancer mortality. The lower aspirin doses causing only minimal gastrointestinal disturbance, ideal for long-term use, can achieve only partial and transitory inhibition of COX2. Aspirin's principal metabolite, salicylic acid, is also found in fruits and vegetables that inhibit COX2...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313544/dietary-supplementation-of-defatted-kenaf-hibiscus-cannabinus-l-seed-meal-and-its-phenolics-saponins-rich-extract-effectively-attenuates-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-in-rats
#14
Kim Wei Chan, Maznah Ismail, Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Mustapha Umar Imam, Der Jiun Ooi, Nicholas M H Khong
Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model...
January 9, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312822/effect-of-dark-sweet-cherry-powder-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-biomarkers-of-gut-health-in-obese-db-db-mice
#15
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Nara N Lage, Susanne Mertens-Talcott, Stephen Talcott, Boon Chew, Scot E Dowd, Jorge R Kawas, Giuliana D Noratto
Cherries are fruits containing fiber and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenolics) with the potential of helping patients with diabetes and weight disorders, a phenomenon likely related to changes in the complex host-microbiota milieu. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cherry supplementation on the gut bacterial composition, concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and biomarkers of gut health using an in vivo model of obesity. Obese diabetic (db/db) mice received a supplemented diet with 10% cherry powder (supplemented mice, n = 12) for 12 weeks; obese (n = 10) and lean (n = 10) mice served as controls and received a standard diet without cherry...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311037/relationships-among-dietary-intakes-and-persistent-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-receiving-enzyme-treatment-for-genetic-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency
#16
Anne Boney, Heather E Elser, Heidi J Silver
BACKGROUND: Sucrose-isomaltase deficiency (SID) remains underdiagnosed. Absent or reduced enzyme activity promotes diarrhea, abdominal bloating, and flatulence from undigested and malabsorbed disaccharides. Frequency and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms may be associated with the type of carbohydrates consumed. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the dietary intakes of patients treated with sacrosidase (Sucraid; QOL Medical) for SID and determine relationships between type of carbohydrates, sacrosidase dose, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307977/dietary-intake-physical-activity-and-body-mass-index-among-postmenopausal-women
#17
Chaya Ranasinghe, Pallavi G Shettigar, Meenakshi Garg
Context: Nutrition plays a vital role in the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Aim: The aim is to determine the dietary intake, physical activity, and assess the body mass index (BMI) among postmenopausal women. Settings and Design: A community-based sample survey. Materials and Methods: The present study included 140 postmenopausal women (40-70 years) from Udupi, Manipal areas of Karnataka. The study was carried out between July and December 2013...
October 2017: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306348/effect-of-different-dietary-energy-and-protein-sources-on-antioxidant-status-fresh-yolk-fatty-acid-profile-and-microstructure-of-salted-yolks-in-laying-ducks
#18
D Ruan, Y J Hu, A M Fouad, C X Lin, Z P Xu, W Chen, Q L Fan, W G Xia, S Wang, Y Wang, L Yang, C T Zheng
The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302038/short-chain-fatty-acids-regulate-systemic-bone-mass-and-protect-from-pathological-bone-loss
#19
Sébastien Lucas, Yasunori Omata, Jörg Hofmann, Martin Böttcher, Aida Iljazovic, Kerstin Sarter, Olivia Albrecht, Oscar Schulz, Brenda Krishnacoumar, Gerhard Krönke, Martin Herrmann, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Till Strowig, Georg Schett, Mario M Zaiss
Microbial metabolites are known to modulate immune responses of the host. The main metabolites derived from microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in the intestine, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), affect local and systemic immune functions. Here we show that SCFA are regulators of osteoclast metabolism and bone mass in vivo. Treatment of mice with SCFA as well as feeding with a high-fiber diet significantly increases bone mass and prevents postmenopausal and inflammation-induced bone loss. The protective effects of SCFA on bone mass are associated with inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo, while bone formation is not affected...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301704/interacting-effects-of-ambient-temperature-and-food-quality-on-the-foraging-ecology-of-small-mammalian-herbivores
#20
Meghan J Camp, Lisa A Shipley, Charlotte R Milling, Janet L Rachlow, Jennifer S Forbey
Both temperature and diet quality play an important role in the time and energy budgets of small mammalian herbivores. However, little is known about how temperature and diet quality interact to influence diet selection, nutrient extraction, and energetics, and how these effects might differ among species. Therefore, we examined the effects of diet quality and temperature on aspects of the foraging ecology of two species of lagomorphs, pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), which are small dietary specialists, and mountain cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus nuttallii), which are larger dietary and habitat generalists...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
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