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Dietary fiber

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806487/gut-microbiome-response-to-short-term-dietary-interventions-in-reactive-hypoglycemia-subjects
#1
Sara Quercia, Silvia Turroni, Jessica Fiori, Matteo Soverini, Simone Rampelli, Elena Biagi, Andrea Castagnetti, Clarissa Consolandi, Marco Severgnini, Mario Pianesi, Francesco Fallucca, Paolo Pozzilli, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
BACKGROUND: Reactive hypoglycemia (RH) is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meal. Over recent years, the gut microbiota (GM) has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct GM dysbioses through diet, favoring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered. METHODS: We investigate the impact of two short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the GM in 12 patients affected by RH...
August 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805900/effects-of-dietary-tannins-on-total-and-extractable-nutrients-from-manure
#2
J J Halvorson, S L Kronberg, A E Hagerman
The effects of condensed tannins on N dynamics in ruminants have been a topic of research for some time, but much less work has focused on their impacts on other nutrients in manure. A 4 × 4 Latin square trial was used to determine if intake of sericea lespedeza (; SL; a condensed tannin source), at 0, 10, 20, or 40% of the diet (as-fed basis), would affect concentrations of nutrients in manure and patterns of total excretion when offered with alfalfa (; ALF) to sheep. With SL additions, average daily manure production increased linearly ( ≤ 0...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805891/increasing-corn-distillers-solubles-alters-the-liquid-fraction-of-the-ruminal-microbiome
#3
J C McCann, J R Segers, H Derakhshani, T L Felix, E Khafipour, D W Shike
Five ruminally fistulated steers were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design to determine the effects of increasing dietary fat and sulfur from condensed distiller's solubles (CDS) on the ruminal microbiome. Treatments included a corn-based control (CON) and 4 levels of CDS (0, 10, 19, and 27%) in a coproduct-based (corn gluten feed and soybean hulls) diet. Fat concentrations were 1.79, 4.43, 6.80, and 8.91% for diets containing 0, 10, 19, and 27% CDS, respectively. Steers were fed for ad libitum intake once daily...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805734/grain-foods-are-contributors-of-nutrient-density-for-american-adults-and-help-close-nutrient-recommendation-gaps-data-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2009-2012
#4
Yanni Papanikolaou, Victor L Fulgoni
The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020 DGA) maintains recommendations for increased consumption of whole grains while limiting intake of enriched/refined grains. A variety of enriched grains are sources of several shortfall nutrients identified by 2015-2020 DGA, including dietary fiber, folate, iron, and magnesium. The purpose of this study was to determine food sources of energy and nutrients for free-living U.S. adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012...
August 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804483/the-impact-of-western-diet-and-nutrients-on-the-microbiota-and-immune-response-at-mucosal-interfaces
#5
REVIEW
Donjete Statovci, Mònica Aguilera, John MacSharry, Silvia Melgar
Recent findings point toward diet having a major impact on human health. Diets can either affect the gut microbiota resulting in alterations in the host's physiological responses or by directly targeting the host response. The microbial community in the mammalian gut is a complex and dynamic system crucial for the development and maturation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the complex interaction between available nutrients, the microbiota, and the immune system are central regulators in maintaining homeostasis and fighting against invading pathogens at mucosal sites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803021/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-heat-treated-canola-meal-on-ruminal-nutrient-metabolism-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#6
S J Krizsan, H Gidlund, F Fatehi, P Huhtanen
An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of incremental levels of heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) fed to dairy cows on the relationship between ruminal nutrient digestion and milk production. Experimental diets were fed to 4 multiparous rumen-cannulated Nordic Red cows, averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 681 ± 54.8 kg of body weight, 111 ± 16 d in milk, and 29.1 ± 9.1 kg of milk/d at the start of the study, in a Latin square design with four 21-d periods. The 4 experimental dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet of grass silage and crimped barley, and 3 diets in which the crimped barley was replaced with TCM, giving 3 incremental levels of protein supplementation...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802151/sodium-butyrate-inhibits-the-nf-kappa-b-signaling-pathway-and-histone-deacetylation-and-attenuates-experimental-colitis-in-an-il-10-independent-manner
#7
Changhyun Lee, Byeong Gwan Kim, Jee Hyun Kim, Jaeyoung Chun, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim
Butyrate is a bacterial metabolite of dietary fiber in the colon that has been used to treat inflammatory disease. However, the effect of oral supplementation with butyrate on colitis has not been fully explored. We evaluated the effects of and mechanisms underlying oral supplementation with butyrate on experimental murine colitis. In an in vitro study, we found that LPS induced the secretion of cytokines (i.e., IL-8 in COLO 205; TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10 in RAW 264.7; and TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12 in peritoneal macrophages obtained from IL-10-deficient [IL-10(-/-)] mice)...
August 9, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796381/fortification-of-wheat-bread-with-agroindustry-by-products-statistical-methods-for-sensory-preference-evaluation-and-correlation-with-color-and-crumb-structure
#8
Z E Martins, O Pinho, I M P L V O Ferreira
The use of agroindustry by-products (BP) for fortification of wheat bread can be an alternative to waste disposal because BP are appealing sources of dietary fiber. Moreover, it may also contribute to indirect income generation. In this study, sensory, color, and crumb structure properties of breads fortified with fiber rich fraction recovered from four types of agroindustry BP were tested, namely orange (OE), pomegranate (PE), elderberry (EE), and spent yeast (YE). Statistical models for sensory preference evaluation and correlation with color and crumb structure were developed...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796321/low-temperature-blanching-as-a-tool-to-modulate-the-structure-of-pectin-in-blueberry-purees
#9
Laura M Chevalier, Laurie-Eve Rioux, Paul Angers, Sylvie L Turgeon
Blueberry composition was characterized for 6 cultivars. It contains a good amount of dietary fiber (10% to 20%) and pectin (4% to 7%) whose degree of methylation (DM) is sensitive to food processing. A low temperature blanching (LTB: 60 °C/1 h) was applied on blueberry purees to decrease pectin DM, in order to modulate puree properties and functionalities (that is, viscosity and stability), and to enhance pectin affinity toward other components within food matrices. Fiber content, viscosity, pectin solubility, DM, and monosaccharide composition were determined for both pasteurized, and LTB+pasteurized blueberry purees...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796173/effects-of-vegetables-on-cardiovascular-diseases-and-related-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Guo-Yi Tang, Xiao Meng, Ya Li, Cai-Ning Zhao, Qing Liu, Hua-Bin Li
Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, and vitamins, essential elements, dietary fibers, botanic proteins and phytochemicals were bioactive components. The cardioprotective effects of vegetables might involve antioxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; regulating blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile; attenuating myocardial damage; and modulating relevant enzyme activities, gene expression, and signaling pathways as well as some other biomarkers associated to cardiovascular diseases...
August 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795322/discarded-seeds-from-red-pepper-capsicum-annum-processing-industry-as-a-sustainable-source-of-high-added-value-compounds-and-edible-oil
#11
Samia Azabou, Fadia Ben Taheur, Mourad Jridi, Mohamed Bouaziz, Moncef Nasri
The chemical composition and the antioxidant properties of Capsicum annum discarded seeds from processing industry with their corresponding extracted oil were investigated. C. annum seeds had high levels of crude proteins (18.30%), crude oil (11.04%), and dietary fibers (60.96%). The lipophilic fraction of C. annum seeds showed higher radical scavenging activity compared to their hydrophilic fraction, while this latter exhibited the highest reducing power. The results of fatty acid composition showed that fatty acids present in C...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794893/effect-of-dietary-sugar-beet-pulp-supplementation-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-fecal-microflora-blood-profiles-and-diarrhea-incidence-in-weaning-pigs
#12
C L Yan, H S Kim, J S Hong, J H Lee, Y G Han, Y H Jin, S W Son, S H Ha, Y Y Kim
BACKGROUND: In 2006, the European Union (EU) has decided to forbid use of antibiotics as growth promoters. Although many researches had been conducted about fiber source as alternatives of antibiotics, there are still lack of reports in the literature about the optimum level of sugar beet pulp supplementation, affecting growth performance and nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs. Therefore, different level of sugar beet pulp was added to diets to determine the effects of sugar beet pulp supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microflora, blood profile and incidence of diarrhea in weaning pigs...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794309/enteral-formula-containing-egg-yolk-lecithin-improves-diarrhea
#13
Tetsuro Akashi, Ayano Muto, Yayoi Takahashi, Hiroshi Nishiyama
Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776378/colonic-diverticulosis-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-association
#14
Cristina Teixeira, Daniel Trabulo, Suzane Ribeiro, Cláudio Rodrigues Martins, Ana Luísa Alves, Isabelle Cremers, Ana Paula Oliveira
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Colonic diverticulosis (CD) is related to advanced age and a lack of dietary fiber. Recently, several studies have shown that metabolic syndrome (MS) is also implicated in the etiopathogenesis of CD. This study aimed to assess the association between MS, obesity and CD. METHODS: This was a prospective study of a one-year duration. The MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III)...
August 4, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769535/available-energy-content-nutrients-digestibility-of-chili-meal-and-effects-on-performance-of-growing-pigs
#15
Y F Fan, Y Y Yang, P Yang, T Xia, Y X Ma
The objective of this study was to evaluate the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in chili meal (CM), and to determine the effects of CM on the performance of growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 barrows (Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire) with an initial body weight (BW) of 50.9 ± 1.8 kg were allocated to one of two treatments, corn-soybean meal basal diet or diet containing 194.2 g/kg CM, which replaced corn and soybean meal in the basal diet...
July 2017: Animal Feed Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768296/dietary-pattern-and-colonic-diverticulosis
#16
Antonio Tursi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. RECENT FINDINGS: High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767988/quality-of-diet-plans-for-weight-loss-featured-in-women-s-magazines-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study
#17
Maiara Martinighi, Edina Mariko Koga da Silva
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Brazil has the fifth largest population of obese individuals in the world. Women's magazines publish a large number of diet plans, and therefore the objective of this study was to assess the quality of these plans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. METHODS: We included the Brazilian women's magazines of highest circulation published between January and June 2014 that advertised diets for weight loss on their covers...
July 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766321/flavored-milk-consumers-drank-more-milk-and-had-a-higher-prevalence-of-meeting-calcium-recommendation-than-nonconsumers
#18
Theresa A Nicklas, Carol O'Neil, Victor Fulgoni
BACKGROUND: Some schools are removing flavored milk because of the perception that it negatively impacts children's overall diet. This study assessed the contribution of flavored milk to their diets. METHODS: Individual usual intakes (IUI) were calculated from 24-hour dietary recalls of children 2-18 years (N = 20,329) participating in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012. IUI of >0.25 cup equivalent of flavored dairy milk defined consumers (N = 3564; 56% boys)...
September 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766244/sulfur-cycling-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#19
REVIEW
Larry L Barton, Nathaniel L Ritz, Guy D Fauque, Henry C Lin
In this review, we focus on the activities transpiring in the anaerobic segment of the sulfur cycle occurring in the gut environment where hydrogen sulfide is produced. While sulfate-reducing bacteria are considered as the principal agents for hydrogen sulfide production, the enzymatic desulfhydration of cysteine by heterotrophic bacteria also contributes to production of hydrogen sulfide. For sulfate-reducing bacteria respiration, molecular hydrogen and lactate are suitable as electron donors while sulfate functions as the terminal electron acceptor...
August 1, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764097/interactions-between-macromolecule-bound-antioxidants-and-trolox-during-liposome-autoxidation-a-multivariate-approach
#20
Ecem Evrim Çelik, Jose Manuel Amigo Rubio, Mogens L Andersen, Vural Gökmen
The interactions between free and macromolecule-bound antioxidants were investigated in order to evaluate their combined effects on the antioxidant environment. Dietary fiber (DF), protein and lipid-bound antioxidants, obtained from whole wheat, soybean and olive oil products, respectively and Trolox were used for this purpose. Experimental studies were carried out in autoxidizing liposome medium by monitoring the development of fluorescent products formed by lipid oxidation. Chemometric methods were used both at experimental design and multivariate data analysis stages...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
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