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HBsAg seroconversion

Noriyo Yamashiki, Atsushi Yoshizawa, Yoshihide Ueda, Toshimi Kaido, Hideaki Okajima, Hiroyuki Marusawa, Hiroshi Seno, Shinji Uemoto
Prophylactic measures are used to reduce DNHB after HBsAg-negative patients receive anti-HBc-positive liver grafts. This study investigated the incidence of DNHB and clinical outcomes in pediatric LT recipients under HBIG prophylaxis, with or without hepatitis B vaccination. Between 1995 and 2013, 51 HBsAg-negative pediatric recipients underwent living-donor LT from anti-HBc-positive donors. The median (range) age was 4 (0.1-17) years, 23 (45%) were male, and 71% were negative for both anti-HBc and anti-HBc...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Antonio Aguilera, Rocio Trastoy, Javier Rodríguez-Calviño, Tamara Manso, Carmen de Mendoza, Vicente Soriano
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective agent that only replicates in the presence of the hepatitis B virus. Accordingly, HDV acquisition may occur as superinfection of HBsAg+ carriers or following acute dual HDV and hepatitis B virus exposure. Herein, we examined the global and incident rates of HDV infections in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The presence of anti-HDV antibody and new HDV superinfections was examined in all HBsAg+ patients who attended one large tertiary outclinic in Spain since year 2000...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
I-Cheng Lee, Sien-Sing Yang, Chieh-Ju Lee, Chien-Wei Su, Yuan-Jen Wang, Keng-Hsin Lan, Han-Chieh Lin, Ming-Chih Hou, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Yi-Hsiang Huang
Background: The long-term incidence and factors associated with HBsAg loss in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving peginterferon is rarely reported. Methods: From 2004 to 2016, 233 HBeAg-negative CHB patients who completed 48 weeks of peginterferon treatment from three medical centers in Taiwan were retrospectively enrolled. Results: During a median follow-up of 7.4 years, 27 cases achieved HBsAg loss. The cumulative incidences of HBsAg loss and HBsAg seroconversion at 3, 5, 10 years after peginterferon treatment were 4...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elia Moreno-Cubero, Robert T Sánchez Del Arco, Julia Peña-Asensio, Eduardo Sanz de Villalobos, Joaquín Míquel, Juan Ramón Larrubia
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a challenging global health problem, with nearly one million related deaths per year. Nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment suppresses viral replication but does not provide complete cure of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The accepted endpoint for therapy is the loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), but this is hardly ever achieved. Therefore, indefinite treatment is usually required. Many different studies have evaluated NA therapy discontinuation after several years of NA treatment and before HBsAg loss...
May 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Benjamin C Cheah, Jane Davies, Gurmeet R Singh, Nicholas Wood, Kathy Jackson, Margaret Littlejohn, Belinda Davison, Peter McIntyre, Stephen Locarnini, Joshua S Davis, Steven Y C Tong
BACKGROUND: In Australia's Northern Territory, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotype A2 (subtype adw2) vaccine was introduced in 1988 for Indigenous infants. Subsequently, the circulating viral genotype has been identified as subgenotype C4 (subtype ayw3). We assessed HBV vaccine effectiveness (VE) in light of this subtype mismatch. METHODS: Participants of the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study were recruited at birth (1987-1990), with HBV serology obtained at follow-up waves 3 (2005-2007) and 4 (2013-2015)...
May 4, 2018: Vaccine
Matteo A Manini, Gavin Whitehouse, Matthew Bruce, Matteo Passerini, Tiong Y Lim, Ivana Carey, Aisling Considine, Pietro Lampertico, Abid Suddle, Nigel Heaton, Michael Heneghan, Kosh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that oral third-generation nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) monoprophylaxis following hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) withdrawal may be effective to prevent HBV reinfection after liver transplantation (LT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 01/2010 and 03/2012, all HBV monoinfected and HBV/HDV co-infected LT patients followed in our centre withdrew HBIg ± NA and were commenced on either ETV or TDF as monotherapy. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included in the study (55% TDF, 45% ETV)...
April 13, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Emily K Butler, Jeffrey Gersch, Anne McNamara, Ka-Cheung Luk, Vera Holzmayer, Maria de Medina, Eugene Schiff, Mary Kuhns, Gavin A Cloherty
Treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) suppresses HBV DNA synthesis but does not affect synthesis of HBV pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). HBV pgRNA is detectable in the serum during NA treatment and has been proposed as a marker of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) activity within the infected hepatocyte. We developed an automated assay for the quantification of serum HBV pgRNA using a dual-target qRT-PCR approach on the Abbott m2000sp/rt system. We demonstrate accurate detection and quantification of serum HBV RNA...
May 7, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Sahar Maklad, Ehab Mahfouz Reyad, Emad Adel William, Alaa Abouzeid
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of entecavir (ETV) among chronic hepatitis B (CHB) nucleos(t)ide-naive Egyptian patients. Methods: Forty-eight CHB patients on ETV were included. Males comprised 83.3% (40 cases), while females comprised 16.7% (eight cases). Minimum age was 19 years, while maximum age was 64 years. Hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-negative cases were 60.4%. HBeAg-positive cases were 39.6%. Factors including sex, positive HBeAg, baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level, baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), were evaluated in terms of their predictive role in treatment response, which was defined as a serum HBV DNA decrease of < 10 IU/mL...
April 2018: Gastroenterology Research
M P Pauly, L Y Tucker, J L Szpakowski, J B Ready, D Baer, J P Hwang, A S Lok
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists are the first-line treatment for many autoimmune diseases. However, they have been associated with reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We determined the rate of HBV reactivation and hepatotoxicity grade 3 or 4 (HT≥3) in patients treated with an anti-TNF agent for an autoimmune disease. METHODS: We collected data from 8887 adult patients in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California database who began treatment with TNF antagonists for autoimmune diseases (dermatologic, rheumatologic, or gastrointestinal) from 2001 through 2010, followed through December 2012...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Stefan Wirth, Hongfei Zhang, Winita Hardikar, Kathleen B Schwarz, Etienne Sokal, Weibo Yang, Huimin Fan, Vyacheslav Morozov, Qing Mao, Hong Deng, Yang Huang, Lei Yang, Nicolas Frey, Clare Nasmyth-Miller, Vedran Pavlovic, Cynthia Wat
Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) represent an area of unmet medical need, due to increased lifetime risk of CHB sequelae and limited therapeutic options compared with adult CHB patients. The PEG-B-ACTIVE (NCT01519960) phase III study evaluated peginterferon (PegIFN) alfa-2a treatment in children aged 3 to <18 years with CHB. A total of 161 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive immune-active patients without advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis were randomized (2:1) to PegIFN alfa-2a (Group A, n = 101) or no treatment (Group B, n = 50); patients with advanced fibrosis were assigned to PegIFN alfa-2a (Group C, n = 10)...
April 24, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Toshifumi Tada, Takashi Kumada, Hidenori Toyoda, Masayuki Ohisa, Tomoyuki Akita, Junko Tanaka
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and the long-term natural history of liver disease has not been sufficiently investigated. METHODS: A total of 408 [4352 person-year (PY) units] patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) without antiviral therapy were enrolled. The study patients were divided into three groups, as follows: Group A (2666 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age < 40; Group B (413 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age ≥ 40; Group C (1273 PY units), persistently HBeAg positive...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Shaohang Cai, Zhandong Li, Tao Yu, Muye Xia, Jie Peng
Background: Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who are hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) positive are increasingly being treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs). However, the predictive value of serum hepatitis B virus core antibody (HBcAb) levels for HBeAg seroconversion among patients with high viral load remains unclear. Methods: This study consisted of 74 patients with high viral load (HBV DNA >1 × 107 copies/mL) enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, treated with lamivudine and adefovir (N = 32) or entecavir (N = 42) for up to 96 weeks...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Jing Fang, Wenge Li, Min Tan, Wen Chen, Cong Zhang, Wenbo Wang, Qianqian Xu, Xinzhen Guo
PURPOSE: Antiviral prophylaxis is proved to be effective in reducing the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients under immunotherapy. But outcomes referring to discontinuation of antiviral prophylaxis in these patients are lacking. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 105 HBsAg-positive patients under immunotherapy for glomerulonephritis and evaluated the incidence and risk factors for HBV reactivation...
April 11, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Benjamin Seri, Albert Minga, Delphine Gabillard, Bamori Dembele, Seidou Konate, Jérôme Le Carrou, Lambert Dohoun, Yao Abo, Sophie Karcher, Patrick Coffie, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Alain Attia, Serge P Eholié, Christine Danel, Karine Lacombe, Xavier Anglaret, Anders Boyd
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Methods: Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Eylem Karataş, Selda Erensoy, Ulus Salih Akarca, Rüçhan Sertöz
Mutations in preS and S gene regions of hepatitis B virus genome may cause immune escape and diagnostic escape HBV mutants. The aim of this study was to determine preS1, preS2 and S gene regions of HBV from HBV infected patient groups by sequence analysis and contribute to the relevant literature. Nucleic acid sequence analysis of preS and S genes of HBV PCR products from 56 archived plasma samples sent to Ege University Faculty of Medicine Medical Microbiology Department Molecular Virology laboratory, for HBV tests were determined by chain termination reaction...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Sara Naimimohasses, Omar El Sherif, Mohammad Ashfaq, Niamh Nolan, Masood Iqbal, Susan McKiernan, Suzanne Norris
The spontaneous seroclearance of hepatitis B upon development of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely rare. To date, there has been one published case series reporting hepatitis B seroconversion following HCC resection. We describe two novel cases of spontaneous hepatitis B seroclearance following the development of HCC, prior to resection. Following resection, specimens were HBsAg- and HBcAg-negative in both tumor and peritumor tissues. Although the precise mechanism of this is poorly understood, nonuniform integration of hepatitis B virus DNA within the liver could lead to selective tumorigenesis of HBsAg-producing cells, explaining the observed clearance of serum HBsAg with the development of HCC...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Xuefen Li, Yumiao Xu, Yuejiao Dong, Xianzhi Yang, Bo Ye, Yiyin Wang, Yu Chen
Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of infant hepatitis B vaccination and revaccination in 0- to 8-year-old children in the context of protective anti-HBs levels and cellular immune responses. Using a random questionnaire survey, 1695 pre-school children were recruited as research subjects during January 2015 to June 2017. Blood samples were obtained to measure HBV serological markers as well as peripheral immunocytes. The children were divided into non-, low- and hyper- responsive groups (NR, LR, and HR) based on the vaccination efficacy...
April 25, 2018: Vaccine
Peng Hu, Jia Shang, Wenhong Zhang, Guozhong Gong, Yongguo Li, Xinyue Chen, Jianning Jiang, Qing Xie, Xiaoguang Dou, Yongtao Sun, Yufang Li, Yingxia Liu, Guozhen Liu, Dewen Mao, Xiaoling Chi, Hong Tang, Xiaoou Li, Yao Xie, Xiaoping Chen, Jiaji Jiang, Ping Zhao, Jinlin Hou, Zhiliang Gao, Huimin Fan, Jiguang Ding, Dazhi Zhang, Hong Ren
Background and Aims: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss is seldom achieved with nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients but may be enhanced by switching to finite pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) alfa-2a. We assessed HBsAg loss with 48- and 96-week Peg-IFN alfa-2a in chronic hepatitis B patients with partial response to a previous NA. Methods: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients who achieved HBeAg loss and hepatitis B virus DNA <200 IU/mL with previous adefovir, lamivudine or entecavir treatment were randomized 1:1 to receive Peg-IFN alfa-2a for 48 ( n = 153) or 96 weeks ( n = 150)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Yunhua Liu, Weikun Li, Ting Jia, Dan Peng, Huimin Li, Xiaofei Li, Songqin Lv
Background and Aims: The use of additional nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) without cross-resistance to previously used NAs as a rescue therapy is recommended by most international guidelines for chronic hepatitis B patients with NA-resistance. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of peg-interferon (PegIFN) alfa-2a and NA in these patients, comparing to those who switch to an alternative NA therapy without cross-resistance. Methods: In this prospective, comparative and cohort study, data were collected from the patients' hospital records...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Seyma Katrinli, G Nilay Karatas Erkut, Kamil Ozdil, Feruze Yilmaz Enc, Oguzhan Ozturk, Resul Kahraman, Ilyas Tuncer, Gizem Dinler Doganay, Levent Doganay
AIM: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a global health problem. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) exposed signifi-cant association between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region, including both DP and DQ loci, and chronic hepatitis B. Previous research also indicated the involvement of adaptive immune system in Hepatitis B seroconversion. The aim of this study is to investigate possible polymorphisms in the HLA-DP locus that can contribute to immune response to Hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
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