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Hyung Joon Yim, In Hee Kim, Sang Jun Suh, Young Kul Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Jong Eun Yeon, Chang Wook Kim, So Young Kwon, Sang Hoon Park, Myung Seok Lee, Soon Ho Um, Kwan Soo Byun
Entecavir 0.5 mg (ETV) is widely used among treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, 10%-30% of patients show partial virologic response (PVR) to the drug. If the hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to replicate, the underlying liver disease may progress. Herein, we compared the efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with that of continuing ETV in CHB patients with PVR to ETV. This was an open-label randomized controlled trial including CHB patients who had been receiving 0...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Noriyo Yamashiki, Atsushi Yoshizawa, Yoshihide Ueda, Toshimi Kaido, Hideaki Okajima, Hiroyuki Marusawa, Hiroshi Seno, Shinji Uemoto
Prophylactic measures are used to reduce DNHB after HBsAg-negative patients receive anti-HBc-positive liver grafts. This study investigated the incidence of DNHB and clinical outcomes in pediatric LT recipients under HBIG prophylaxis, with or without hepatitis B vaccination. Between 1995 and 2013, 51 HBsAg-negative pediatric recipients underwent living-donor LT from anti-HBc-positive donors. The median (range) age was 4 (0.1-17) years, 23 (45%) were male, and 71% were negative for both anti-HBc and anti-HBc...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan, Yee-Kit Tse, Terry Cheuk-Fung Yip, Kelvin Long-Yan Lam, Grace Chung-Yan Lui, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies reveal the rate of normal on-treatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) appears different for different nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs); yet its clinical significance is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the impact of normal on-treatment ALT during antiviral treatment with entecavir (ETV) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: A territory-wide cohort of CHB patients who received ETV and/or TDF in 2005-2016 was identified...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Richard Justin Garling, Xin Jin, Jianzhong Yang, Ahmad H Khasawneh, Carolyn Anne Harris
OBJECTIVE Hydrocephalus affects approximately 1 in 500 people in the US, yet ventricular shunting, the gold standard of treatment, has a nearly 85% failure rate. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an alternative surgical approach for a specific subset of hydrocephalic patients, but can be limited by the inability of neurosurgical residents to practice prior to patient contact. The goal of this study was to create an affordable ETV model and endoscope for resident training. METHODS Open-source software was used to isolate the skull and brain from the CT and MR images of a 2-year-old boy with hydrocephalus...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Matteo A Manini, Gavin Whitehouse, Matthew Bruce, Matteo Passerini, Tiong Y Lim, Ivana Carey, Aisling Considine, Pietro Lampertico, Abid Suddle, Nigel Heaton, Michael Heneghan, Kosh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that oral third-generation nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) monoprophylaxis following hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) withdrawal may be effective to prevent HBV reinfection after liver transplantation (LT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 01/2010 and 03/2012, all HBV monoinfected and HBV/HDV co-infected LT patients followed in our centre withdrew HBIg ± NA and were commenced on either ETV or TDF as monotherapy. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included in the study (55% TDF, 45% ETV)...
April 13, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Jing Wang, Fang-Chen Peng
To investigate the efficacy and safety of Fuzheng Huayu Jiaonang (FZ) and Anluo Huaxian Wan (AL) in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis. Jadad scoring method was adopted to evaluate the quality of literature, Rev Man 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis, and indirect comparison was carried out by ITC software. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were collected for comparing FZ and AL in treatment of chronic hepatitis B with liver fibrosis. With ETV as the common control, they were compared through indirect Meta-analysis (ITC)...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Mauro Dobran, Davide Nasi, Fabrizio Mancini, Maurizio Gladi, Massimo Scerrati
A 21-year-old male was admitted to our department with headache and drowsiness. CT scan and MRI revealed acute obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a pineal region mass. The serum and CSF levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) were 215 IU/L and 447 IU/L, respectively, while levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were normal. A germ cell tumor (GCT) was suspected, and the patient underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with biopsy. After four days from surgery, the tumor bled with mass expansion and ETV stoma occlusion; thus, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was positioned...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Sahar Maklad, Ehab Mahfouz Reyad, Emad Adel William, Alaa Abouzeid
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of entecavir (ETV) among chronic hepatitis B (CHB) nucleos(t)ide-naive Egyptian patients. Methods: Forty-eight CHB patients on ETV were included. Males comprised 83.3% (40 cases), while females comprised 16.7% (eight cases). Minimum age was 19 years, while maximum age was 64 years. Hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-negative cases were 60.4%. HBeAg-positive cases were 39.6%. Factors including sex, positive HBeAg, baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level, baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), were evaluated in terms of their predictive role in treatment response, which was defined as a serum HBV DNA decrease of < 10 IU/mL...
April 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Jussiane Souza Silva, Alessandra Henn, Valderi L Dressler, Paola Mello, Erico Marlon Moraes Flores
A comprehensive study for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) present in low concentration in crude oil was developed for the first time using direct sampling electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). The effect of an organic modifier on the REE signal was evaluated and the use of 6 mg of citric acid allowed calibration using aqueous reference solutions. The selected pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 700 and 2200 °C, respectively. Due to the facility of REE in forming refractory compounds inside the graphite furnace during the heating step, the use of a modifier gas (Freon R-12, 3...
April 29, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Lin Wang, Bingqiong Wang, Hong You, Xiaoning Wu, Jialing Zhou, Xiaojuan Ou, Jidong Jia
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Reduction of platelet count is often observed in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with significant liver fibrosis. In this cohort study, we investigated whether platelets' increase after entecavir (ETV) therapy was associated with the improvement of liver fibrosis. METHODS: We collected the data of a cohort 82 CHB patients with paired liver biopsies before and after 78-week ETV therapy, and assessed the platelets' change following the treatment and further investigated the associated clinical factors with platelets' change...
April 26, 2018: Hepatology International
H J Tsai, Y W Chuang, S W Lee, C Y Wu, H Z Yeh, T Y Lee
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction remains an issue in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. AIM: To evaluate renal safety of TDF according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. METHODS: We retrospectively recruited CHB patients who received either TDF or entecavir (ETV) monotherapy from January 2008 to August 2015. After excluding confounding conditions, 253 patients who received TDF were randomly matched 1:2 with 506 patients who received ETV through the propensity scores, which consisted of age, gender, cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
April 25, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Soner Duru, Jose L Peiro, Marc Oria, Emrah Aydin, Canan Subasi, Cengiz Tuncer, Harold L Rekate
PURPOSE: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) has become the method of choice in the treatment of hydrocephalus. Age and etiology could determine success rates (SR) of ETV. The purpose of this study is to assess these factors in pediatric population. METHODS: Retrospective study on 51 children with obstructive hydrocephalus that underwent ETV was performed. The patients were divided into three groups per their age at the time of the treatment: < 6, 6-24, and > 24 months of age...
April 25, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Dongwei Kang, Zhao Wang, Heng Zhang, Gaochan Wu, Tong Zhao, Zhongxia Zhou, Zhipeng Huo, Boshi Huang, Da Feng, Xiao Ding, Jian Zhang, Xiaofang Zuo, Lanlan Jing, Wei Luo, Samuel Guma, Dirk Daelemans, Erik De Clercq, Christophe Pannecouque, Peng Zhan, Xinyong Liu
Based on the detailed analysis of the binding mode of diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) with HIV-1 RT, we designed several subseries of novel NNRTIs, with the aim to probe biologically relevant chemical space of solvent-exposed tolerant regions in NNRTIs binding pocket (NNIBP). The most potent compound 21a exhibited significant activity against the whole viral panel, being about 1.5-2.6-fold (WT, EC50 = 2.44 nM; L100I, EC50 = 4.24 nM; Y181C, EC50 = 4.80 nM; F227L + V106A, EC50 = 17.8 nM) and 4-5-fold (K103N, EC50 = 1...
April 12, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Zhipeng Huo, Heng Zhang, Dongwei Kang, Zhongxia Zhou, Gaochan Wu, Samuel Desta, Xiaofang Zuo, Zhao Wang, Lanlan Jing, Xiao Ding, Dirk Daelemans, Erik De Clercq, Christophe Pannecouque, Peng Zhan, Xinyong Liu
A novel series of diarylpyrimidine derivatives, which could simultaneously occupy the classical NNRTIs binding pocket (NNIBP) and the newly reported "NNRTI Adjacent" binding site, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antiviral activities in MT-4 cell cultures. The results demonstrated that six compounds ( 20 , 27 and 31 - 34 ) showed excellent activities against wild-type (WT) HIV-1 strain (EC50 = 2.4-3.8 nM), which were more potent than that of ETV (EC50 = 4.0 nM). Furthermore, 20 , 27 , 33 , and 34 showed more potent or equipotent activity against single mutant HIV-1 strains compared to that of ETV...
April 12, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yue-Meng Wan, Yu-Hua Li, Zhi-Yuan Xu, Hua-Mei Wu, Ying Xu, Xi-Nan Wu, Jin-Hui Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) can be triggered by reactivation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are now the most potent antiviral agents for CHB. This study aimed to compare the short-term safety and efficacy of TDF with ETV in the treatment of ACLF due to reactivation of CHB [hepatitis B virus (HBV)-ACLF]. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 67 consecutive patients with HBV-ACLF were divided into TDF group (n=32) receiving daily TDF (300 mg/d) and ETV group (n=35) receiving daily ETV (0...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Jong Won Choi, Se Hyun Kim, Jeong Hun Seo, Yong Suk Cho, Sun Young Won, Byung Kyu Park, Han Ho Jeon, Yong Kang Lee, Chun Kyon Lee
PURPOSE: To estimate long-term outcomes after treatment modification in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated with entecavir (ETV) and telbivudine (LdT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 131 nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-naïve CHB patients treated with ETV or LdT. During the 3-year study, NA treatment history including the incidence, the type of treatment modification, reasons for the modification, and overall complete virologic response (CVR) rate were retrospectively evaluated using the patients' medical records...
May 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
Wei Li, Linhai Wang, Yanhong Liu, Yan Li, Shirong Yu
Limited studies have investigated the antiviral efficacy of entecavir (ETV)-based rescue therapy in lamivudine (LAM)-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of entecavir (ETV) monotherapy versus ETV-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) combination therapy in 220 LAM-resistant CHB patients. Among 220 patients, 114 patients were treated with ETV monotherapy and 106 were treated with ETV-TDF combination therapy for at least 24 months. There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics...
April 2, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Qiguang Wang, Yan Ju
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Yu-Tian Liu, Wei Liu, Gang-Yan Zhu, Fu-Liang Wang, Qian Chen
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) is capable of transporting acyclic nucleotide phosphonates, but little is known about its role in lamivudine (LAM) and entecavir (ETV) transport. In the present study, the involvement of MRP4 in the transport of LAM and ETV was investigated through in vitro experiments. The cytotoxicity of three antiviral drugs and their activities against HBV as characterized in HepG2.4D14 [wild‑type hepatitis B virus (HBV)] and HepG2.A64 (ETV‑resistant HBV) cells. LAM, ETV and tenofovir (TFV) demonstrated a 50% effective concentration against HBV of 4...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Nagraj Mani, Andrew G Cole, Janet R Phelps, Andrzej Ardzinski, Kyle D Cobarrubias, Andrea Cuconati, Bruce D Dorsey, Ellen Evangelista, Kristi Fan, Fang Guo, Haitao Guo, Ju-Tao Guo, Troy O Harasym, Salam Kadhim, Steven G Kultgen, Amy C H Lee, Alice H L Li, Quanxin Long, Sara A Majeski, Richeng Mao, Kevin D McClintock, Stephen P Reid, Rene Rijnbrand, Nicholas M Snead, Holly M Micolochick Steuer, Kim Stever, Sunny Tang, Xiaohe Wang, Qiong Zhao, Michael J Sofia
AB-423 is a sulfamoylbenzamide (SBA) class of HBV capsid inhibitor in Phase 1 clinical trials. In cell culture models AB-423 showed potent inhibition of HBV replication (EC50 /EC90 = 0.08-0.27 μM/0.33-1.32 μM) with no significant cytotoxicity (CC50 >10 μM). Addition of 40% human serum resulted in a 5-fold increase in the EC50 values. AB-423 inhibited HBV genotypes A through D and nucleos/tide-resistant variants in vitro Treatment of HepDES19 cells with AB-423 resulted in capsid particles devoid of encapsidated pgRNA and rcDNA indicating it is a class II capsid inhibitor...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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