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Depression and dementia

M-Alain Babi, Bryan D Kraft, Sweta Sengupta, Haley Peterson, Ryan Orgel, Zachary Wegermann, Njira L Lugogo, Matthew W Luedke
BACKGROUND: We report a novel case of a rare disease: spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a patient with well-controlled HIV. We explore the relationship between spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and HIV. CASE REPORT: A 66-year-old man with long-standing, well-controlled HIV infection presented with 3 months of progressive, subacute neurocognitive decline. His symptoms included conceptual apraxia, apathy, memory impairment, and gait disturbance, and were initially attributed to depressive "pseudo-dementia...
2016: SAGE Open Med Case Rep
Sun Kyung Kim, Myonghwa Park, Yunhwan Lee, Seong Hye Choi, So Young Moon, Sang Won Seo, Kyung Won Park, Bon D Ku, Hyun Jeong Han, Kee Hyung Park, Seol-Heui Han, Eun-Joo Kim, Jae-Hong Lee, Sun A Park, Yong S Shim, Jong Hun Kim, Chang Hyung Hong, Duk L Na, Byoung Seok Ye, Hee Jin Kim, Yeonsil Moon
BACKGROUND: Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression. METHODS: Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476)...
October 26, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
J Lagarde, M Sarazin
Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) in its behavioral variant (bvFTD) is probably one of the conditions that best illustrates the links between psychiatry and neurology. It is indeed admitted that between a third and half of patients with this condition, especially in early-onset forms, receive an initial diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and are then referred to a psychiatric ward. BvFTD can thus be considered a neurological disorder with a psychiatric presentation...
October 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
Julia Granerod, Nicholas W S Davies, Parashar P Ramanuj, Ava Easton, David W G Brown, Sara L Thomas
The true extent of sequelae in encephalitis survivors relative to rates within the general population is not known. This study aimed to quantify increased risks of epilepsy, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, cognitive problems, dementia, headache, and alcohol abuse among encephalitis cases. 2460 exposed individuals diagnosed with incident encephalitis in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and 47,914 unexposed individuals without a history of encephalitis were included...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Martin R Turner, Raph Goldacre, Kevin Talbot, Michael J Goldacre
It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are over-represented in ALS patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with frontotemporal dementia. A diagnosis of depression was significantly associated with a first record of ALS five or more years later, in keeping with growing evidence for major depressive disorder as an early marker of cerebral neurodegeneration...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
L Su, Y O Faluyi, Y T Hong, T D Fryer, E Mak, S Gabel, L Hayes, S Soteriades, G B Williams, R Arnold, L Passamonti, P Vázquez Rodríguez, A Surendranathan, R W Bevan-Jones, J Coles, F Aigbirhio, J B Rowe, J T O'Brien
We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life depression, as a risk factor for dementia, using [(11)C]PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13 controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised [(11)C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and subiculum...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Adam Simning, Kelsey V Simons
BACKGROUND: Depression in nursing facilities is widespread and has been historically under-recognized and inadequately treated. Many interventions have targeted depression among residents with dementia in these settings. Less is known about depression treatment in residents without dementia who may be more likely to return to community living. Our study aimed to systematically evaluate randomized control trials (RCTs) in nursing facilities that targeted depression within samples largely comprised of residents without dementia...
October 19, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Kristi Reynolds, Daichi Shimbo, C Barrett Bowling, Luqin Deng, Adam Bress, John Sim, Paul Muntner
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for serious fall injuries following initiation of antihypertensive medication among older adults. DESIGN AND METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a 5% random sample of people with Medicare health insurance, a government program for older US adults. The analysis was restricted to patients with a diagnosis of hypertension who initiated antihypertensive medication between 2007 and 2011. Initiation was defined by the first antihypertensive medication fill in this time period preceded by 365 days with no antihypertensive medication fills...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder)...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
Jennifer L Schroeck, James Ford, Erin L Conway, Kari E Kurtzhalts, Megan E Gee, Krista A Vollmer, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Barnan Das, Diane J Cook, Narayanan C Krishnan, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Caring for individuals with dementia is frequently associated with extreme physical and emotional stress, which often leads to depression. Smart home technology and advances in machine learning techniques can provide innovative solutions to reduce caregiver burden. One key service that caregivers provide is prompting individuals with memory limitations to initiate and complete daily activities. We hypothesize that sensor technologies combined with machine learning techniques can automate the process of providing reminder-based interventions...
August 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Yi-An Tu, Mu-Hong Chen, Chia-Fen Tsai, Tung-Ping Su, Ya-Mei Bai, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Mu-En Liu, Tai-Long Pan, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Shih-Jen Tsai
OBJECTIVE: It was unclear whether older people without dementia who attempted suicide were at increased risk of subsequently developing dementia. METHODS: Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 1,189 patients aged ≥ 65 years who attempted suicide and 4,756 age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled in our study and followed to the end of 2011. Those who developed dementia during the follow-up were identified. RESULTS: Cox regression analysis, after adjusting for demographic data and medical comorbidities, found that geriatric suicide attempt was associated with an increased risk of subsequent dementia (HR: 7...
September 5, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
F Kazour, C Awaida, L Souaiby, S Richa
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use is very frequent in bipolar disorder and has been found to increase the duration and frequency of manic symptoms while decreasing those of depression. Bipolar patients who use cannabis were shown to have poorer compliance to treatment, more symptoms that are psychotic and a worse prognosis than patients who do not. In this study, we have evaluated the importance of cannabis use among bipolar patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Lebanon (Hôpital Psychiatrique de la Croix [HPC]) as well as the clinical differences between cannabis users and non-users...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Mark E Kunik, A Lynn Snow, Nancy Wilson, Amber B Amspoker, Shubhada Sansgiry, Robert O Morgan, Jun Ying, Gayle Hersch, Melinda A Stanley
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of Preventing Aggression in Veterans with Dementia (PAVeD) with that of usual care in decreasing incidence of aggression (primary outcome) and pain and improving depression, pleasant events, caregiver burden, and patient-caregiver relationship quality (secondary outcomes). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months SETTING: Houston, TX. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 203 community-dwelling veterans with pain and dementia and their caregivers...
April 27, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Andrea Fagiolini, Giovanni Amodeo, Arianna Goracci, Patrizia Blardi
AIM: This paper examines the use of Trazodone Contramid® in major depressive disorder (MDD), with a focus on practical guidance regarding real world challenges. The paper includes clinical case reports, developed for didactic reasons, which detail the practical management with Trazodone Contramid® of patients with MDD and either insomnia or anxiety or dementia or isolated (ipo)manic symptoms, which often fulfill the criteria for a diagnosis of MDD with with anxious distress or MDD with mixed features, according to the new DSM-5 classification...
July 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
Tamara Shiner, Anat Mirelman, Mali Gana Weisz, Anat Bar-Shira, Elissa Ash, Ron Cialic, Naomi Nevler, Tanya Gurevich, Noa Bregman, Avi Orr-Urtreger, Nir Giladi
Importance: Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are a risk factor for the development of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). These mutations are common among Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) and appear to have an effect on the natural history of the disease. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and genetic characteristics of an AJ cohort of patients diagnosed with DLB, assess the association of phenotype of DLB with GBA mutations, and explore the effects of these mutations on the clinical course of the disease...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Neurology
N A Trusova, O S Levin, A V Arablinsky
AIM: To study clinical/neuropsychological and neuroimaging characteristics of Alzheimer's disease in the combination with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with dementia, including 35 patients with AD, 35 patients with mixed dementia (MD) and 20 patients with vascular dementia, were examined. The character of dementia was established according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The neuropsychological battery included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), fluency test and the visual memory test (SCT)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Marcel Konrad, Louis Jacob, Michael A Rapp, Karel Kostev
AIM: To determine the prevalence of depression and its risk factors among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) treated in German primary care practices. METHODS: Longitudinal data from nationwide general practices in Germany (n = 1072) were analyzed. Individuals initially diagnosed with CHD (2009-2013) were identified, and 59992 patients were included and matched (1:1) to 59992 controls. The primary outcome measure was an initial diagnosis of depression within five years after the index date among patients with and without CHD...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
Roksana Malak, Agnieszka Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Ewa Mojs, Bartosz Grobelny, Katarzyna B Głodowska, José Carlos Millán-Calenti, Laura Núñez-Naveira, Włodzimierz Samborski
BACKGROUND The person with dementia should be treated as an unique person regarding symptoms directly associated with dementia, such as problems with memory, hallucinations, and delusions, as well as other physical, mental, or neurological deficits. The symptoms not directly typical of dementia, such as musculoskeletal disorders or depression, should be also be considered in order to improve the quality of life of a person with dementia. That is why professional caregivers have to broaden their current knowledge not only of medical symptoms but also of the patient's psychosocial condition and increase their inquisitiveness about the individual condition of the patient...
October 10, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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