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older adults

Linda D Cameron, Paul Carroll, W Kyle Hamilton
This phase II trial evaluated psychosocial and health outcomes of an intervention designed to improve emotion regulation skills in adults suffering from Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which 92 adults enrolled in the community-based program completed pretest measures, attended either a faith-based or secular version of the 12-week ACE Overcomers program, and then completed posttest measures. The theory-guided program involved group sessions providing education and skills training to improve emotion regulation, self-awareness, resilience, and social functioning...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jocelyn F Hafer, Katherine A Boyer
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a loss of mobility and altered gait mechanics. Loss of function and mobility may be due to or exacerbated by low levels of physical activity in the aged. The mechanisms linking age-related changes in physiology, altered mobility and gait may be elucidated by examining movement coordination and coordination variability. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of age and habitual physical activity level on segment coordination and coordination variability during gait...
February 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Fu-Chen Chen, Chia-Hua Chu, Chien-Yu Pan, Chia-Liang Tsai
BACKGROUND: Prior studies demonstrated that, compared to no fingertip touch (NT), a reduction in body sway resulting from the effects of light fingertip touch (LT) facilitates the performance of visual search, buttressing the concept of functional integration. However, previous findings may be confounded by different arm postures required between the NT and LT conditions. Furthermore, in older adults, how LT influences the interactions between body sway and visual search has not been established...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
Nadia J Sweis
OBJECTIVES: To highlight the physical, psychological, social, and economic reasons related to sex differences in smoking behaviors in Jordan. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among Jordanian adult smokers. RESULTS: Sex was a significant predictor of physical reasons related to smoking; when controlling for other factors (t765 = 5.027; P < 0.001), women were more affected by physical factors than were men...
March 12, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
M Austin Coker, Carrie E Huisingh, Gerald McGwin, Russell W Read, Mark W Swanson, Laura E Dreer, Dawn K DeCarlo, Lindsay Gregg, Cynthia Owsley
Importance: The prevalence of irreversible vision impairment in the United States is expected to increase by 2050. Vision rehabilitation is the primary treatment option. Clinical trials have established its efficacy in improving quality of life. Yet studies indicate that patients experience many barriers to accessing low-vision care. Objectives: To examine the rate of referral for low-vision rehabilitation services by resident and attending ophthalmologists for adults with irreversible vision impairment and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of patients about vision rehabilitation...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Tarisai Chiyaka, Phillis Mushati, Bernadette Hensen, Sungai Chabata, James R Hargreaves, Sian Floyd, Isolde J Birdthistle, Frances M Cowan, Joanna R Busza
Young women (aged 15-24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews...
2018: PloS One
Olivier Beauchet, Cyrille P Launay, Harmehr Sekhon, Jennifer Gautier, Julia Chabot, Elise J Levinoff, Gilles Allali
BACKGROUND: Assessment of changes in higher levels of gait control with aging is important to better understand age-related gait instability, with the perspective to improve the screening of individuals at risk for falls. The comparison between actual Timed Up and Go test (aTUG) and its imagined version (iTUG) is a simple clinical way to assess age-related changes in gait control. The modulations of iTUG performances by body positions and motor imagery (MI) strategies with normal aging have not been evaluated yet...
2018: PloS One
Simone B S P Terra, Scott W Aesif, Joseph J Maleszewski, Andrew L Folpe, Jennifer M Boland
Synovial sarcoma (SS), a translocation-associated sarcoma characterized by SS18-SSX1/2 fusion, presents most often in the extremities of young adults. While SS regularly occurs in the pleuropulmonary parenchyma, the mediastinum is an exceedingly rare primary site; the literature on this subject is predominantly composed of case reports and small series, mostly without molecular confirmation. Cases of mediastinal SS were selected from our institutional and consultation archives. Diagnoses were confirmed by either SS18 fluorescence in situ hybridization (n=6) or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SS18-SSX1/2 (n=15)...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Skye N Leedahl, Alicia Sellon, Rosemary K Chapin
A variety of terms and measures have been used in the literature to denote being socially integrated, and many studies of older adults focus on only social networks or social support and often only include those living in the community. The purpose of this study was to assess multiple constructs of social integration (i.e., social networks, social capital, social support, and social engagement) for older adults in nursing homes. Data were collected from 140 older adults at 30 nursing homes in Kansas. We interviewed older adults' in-person using a survey questionnaire, and used multilevel confirmatory factor analysis to analyze the data...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Jiyoung Hwang, Lisa Wang, Jodi Siever, Talia Del Medico, Charlotte A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Loneliness and social isolation (L&SI) are associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Walk 'n' Talk for your Life (WTL) is a community-based program of socialization, health education, falls prevention exercise and walking for community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study was done to gain further insight into the experience and impacts of the WTL on seniors' L&SI. METHODS: One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen participants who had completed the WTL ...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Yong Yang, Brent A Langellier, Ivana Stankov, Jonathan Purtle, Katherine L Nelson, Ana V Diez Roux
OBJECTIVES: Daily transport may impact depression risk among older adults through several pathways including facilitating the ability to meet basic needs, enabling and promoting contact with other people and nature, and promoting physical activity (e.g. through active transportation such as walking or walking to public transit). Both daily transport and depression are influenced by the neighborhood environment. To provide insights into how transport interventions may affect depression in older adults, we developed a pilot agent-based model to explore the contribution of daily transport and neighborhood environment to older adults' depression in urban areas...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Jeffrey E Stokes
OBJECTIVES: Social relations can influence well-being throughout the life course. Integration in one's community may serve as a source of social support whereas negative interactions such as day-to-day discrimination can be psychosocial stressors, particularly for neurotic persons. Yet social connectedness may vary in importance across the age range. Individuals trim their social networks in later life to optimize emotional well-being, but older adults may also be at heightened risk of social isolation...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Haley Adams, Gayathri Narasimham, John Rieser, Sarah Creem-Regehr, Jeanine Stefanucci, Bobby Bodenheimer
As virtual reality expands in popularity, an increasingly diverse audience is gaining exposure to immersive virtual environments (IVEs). A significant body of research has demonstrated how perception and action work in such environments, but most of this work has been done studying adults. Less is known about how physical and cognitive development affect perception and action in IVEs, particularly as applied to preteen and teenage children. Accordingly, in the current study we assess how preteens (children aged 8-12 years) and teenagers (children aged 15-18 years) respond to mismatches between their motor behavior and the visual information presented by an IVE...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Kate Riegle van West, Cathy Stinear, Ralph Buck
This study investigated the effects of poi (a weight on the end of a cord which is swung in circular patterns around the body) compared to Tai Chi on physical and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Seventy-nine participants (60 - 86 years) were randomly allocated to the poi or Tai Chi group. Physical and cognitive function were measured one month before, immediately before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention (2 lessons a week for 4 weeks). Immediately post intervention both groups improved postural stability, upper limb strength, and simple attention...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Wuber J S Soares, Alexandre D Lopes, Eduardo Nogueira, Victor Candido, Suzana A Moraes, Monica R Perracini
This systematic review examines the association between physical activity (PA) level and risk of falling in community-dwelling older adults. A search of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Sport Discus, and Web of Science was performed in January 2017. Four prospective cohort studies investigating the incidence of falls in a period of at least 12 months and its association with the level of PA in people 60-plus years old were reviewed and pooled for meta-analysis. The pooled risk ratio for being a recurrent faller (2,420 participants) was 39% higher among those who were in the lowest PA level (RR = 1...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
André O Werneck, Edilson S Cyrino, Paul J Collings, Enio R V Ronque, Célia L Szwarcwald, Luís B Sardinha, Danilo R Silva
BACKGROUND: This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Jonathan M Casper, Jung-Hwan Jeon
The purpose of this study was to examine psychological connection to the sport of pickleball by investigating active older adults (55 years and older) in relation to behavioral involvement and motives for participation. Data were collected via an online survey of a representative sample of active pickleball players in North Carolina (N = 690). The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM: Funk, 2008) categorized players into four distinct connection levels of Awareness, Attraction, Attachment, and Allegiance. Participants on each PCM level were analyzed based on playing length, play frequency, and motivations for participation (Competition, Diversion, Fitness, Skill Mastery, and Socialization)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Nadia Schott, Maike Tietjens
Mobility restriction as a consequence of a fall is a major issue in assisted living facilities. Although many factors are related to falling, little is known about the relationship between falls, social support, falls efficacy, and physical activity. We examined the relationship between falls and the Social-Support-Questionnaire, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale, and physical activity simultaneously in 81 older adults (66-94 years) using structural equation modeling (SEM). The SEM model revealed that being older was associated with lower falls efficacy and a higher number of falls...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Abdulla Shehab, Khalid F AlHabib, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathul, Ahmad Hersi, Hussam Alfaleh, Mostafa Q Alshamiri, Anhar Ullah, Khadim Sulaiman, Wael Almahmeed, Jassim Al Suwaidi, Alwai A Alsheikh-Ali, Haitham Amin, Mohammed Al Jarallah, Amar M Salam
BACKGROUND: Most of the available literature on ST-Elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) in women was conducted in the developed world and data from Middle-East countries was limited. AIM: To examine the clinical presentation, patient management, quality of care, risk factors and in-hospital outcomes of women with acute STEMI compared with men using data from a large STEMI registry from the Middle East. METHODS: Data were derived from the third Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-3Ps), a prospective, multinational study of adults with acute STEMI from 36 hospitals in 6 Middle-Eastern countries...
March 14, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Olivia Farrer, Alison Yaxley, Karen Walton, Michelle Miller
AIM: The prevalence of diabetes in older adults in residential aged care (RAC) is twice that of community dwelling older adults. Older adults with diabetes have been highlighted as being at high risk of frailty and malnutrition, particularly when managed on a therapeutic diet. However, assumptions may be based on clinical presentation of our oldest old which may be at conflict with the clinical presentation of younger older adults. The aim of this retrospective audit was to identify the characteristics of aged care residents with diabetes, their comorbidities and malnutrition risk...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
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