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older adults

Ruth S Weinstock, Ingrid Schütz-Fuhrmann, Crystal G Connor, Julia M Hermann, David M Maahs, Morten Schütt, Shivani Agarwal, Sabine E Hofer, Roy W Beck, Reinhard W Holl
AIMS: Compare characteristics, therapies and clinical outcomes in older adults with type 1 diabetes in the United States T1D Exchange (T1DX) and German/Austrian Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) registries. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adults ≥60years old with type 1 diabetes seen in 2011-2012 in the T1DX (n=1283) and DPV (n=2014) registries. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Jessica A Flynn, Eberhard Durr, Ryan Swoyer, Pedro J Cejas, Melanie S Horton, Jennifer D Galli, Scott A Cosmi, Amy S Espeseth, Andrew J Bett, Lan Zhang
Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in humans, leading to significant morbidity and mortality in both young children and older adults. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available, and therapeutic options are limited. During the infection process, the type I viral fusion (F) glycoprotein on the surface of the RSV particle rearranges from a metastable prefusion conformation to a highly stable postfusion form. In people naturally infected with RSV, most potent neutralizing antibodies are directed to the prefusion form of the F protein...
2016: PloS One
Seema T Meloni, Charlotte A Chang, Geoffrey Eisen, Toyin Jolayemi, Bolanle Banigbe, Prosper I Okonkwo, Phyllis J Kanki
BACKGROUND: While there has been a rapid global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programs over the past decade, there are limited data on long-term outcomes from large cohorts in resource-constrained settings. Our objective in this evaluation was to measure multiple outcomes during first-line antiretroviral therapy in a large treatment program in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multi-site program evaluation of adult patients (age ≥15 years) initiating antiretroviral therapy between June 2004 and February 2012 in Nigeria...
2016: PloS One
John I Shin, Kevin Phan, Parth Kothari, Jun S Kim, Javier Z Guzman, Samuel K Cho
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis of administrative database. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effect of glycemic control on surgical outcomes of middle-aged and elderly idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a condition thought to adversely affect outcomes of spine surgery. However, no study has stratified glycemic control levels and their impact on outcome for idiopathic scoliosis patients receiving a spinal fusion surgery...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Erin A Bampton, Steven T Johnson, Jeff K Vallance
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of resistance training among older adults in Alberta, Canada, has never been measured. Hence, there is no clear understanding of the demographic and health-related factors associated with resistance training, or older adults' resistance training programming preferences. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of resistance training behaviours among older adults in Alberta. METHODS: Older adults (>55 years) from across Alberta were invited to participate in this study...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Émélie Laverdière, Hélène Payette, Pierrette Gaudreau, José A Morais, Bryna Shatenstein, Mélissa Généreux
OBJECTIVES: Extreme heat is known to increase heat-related health outcomes (HRHO). Incidence and predictors of HRHO were examined among older adults living in Quebec (Canada). METHOD: This prospective five-year study used data from the first follow-up of community-dwelling older adults from the NuAge cohort (2005-2006), located in three health regions of Southern Quebec. Medical, social and environmental factors, identified in Health Canada guidelines (2011), were used to develop the Older Adult Health Vulnerability Index (OAHVI)...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Craig N Sawchuk, Emily Van Dyke, Adam Omidpanah, Joan E Russo, Ursula Tsosie, Jack Goldberg, Dedra Buchwald
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is among the leading causes of death in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), with rates increasing over the last two decades. Barriers in accessing cancer screening and treatment likely contribute to this situation. METHODS: We administered structured clinical interviews and conducted descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses of demographic, health, spiritual, and treatment factors associated with self-reported barriers to cancer care among 143 adult AI/AN oncology patients...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Janice C Zgibor, Elizabeth A Schlenk, Laura Vater, Sushma Kola, Joni Vander Bilt, Sarah Woody, Mini E Jacob, Wei-Hsuan Lo-Ciganic, Allison Brenckle, Jane Brandenstein, C Kent Kwoh, Robert Boudreau, Steven Albert, Margaret Conroy, Elizabeth Rodgers, Anne B Newman
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions exist for prevention of chronic disease in older adults. Partnering with community organizations may provide a mechanism for disseminating these interventions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the partnership and program implementation by the Arthritis Foundation (AF) and the University of Pittsburgh. METHODS: The AF Exercise Program (AFEP; an existing evidence-based program) was enhanced with the "10 Keys"™ to Healthy Aging (a prevention-focused program bundling the most common risk factors for chronic disease and disability in older adults and applies behavior change strategies to enhance prevention)...
2016: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
Natalie Emmert, Lauren Schwarz, Jillon Vander Wal, Jeffrey Gfeller
Previous research has yielded minimal empirical support for the theoretically formulated five-factor structure of the RBANS, a brief, yet comprehensive standardized neuropsychological test battery used to assess cognitive impairment. The present study tested the theoretically formulated five-factor structure, as well as three alternative factor solutions, using a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approaches. The present study utilized archival data from a clinical sample of 150 older adults who were evaluated at an outpatient neuropsychological service...
October 20, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Elizabeth Wolf, Joshua Herbeck, Stephen Van Rompaey, Mari M Kitahata, Katherine K Thomas, Gregory Pepper, Lisa Frenkel
HIV-1 incidence among youth, especially men who have sex with men (MSM), is increasing in the US. We aimed to better understand the patterns of adolescent HIV-1 acquisition, in order to help guide future prevention interventions. We conducted a study combining epidemiologic and HIV-1 pol sequence data from a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected adults and adolescents in Seattle, WA between 2000 and 2013. Adolescents were defined as 13-24 years of age at the time of first HIV-1 care. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were reconstructed to identify putative viral transmission clusters of two or more individuals, followed by multivariable regression tests of associations between clustering and demographic and clinical parameters...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Tamara Brussee, Ruth Ma van Nispen, Ger Hmb van Rens
BACKGROUND: Visual acuity (VA) only slightly explains variability in reading performance, whereas other visual and non-visual parameters have been reported to influence reading performance; however, in ophthalmologic and optometric clinical practice and research, where standardised reading tests are used, many of these parameters are often neglected. The purpose of this study was to give insight into how various visual and non-visual parameters are associated with reading performance in normally sighted subjects...
October 20, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Wang I Wong
Spatial abilities are pertinent to mathematical competence, but evidence of the space-math link has largely been confined to older samples and intrinsic spatial abilities (e.g., mental transformation). The roles of gender and affective factors are also unclear. This study examined the correlations between counting ability, mental transformation, and targeting accuracy in 182 Hong Kong preschoolers, and whether these relationships were weaker at higher spatial anxiety levels. Both spatial abilities related with counting similarly for boys and girls...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Sedighe Moradi, Mohammad Javad Haji Ghanbari, Hedyeh Ebrahimi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, CVD accounts for primary cause of death among diabetic patients. Physicians, especially in the primary care setting, have effective role in the management of cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to compare the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in Type 2 diabetic patients attending to an urban health center as a primary care center with Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism Diabetes Clinic (IEMDC) as a tertiary center...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Andrea Gruneir, Lauren E Griffith, Kathryn Fisher, Dilzayn Panjwani, Sima Gandhi, Li Sheng, Chris Patterson, Amiram Gafni, Jenny Ploeg, Maureen Markle-Reid
OBJECTIVE: To characterize comorbid chronic conditions, describe health services use, and estimate health care costs among community-dwelling older adults with prior stroke. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using administrative data from Ontario, Canada. We identified all community-dwelling individuals aged 66 and over on April 1, 2008 (baseline), who had experienced a stroke at least 6 months prior. We estimated the prevalence of 14 comorbid conditions at baseline; we captured all physician visits, emergency department visits, hospital admissions, home care contacts, and associated costs over 5 years stratifying by number of comorbid conditions...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Kelly R Evenson, Fang Wen, Amy H Herring
The US physical activity (PA) recommendations were based primarily on studies in which self-reported data were used. Studies that include accelerometer-assessed PA and sedentary behavior can contribute to these recommendations. In the present study, we explored the associations of PA and sedentary behavior with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a nationally representative sample. Among the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort, 3,809 adults 40 years of age or older wore an accelerometer for 1 week and self-reported their PA levels...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Young Sun Kim, T Greg Rhee, Hee Yun Lee, Byung Hyun Park, Monica L Sharratt
BACKGROUND: Existing literature suggests that mental health literacy is positively associated with mental health services utilization. Despite an aging population that faces significant mental health concerns in Korea, the role of mental health literacy on mental health services utilization is not known among older adults in Korea. This study aimed to (1) identify whether mental health literacy mediates the association between population characteristics and mental health services utilization and (2) identify an optimal path model for mental health services utilization among Korean older adults...
October 20, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Theresa Pauly, Jennifer C Lay, Urs M Nater, Stacey B Scott, Christiane A Hoppmann
BACKGROUND: Spending time alone constitutes a ubiquitous part of our everyday lives. As we get older, alone time increases. Less is known, however, about age differences in the experience of spending time alone (momentary solitude). OBJECTIVES: We examined time-varying associations between momentary solitude, affect quality, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity markers [salivary cortisol; dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAs)] to better understand the affective and biological correlates of momentary solitude across the adult life span...
October 20, 2016: Gerontology
Sophie Joanisse, Joshua P Nederveen, Tim Snijders, Bryon R McKay, Gianni Parise
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Ultimately, sarcopenia results in the loss of independence, which imposes a large financial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. A critical facet of sarcopenia is the diminished ability for aged muscle to regenerate, repair and remodel. Over the years, research has focused on elucidating underlying mechanisms of sarcopenia and the impaired ability of muscle to respond to stimuli with aging. Muscle-specific stem cells, termed satellite cells (SC), play an important role in maintaining muscle health throughout the lifespan...
October 20, 2016: Gerontology
Meilin Zhang, Li Zheng, Ping Li, Yufeng Zhu, Hong Chang, Xuan Wang, Weiqiao Liu, Yuwen Zhang, Guowei Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our aim was to evaluate whether visceral adiposity index (VAI) could predict the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in different genders and to compare the predictive ability between VAI and other fatness indices. METHODS: Four thousand seventy-eight participants including 1,817 men and 2,261 women, aged 18 and older and free of T2D at baseline were enrolled in 2010 and followed up for 4 years. New cases of T2D were identified via the annual medical examination...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Lidia M V R Moura, Emad N Eskandar, Mursal Hassan, Joel Salinas, Andrew J Cole, Daniel B Hoch, Sydney S Cash, John Hsu
OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative seizure-free survival between older and younger adults. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 107 temporal lobe epilepsy patients with a diagnosis of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) received anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) between 1993 and 2014. We divided the lower three quartiles (younger) and top quartile (older, all 47+ years) of patients, then reviewed patient registry and electronic medical records to determine time to first self-reported seizure after ATL, the primary outcome (mean=3...
September 30, 2016: Epilepsy Research
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