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older adults

Maria An Saad, Antonio Jl Jorge, Wolney de Andrade Martins, Gilberto P Cardoso, Marcia Ms Dos Santos, Maria Lg Rosa, Giovanna Ab Lima, Rafaela Q de Moraes, Rubens A da Cruz Filho
AIM: Population aging is a worldwide phenomenon associated with physiological and metabolic changes that contribute to the increased prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The phase angle (PA) is a variable calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, interpreted as a direct measure of cell stability. The objective of the present study was to investigate the correlation of PA with the anthropometric measures, metabolic profile and the cardiovascular risk estimated by the Global Cardiovascular Risk Score in the elderly population...
January 22, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Gabriel D Rodrigues, Jonas L Gurgel, Thiago R Gonçalves, Flávia Porto, Pedro Paulo da S Soares
AIM: To investigate the influence of breathing patterns and blood pressure behavior postural control in older adults. METHODS: A total of 20 older adults carried out spontaneous, controlled (15 cycles/min) and deep (6 cycles/min) breathing trials, in random order. In this session, the heart rate was recorded continuously and blood pressure measured every 3 min. In addition, the challenge from sitting to an active standing position was carried out with eyes closed during 6 min on a baropodometer plate with electromyography recording...
January 22, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Andrea Corsonello, Claudio Pedone, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
AIMS: There is uncertainty about which estimated glomerular filtration rate eGFR equation to use in older people with respect to the prediction of prognosis. Our aim was: (i) to compare the discriminative capacity of eGFR estimated by different equations with respect to all-cause mortality; and (ii) to identify the eGFR threshold at which the risk of mortality starts to increase for each equation. METHODS: We used data from 828 community-dwelling older adults aged >65 years enrolled in the InCHIANTI study...
January 22, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Jessica A Yesensky, Rifat Hasina, Kristen E Wroblewski, Joseph Bellairs, Zhen Gooi, Vassiliki Saloura, Nicole A Cipriani, Everett E Vokes, Louis G Portugal, Tanguy Y Seiwert, Elizabeth D Blair, Nishant Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in nonsmokers and nondrinkers remains poorly characterized. We hypothesized that these patients had prior exposure to metallic dental hardware. METHODS: We utilized a questionnaire querying the lifetime oral health status of 54 patients. Demographics and extensive oral health history were collected. RESULTS: The majority of patients (74%) had prior exposure to metallic dental hardware...
January 22, 2018: Head & Neck
Laura L Ooi, Danielle Baldwin, Robert J Coplan, Linda Rose-Krasnor
The purpose of this study was to provide additional psychometric support for the Preference for Solitary Play Interview (PSPI) and to examine the associations between self-reported preference for solitary play and indices of adjustment in early childhood. Participants were N = 340 children attending kindergarten and grade 1. Children completed the PSPI, and teachers provided assessments of children's socio-emotional and school adjustment. In support of the validity of the PSPI, preference for solitary play was positively associated with asocial behaviours...
January 22, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Tina Y Gao, Nicola Anstice, Raiju J Babu, Joanna M Black, William R Bobier, Shuan Dai, Cindy X Guo, Robert F Hess, Michelle Jenkins, Yannan Jiang, Lisa Kearns, Lionel Kowal, Carly S Y Lam, Peter C K Pang, Varsha Parag, Jayshree South, Sandra Elfride Staffieri, Angela Wadham, Natalie Walker, Benjamin Thompson
PURPOSE: Optical treatment alone can improve visual acuity (VA) in children with amblyopia, thus clinical trials investigating additional amblyopia therapies (such as patching or videogames) for children require a preceding optical treatment phase. Emerging therapies for adult patients are entering clinical trials. It is unknown whether optical treatment is effective for adults with amblyopia and whether an optical correction phase is required for trials involving adults. METHODS: We examined participants who underwent optical treatment in the Binocular Treatment for Amblyopia using Videogames (BRAVO) clinical trial (ANZCTR ID: ACTRN12613001004752)...
January 22, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Heikki Hämäläinen, Faramosh Rashid Izullah, Mika Koivisto, Fiia Takio, Mika Luimula
Spatial perceptual rightward bias which was originally described in Dichotic Listening studies seems to be a general phenomenon. This bias is age dependent, being evident in children with developing executive functions, and emerging again at older age as a function of aging and the declining executive functions. In the two studies presented here we compared the performance of young and elderly adults in spatial divided attention tasks with auditory and visual stimuli when the stimulus detection performance was measured in separate sessions in a laboratory setting (Study I), to performance when the same types of stimuli were mixed with a task in which the subject's primary objective was to drive a car in a virtual environment (virtual reality; Study II)...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Katherine L Possin, Tacie Moskowitz, Sabrina J Erlhoff, Kirsten M Rogers, Erica T Johnson, Natasha Z R Steele, Joseph J Higgins, Jordan Stiver, Andrea G Alioto, Sarah T Farias, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Brief cognitive screens lack the sensitivity to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or support differential diagnoses. The objective of this study was to validate the 10-minute, tablet-based University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Brain Health Assessment (BHA) to overcome these limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: UCSF Memory and Aging Center. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults (N = 347) (neurologically healthy controls (n = 185), and individuals diagnosed with MCI (n = 99), dementia (n = 42), and as normal with concerns (n = 21))...
January 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Kate L Lapane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Nandi Siegfried, Dickens H Akena, Dan J Stein, Ekwaro A Obuku, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: Rates of major depression among people living with HIV (PLWH) are substantially higher than those seen in the general population and this may adversely affect antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Several unique clinical and psychosocial factors may contribute to the development and persistence of depression in PLWH. Given these influences, it is unclear if antidepressant therapy is as effective for PLWH as the general population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of antidepressant therapy for treatment of depression in PLWH...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rachel Lumish, Joshana K Goga, Nicole J Brandt
The use of opioid drug therapy in older adults has increased over the past decade. Although use of opioid drugs may be clinically warranted, ongoing use needs to be monitored closely to evaluate risks and benefits, especially with the potential for adverse events and misuse. An opioid drug deprescribing protocol would provide clinicians with a method to assess an individual's need for opioid agents, as well as a systematic process to taper opioid drug therapy when deemed appropriate. Although more than 60 studies have reported methods for deprescribing, there is currently no established guideline for discontinuing opioid medications...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Sherry Dahlke, Sarah Stahlke, Robin Coatsworth-Puspoky
The aim of the current study was to examine the nature of teamwork in care facilities and its impact on the effectiveness of care delivery to older adults and job satisfaction among health care workers. A focused ethnography was conducted at two care facilities where older adults reside. Analysis of interviews with 22 participants revealed perceptions of teamwork and understandings about facilitators of and barriers to effective teamwork. Participants indicated that team relationships impacted care provided and job satisfaction...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Lilah M Besser, Daniel A Rodriguez, Noreen McDonald, Walter A Kukull, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Stephen R Rapp, Teresa Seeman
Preliminary studies suggest that neighborhood social and built environment (BE) characteristics may affect cognition in older adults. Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the neighborhood environment due to a decreasing range of routine travel with increasing age. We examined if multiple neighborhood BE characteristics are cross-sectionally associated with cognition in a diverse sample of older adults, and if the BE-cognition associations vary by individual-level demographics. The sample included 4539 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
January 9, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Christian Habeck, Teal Eich, Ray Razlighi, Yunglin Gazes, Yaakov Stern
To better understand the impact of aging, along with other demographic and brain health variables, on the neural networks that support different aspects of cognitive performance, we applied a brute-force search technique based on Principal Components Analysis to derive 4 corresponding spatial covariance patterns (termed Reference Ability Neural Networks -RANNs) from a large sample of participants across the age range. Two hundred and fifty-five clinically healthy, community-dwelling adults, aged 20-77, underwent fMRI while performing 12 tasks, 3 tasks for each of the following cognitive reference abilities: Episodic Memory, Reasoning, Perceptual Speed, and Vocabulary...
January 17, 2018: NeuroImage
Matthew Lee Smith, Caroline D Bergeron, SangNam Ahn, Samuel D Towne, Chivon A Mingo, Kayin T Robinson, Jamarcus Mathis, Lu Meng, Marcia G Ory
Females are more likely than males to participate in evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention programs targeted for middle-aged and older adults. Despite the availability and benefits of Stanford's Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) programs, male participation remains low. This study identifies personal characteristics of males who attended CDSME program workshops and identifies factors associated with successful intervention completion. Data were analyzed from 45,375 male CDSME program participants nationwide...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Yen T Chen, Carole K Holahan, Charles J Holahan, Xiaoyin Li
Memory concerns are common in middle-aged and older adults. This study investigated the relation of leisure-time physical activity to self-rated memory and the possible mediating role of subjective age in this relationship in middle-aged and older adults. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with a sample of 1,608 middle-aged and older adults from the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS2). In a path analysis conducted with Mplus, a higher level of leisure-time physical activity was associated with a more positive appraisal of memory compared to others of one's age; younger subjective age partially mediated this relationship...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
Rafael De la Garza Ramos, C Rory Goodwin, Amit Jain, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez, Isaac O Karikari, Daniel M Sciubba
Background: To investigate the inpatient perioperative morbidity rate of patients with movement disorders (MD) after spinal deformity surgery. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2002 to 2011 was queried to identify adult patients with MD who underwent spinal deformity surgery. Complication rates were compared between patients with MD and controls. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the effect of MD on outcome. Results: A total of 365 patients with MD (3...
December 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Federica Piras, Elena Carbone, Silvia Faggian, Elisa Salvalaio, Simona Gardini, Erika Borella
Background: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is an evidence-based psychosocial intervention for people with mild-to-moderate dementia due to various etiological factors. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the CST program, Italian adaptation -CST-IT-, in individuals who have vascular dementia (VaD). Methods: Older adults with mild-to-moderate VaD (N = 35) were assigned to one of two programs: one group (N = 21) attended the 14 sessions of the CST-IT program, while the other, active control group (N = 14) took part in alternative activities...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Márcia Radanovic, Florindo Stella, Lis Gomes Silva, Leda L Talib, Orestes V Forlenza
Cognitive impairment includes mild cognitive decline and dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular-related pathologies. Objective: To investigate the profile of AD-related CSF biomarkers in a sample of cognitively impaired and unimpaired older adults with concomitant subcortical cerebrovascular burden. Methods: Seventy-eight older adults attending an outpatient psychogeriatric clinic were enrolled. Diagnoses were based on clinical, neuropsychological, laboratory, and neuroimaging data...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Jinkyung Cho, Youngyun Jin, Hyunsik Kang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the associations between weight status, physical activity, and depression in Korean older adults. METHODS: We used the baseline data drawn from the 2008 baseline survey utilized in the Living Profiles of Older People Survey, comprised of 15,146 community-dwelling older people (42.6% men and 57.4% women) aged 60 years and older residing in the Republic of Korea. After excluding respondents with missing data on height, weight, and physical activity (PA), data on 10,197 samples (43...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
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