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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898178/pre-rain-green-up-is-ubiquitous-across-southern-tropical-africa-implications-for-temporal-niche-separation-and-model-representation
#1
Casey M Ryan, Mathew Williams, John Grace, Emily Woollen, Caroline E R Lehmann
Tree phenology mediates land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange and is a determinant of ecosystem structure and function. In the dry tropics, including African savannas, many trees grow new leaves during the dry season - weeks or months before the rains typically start. This syndrome of pre-rain green-up has long been recognized at small scales, but the high spatial and interspecific variability in leaf phenology has precluded regional generalizations. We used remote sensing data to show that this precocious phenology is ubiquitous across the woodlands and savannas of southern tropical Africa...
November 29, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891180/the-effect-of-foot-orthoses-with-forefoot-cushioning-or-metatarsal-pad-on-forefoot-peak-plantar-pressure-in-running
#2
Michaela Hähni, Anja Hirschmüller, Heiner Baur
BACKGROUND: Foot orthoses are frequently used in sports for the treatment of overuse complaints with sufficient evidence available for certain foot-related overuse pathologies like plantar fasciitis, rheumatoid arthritis and foot pain (e.g., metatarsalgia). One important aim is to reduce plantar pressure under prominent areas like metatarsal heads. For the forefoot region, mainly two common strategies exist: metatarsal pad (MP) and forefoot cushioning (FC). The aim of this study was to evaluate which of these orthosis concepts is superior in reducing plantar pressure in the forefoot during running...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888786/the-assessment-of-three-dimensional-foot-pronation-using-a-principal-component-analysis-method-in-the-stance-phase-of-running
#3
Mohammad Rabiei, Mansour Eslami, Afshin Fayyaz Movaghar
Foot pronation has not been quantified dynamically in three planes of movement in an in-vivo study. The aims of this study were to determine foot pronation through using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method and to compare it among barefoot, shod and shod with 6° lateral wedge during the stance phase of running. In this method, three-dimension of foot movements were measured and each of these components represents a percentage of foot pronation. These components were derived based on eigenvalues and vectors of covariance matrix of primary variables...
September 20, 2016: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886017/influence-of-proprioceptive-insoles-on-spinal-curvature-in-patients-with-slight-idiopathic-scoliosis
#4
Christine Noll, Vanessa Steitz, Dorothea Daentzer
PURPOSE: Proprioceptive insoles are known to influence the functions of posture and gait by modulations of the sensory structures at the sole of the foot. Literature has shown that they could improve the position of the upper-body in patients with postural complaints of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of proprioceptive insoles on the spinal curvature in patients with slight idiopathic scoliosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients were included in this prospective, single-centre, randomized study...
November 18, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851731/reorientation-and-faulting-of-pluto-due-to-volatile-loading-within-sputnik-planitia
#5
James T Keane, Isamu Matsuyama, Shunichi Kamata, Jordan K Steckloff
Pluto is an astoundingly diverse, geologically dynamic world. The dominant feature is Sputnik Planitia-a tear-drop-shaped topographic depression approximately 1,000 kilometres in diameter possibly representing an ancient impact basin. The interior of Sputnik Planitia is characterized by a smooth, craterless plain three to four kilometres beneath the surrounding rugged uplands, and represents the surface of a massive unit of actively convecting volatile ices (N2, CH4 and CO) several kilometres thick. This large feature is very near the Pluto-Charon tidal axis...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843284/studying-maximum-plantar-stress-per-insole-design-using-foot-ct-scan-images-of-hyperelastic-soft-tissues
#6
Ali Sarikhani, Abbas Motalebizadeh, Sasan Asiaei, Babak Kamali Doost Azad
The insole shape and the resulting plantar stress distribution have a pivotal impact on overall health. In this paper, by Finite Element Method, maximum stress value and stress distribution of plantar were studied for different insoles designs, which are the flat surface and the custom-molded (conformal) surface. Moreover, insole thickness, heel's height, and different materials were used to minimize the maximum stress and achieve the most uniform stress distribution. The foot shape and its details used in this paper were imported from online CT-Scan images...
2016: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842954/a-three-dimensional-approach-for-quantifying-resultant-loading-at-the-knee
#7
Ryan T Lewinson, Chad P Maag, Victor M Y Lun, J Preston Wiley, Chirag Patel, Darren J Stefanyshyn
BACKGROUND: Clinical effectiveness of lateral wedges for knee osteoarthritis is inconsistent across studies. One explanation is that knee loading is not fully described by the peak frontal-plane knee moment. The purpose of this study was to propose a 3D resultant approach to describing moments at the knee and evaluate how this moment changes in response to lateral wedges. METHODS: Walking gait analysis was performed on 20 individuals with knee osteoarthritis, in their own shoes, with and without a six millimeter lateral wedge insole...
November 11, 2016: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825592/immediate-effects-of-foot-orthoses-on-pain-during-functional-tasks-in-people-with-patellofemoral-osteoarthritis-a-cross-over-proof-of-concept-study
#8
Natalie J Collins, Rana S Hinman, Hylton B Menz, Kay M Crossley
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine whether prefabricated foot orthoses immediately reduce pain during functional tasks in people with patellofemoral osteoarthritis, compared to flat insoles and shoes alone. METHODS: Eighteen people with predominant lateral patellofemoral osteoarthritis (nine women; mean [SD] age 59 [10]years; body mass index 27.9 [3.2]kg/m(2)) performed functional tasks wearing running sandals, and then wearing foot orthoses and flat insoles (random order)...
November 4, 2016: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824657/effect-of-footwear-on-joint-pain-and-function-in-older-adults-with-lower-extremity-osteoarthritis
#9
Amy Wagner, Sarah Luna
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition among older adults; given the risks of surgical and pharmaceutical interventions, conservative, lower-cost management options such as footwear warrant further investigation. This systematic review investigated the effects of footwear, including shoe inserts, in reducing lower extremity joint pain and improving gait, mobility, and quality of life in older adults with OA. METHODS: The CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, RECAL, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for publications from January 1990 to September 2014, using the terms "footwear," "shoes," "gait," "pain," and "older adult...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824259/preliminary-evaluation-of-a-cycling-cleat-designed-for-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#10
Ryan T Crews, Steven R Smith, Ramin Ghazizadeh, Sai Yalla, Stephanie C Wu
BACKGROUND: Offloading devices for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) generally restrict exercise. In addition to traditional health benefits, exercise could benefit DFU by increasing blood flow and acting as thermotherapy. This study functionally evaluated a cycling cleat designed for forefoot DFU. METHODS: Fifteen individuals at risk of developing a DFU used a recumbent stationary bicycle to complete one 5-minute cycling bout with the DFU cleat on their study foot and one 5-minute bout without it...
November 8, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824031/an-enduring-rapidly-moving-storm-as-a-guide-to-saturn-s-equatorial-jet-s-complex-structure
#11
A Sánchez-Lavega, E García-Melendo, S Pérez-Hoyos, R Hueso, M H Wong, A Simon, J F Sanz-Requena, A Antuñano, N Barrado-Izagirre, I Garate-Lopez, J F Rojas, T Del Río-Gaztelurrutia, J M Gómez-Forrellad, I de Pater, L Li, T Barry
Saturn has an intense and broad eastward equatorial jet with a complex three-dimensional structure mixed with time variability. The equatorial region experiences strong seasonal insolation variations enhanced by ring shadowing, and three of the six known giant planetary-scale storms have developed in it. These factors make Saturn's equator a natural laboratory to test models of jets in giant planets. Here we report on a bright equatorial atmospheric feature imaged in 2015 that moved steadily at a high speed of 450 ms(-1) not measured since 1980-1981 with other equatorial clouds moving within an ample range of velocities...
November 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810303/surface-energy-balance-of-an-extensive-green-roof-as-quantified-by-full-year-eddy-covariance-measurements
#12
Jannik Heusinger, Stephan Weber
Green roofs are discussed as a promising type of green infrastructure to lower heat stress in cities. In order to enhance evaporative cooling, green roofs should ideally have similar Bowen ratio (β=sensible heat flux/latent heat flux) characteristics such as rural sites, especially during summer periods with high air temperatures. We use the eddy-covariance (EC) method to quantify the energy balance of an 8600m(2) extensive, non-irrigated green roof at the Berlin Brandenburg Airport, Germany over a full annual cycle...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799702/effects-of-ankle-exercises-on-balance-ability-when-using-shoe-height-insoles
#13
Daehee Lee, Seulki Han, Sangyong Lee
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ankle exercises on balance ability when using shoe height insoles. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adults in their 20s, who were students, were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=15/group). Individuals in the experimental group wore height-adjustable silicon insoles measuring 3, 5, and 7 cm three times per week for four weeks. The ankle exercise program consisted of stretching exercises, resistance training, and a balance exercise...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784299/the-configuration-of-plantar-pressure-sensing-cells-for-wearable-measurement-of-cop-coordinates
#14
Dian Wang, Ping Cai, Zhiyong Mao
BACKGROUND: Wearable measurement of center of pressure (COP) coordinates is the key of obtaining the measurement of natural gait. Plantar pressure insole is the right sensing unit for plantar pressure monitoring for long-term outdoor measurements and the control of walking assisting exoskeleton robot. It's necessary to study the configuration of pressure sensing cells. METHODS: This study explored the sensing cell configuration for the plantar pressure insole. The data of plantar pressure of walking is collected for layout variants...
October 26, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782289/unobtrusive-and-continuous-monitoring-of-alcohol-impaired-gait-using-smart-shoes
#15
Eunjeong Park, Sunghoon I Lee, Hyo Suk Nam, Jordan H Garst, Alex Huang, Andrew Campion, Monica Arnell, Nima Ghalehsariand, Sangsoo Park, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Daniel C Lu, Majid Sarrafzadeh
BACKGROUND: Alcohol ingestion influences sensory-motor function and the overall well-being of individuals. Detecting alcohol-induced impairments in gait in daily life necessitates a continuous and unobtrusive gait monitoring system. OBJECTIVES: This paper introduces the development and use of a non-intrusive monitoring system to detect changes in gait induced by alcohol intoxication. METHODS: The proposed system employed a pair of sensorized smart shoes that are equipped with pressure sensors on the insole...
October 26, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782089/plantar-pressure-detection-with-fiber-bragg-gratings-sensing-system
#16
Tsair-Chun Liang, Jhe-Jhun Lin, Lan-Yuen Guo
In this paper, a novel fiber-optic sensing system based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to measure foot plantar pressure is proposed. This study first explores the Pedar-X insole foot pressure types of the adult-size chart and then defines six measurement areas to effectively identify four foot types: neutral foot, cavus foot, supinated foot and flat foot. The plantar pressure signals are detected by only six FBGs, which are embedded in silicone rubber. The performance of the fiber optic sensing is examined and compared with a digital pressure plate of i-Step P1000 with 1024 barometric sensors...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756056/textured-and-stimulating-insoles-for-balance-and-gait-impairments-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Martin Alfuth
The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to investigate if using textured or other types of stimulating insoles improve gait characteristics and balance/postural control in patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Primary outcomes for balance were the center of pressure (CoP) displacement and CoP velocity/sway rate. Primary outcomes for gait were the cadence, velocity, and step length. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were used to verify the efficacy of wearing the insoles on gait and balance outcome measures...
October 11, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752287/getting-the-right-balance-insole-design-alters-the-static-balance-of-people-with-diabetes-and-neuropathy
#18
Joanne Paton, Sam Glasser, Richard Collings, Jon Marsden
BACKGROUND: Over 1 in 3 older people with diabetes sustain a fall each year. Postural instability has been identified as independent risk factor for falls within people with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN). People with DPN, at increased risk of falls, are routinely required to wear offloading insoles, yet the impact of these insoles on postural stability and postural control is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a standard offloading insole and its constituent parts on the balance in people with DPN...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744250/concurrent-validity-and-reliability-of-wireless-instrumented-insoles-measuring-postural-balance-and-temporal-gait-parameters
#19
Michiel S Oerbekke, Mirelle J Stukstette, Kurt Schütte, Rob A de Bie, Martijn F Pisters, Benedicte Vanwanseele
BACKGROUND: The OpenGo seems promising to take gait analysis out of laboratory settings due to its capability of long-term measurements and mobility. However, the OpenGo's concurrent validity and reliability need to be assessed to determine if the instrument is suitable for validation in patient samples. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers participated. Center of pressure data were collected under eyes open and closed conditions with participants performing unilateral stance trials on the gold standard (AMTI OR6-7 force plate) while wearing the OpenGo...
October 6, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739339/changes-in-organisation-of-instep-kicking-as-a-function-of-wearing-compression-and-textured-materials
#20
Hosni Hasan, Keith Davids, Jia Yi Chow, Graham Kerr
This study investigated effects of wearing compression garments and textured insoles on modes of movement organisation emerging during performance of lower limb interceptive actions in association football. Participants were six skilled (age = 15.67 ± 0.74 years) and six less-skilled (age = 15.17 ± 1.1 years) football players. All participants performed 20 instep kicks with maximum velocity in four randomly organised insoles and socks conditions, (a) Smooth Socks with Smooth Insoles (SSSI); (b) Smooth Socks with Textured Insoles (SSTI); (c) Compression Socks with Smooth Insoles (CSSI); and (d), Compression Socks with Textured Insoles (CSTI)...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
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