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Infection disease, children, immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911218/aberrant-t-cell-immunity-triggered-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#1
Andrea E González, Margarita K Lay, Evelyn L Jara, Janyra A Espinoza, Roberto S Gómez, Jorge Soto, Claudia A Rivera, Katia Abarca, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the two major etiological viral agents of lower respiratory tract diseases, affecting mainly infants, young children and the elderly. Although the infection of both viruses trigger an antiviral immune response that mediate viral clearance and disease resolution in immunocompetent individuals, the promotion of long-term immunity appears to be deficient and reinfection are common throughout life. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that hRSV and hMPV, can induce aberrant T cell responses, which leads to exacerbated lung inflammation and poor T and B cell memory immunity...
December 2, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904185/topical-therapy-in-atopic-dermatitis-in-children
#2
Dharshini Sathishkumar, Celia Moss
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic childhood skin disorder caused by complex genetic, immunological, and environmental interactions. It significantly impairs quality of life for both child and family. Treatment is complex and must be tailored to the individual taking into account personal, social, and emotional factors, as well as disease severity. This review covers the management of AD in children with topical treatments, focusing on: education and empowerment of patients and caregivers, avoidance of trigger factors, repair and maintenance of the skin barrier by correct use of emollients, control of inflammation with topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, minimizing infection, and the use of bandages and body suits...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884168/ataxia-telangiectasia-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Cynthia Rothblum-Oviatt, Jennifer Wright, Maureen A Lefton-Greif, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Thomas O Crawford, Howard M Lederman
DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disorder primarily characterized by cerebellar degeneration, telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, cancer susceptibility and radiation sensitivity. A-T is often referred to as a genome instability or DNA damage response syndrome. EPIDEMIOLOGY: The world-wide prevalence of A-T is estimated to be between 1 in 40,000 and 1 in 100,000 live births. CLINICAL DESCRIPTION: A-T is a complex disorder with substantial variability in the severity of features between affected individuals, and at different ages...
November 25, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872018/preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-the-promise-and-the-challenges
#4
REVIEW
G J Fox, C C Dobler, B J Marais, J T Denholm
Around one third of the world's population may harbour latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), an asymptomatic immunological state that confers a heightened risk of subsequently developing tuberculosis (TB). Effectively treating LTBI will be essential if the End TB Strategy is to be realised This review evaluates the evidence the effectiveness preventive antibiotic therapy to treat LTBI due to both drug susceptible and drug resistant bacteria. We summarise current national and international preventive therapy guidelines, as well as ongoing randomised trials evaluating regimen to prevent drug resistant TB...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870812/does-breastfeeding-protect-young-infants-from-pertussis-case-control-study-and-immunologic-evaluation
#5
Elisabetta Pandolfi, Francesco Gesualdo, Emanuela Carloni, Alberto Villani, Fabio Midulla, Rita Carsetti, Paola Stefanelli, Giorgio Fedele, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi
BACKGROUND: Pertussis infection can be severe in unvaccinated infants. A case control study was conducted to investigate the potential role of breastfeeding in protecting young, unvaccinated infants from pertussis. METHODS: Hospitalized infants < 6 months with positive RT-PCR for pertussis on nasopharyngeal aspirate were enrolled as cases; healthy controls were enrolled among patients admitted for ultrasound screening. Vaccinated infants were excluded. Sociodemographic, clinical and feeding information were collected...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859744/hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-an-overview-of-clinical-features-in-adult-patients
#6
I Neri, M A Chessa, A Virdi, A Patrizi
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly affects children aged <5 years and is caused by several serotypes of enteroviruses, more frequently Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackie A16 (CA16)(1) . The disease presents with vesicles in the mouth, hands, feet and buttocks. Only 1% of infected adults develop clinical manifestations, probably as a result of immunological memory(1). Nevertheless, in the atypical HFMD caused by Coxsackie virus A6 (CVA6) the involvement of immunocompetent adults has been recently described(2-6) ...
November 11, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794078/clemens-von-pirquet-a-remarkable-life-and-career
#7
REVIEW
Stanford T Shulman
From 1908 to 1929, Clemens von Pirquet was one of the world's most acclaimed pediatricians. Von Pirquet (1874-1929) trained at Vienna's Universitäts Kinderklinic under Theodor Escherich, the first Pediatric Infectious Diseases physician [ 1], and became the first Professor and Chair of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins in 1909. He then succeeded his mentor Escherich as Professor and Chair of Pediatrics in Vienna, the most prestigious European pediatric position, when Escherich died unexpectedly in 1911. He held that position in Vienna until his shocking double suicide at age 54 with his wife in 1929...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793216/toxoplasma-gondii-a-gastrointestinal-pathogen-associated-with-human-brain-diseases
#8
E G Severance, J Xiao, L Jones-Brando, S Sabunciyan, Y Li, M Pletnikov, E Prandovszky, R Yolken
Serious psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression are important causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. While these are primarily diseases involving altered brain functioning, numerous studies have documented increased rates of gastrointestinal inflammation and dysfunction in many individuals with these disorders. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan protozoan intracellular parasite with a widespread distribution in both developed and developing countries. Toxoplasma organisms enter the ecosystem through the shedding of oocysts by Toxoplasma-infected felines...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791067/community-deworming-alleviates-geohelminth-induced-immune-hyporesponsiveness
#9
Linda J Wammes, Firdaus Hamid, Aprilianto Eddy Wiria, Linda May, Maria M M Kaisar, Margaretta A Prasetyani-Gieseler, Yenny Djuardi, Heri Wibowo, Yvonne C M Kruize, Jaco J Verweij, Sanne E de Jong, Roula Tsonaka, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Erliyani Sartono, Adrian J F Luty, Taniawati Supali, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
In cross-sectional studies, chronic helminth infections have been associated with immunological hyporesponsiveness that can affect responses to unrelated antigens. To study the immunological effects of deworming, we conducted a cluster-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia and assigned 954 households to receive albendazole or placebo once every 3 mo for 2 y. Helminth-specific and nonspecific whole-blood cytokine responses were assessed in 1,059 subjects of all ages, whereas phenotyping of regulatory molecules was undertaken in 121 school-aged children...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788149/transcriptional-profiling-of-egg-allergy-and-relationship-to-disease-phenotype
#10
Roman Kosoy, Charuta Agashe, Alexander Grishin, Donald Y Leung, Robert A Wood, Scott H Sicherer, Stacie M Jones, A Wesley Burks, Wendy F Davidson, Robert W Lindblad, Peter Dawson, Miriam Merad, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Hugh A Sampson, M Cecilia Berin
BACKGROUND: Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies of childhood. There is a lack of information on the immunologic basis of egg allergy beyond the role of IgE. OBJECTIVE: To use transcriptional profiling as a novel approach to uncover immunologic processes associated with different phenotypes of egg allergy. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from egg-allergic children who were defined as reactive (BER) or tolerant (BET) to baked egg, and from food allergic controls (AC) who were egg non-allergic...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773849/intranasal-administration-of-a-polyvalent-bacterial-lysate-induces-self-restricted-inflammation-in-the-lungs-and-a-th1-th17-memory-signature
#11
Analía Rial, Florencia Ferrara, Norma Suárez, Paola Scavone, Juan Martín Marqués, José Alejandro Chabalgoity
Respiratory tract infections are among the most frequent infections in humans causing millions of deaths especially in children and the elderly. Antibiotics and vaccines are the main available tools of control, but resistant strains are continuously arising and available vaccines only account for few of many pathogens involved. Non-specific immunotherapies are an emerging alternative to induce protective immunity at the airways. Mucosally administered polyvalent bacterial lysates (PBLs) have been widely used for decades for prevention of respiratory diseases, but the bases of their proposed therapeutic effectiveness are still controversial...
October 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701380/identification-of-helicobacter-pylori-and-the-evolution-of-an-efficacious-childhood-vaccine-to-protect-against-gastritis-and-peptic-ulcer-disease
#12
Thomas G Blanchard, Steven J Czinn
Establishment of Helicobacter pylori infection as an etiologic agent of peptic ulcer disease and other gastric pathologies marked a revolution in gastroenterology which spurred an enormous interest in gastric physiology and immunology research. The association was soon also demonstrated in children as well. Application of antimicrobial therapies have proven remarkably efficacious in eradicating H. pylori and curing pediatric patients of duodenal ulcers as well as gastritis, negating a lifetime of ineffective therapy and life-threatening disease...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695355/influence-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745on-the-gut-associated-immune-system
#13
Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (also known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926; in the following S. boulardii) has proven its effectiveness in preventive and therapeutic treatment of many gastrointestinal diseases, especially diseases associated with acute diarrhea. In particular, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, traveller's diarrhea, as well as acute diarrhea due to common viral and bacterial infections in children and adults...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683550/nonprogressing-hiv-infected-children-share-fundamental-immunological-features-of-nonpathogenic-siv-infection
#14
Maximilian Muenchhoff, Emily Adland, Owen Karimanzira, Carol Crowther, Matthew Pace, Anna Csala, Ellen Leitman, Angeline Moonsamy, Callum McGregor, Jacob Hurst, Andreas Groll, Masahiko Mori, Smruti Sinmyee, Christina Thobakgale, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Andrew J Prendergast, Henrik Kloverpris, Julia Roider, Alasdair Leslie, Delane Shingadia, Thea Brits, Samantha Daniels, John Frater, Christian B Willberg, Bruce D Walker, Thumbi Ndung'u, Pieter Jooste, Penny L Moore, Lynn Morris, Philip Goulder
Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged >5 years maintaining normal-for-age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26,000 copies/ml)...
September 28, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665287/palivizumab-exposure-and-the-risk-of-autoimmune-disease-a-cross-national-cohort-study
#15
Ann Haerskjold, Marie Linder, Lonny Henriksen, Simon Francis Thomsen, Helle Kieler, Henrik Ravn, Lone Graff Stensballe
BACKGROUND: Treatment with biologic pharmaceuticals may be associated with an increased risk of immune-mediated disease. Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to provide passive immunity against respiratory syncytial virus infection. Palivizumab is primarily used in preterm children known to be immunologically immature. The long-term effect of palivizumab in terms of autoimmune diseases has not yet been investigated. AIM: Our objective was to investigate whether exposure to palivizumab was associated with the development of autoimmune diseases in children...
December 2016: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649674/disseminated-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-disease-in-saudi-children-clinical-profile-microbiology-immunology-evaluation-and-outcome
#16
E Bukhari, F Alaklobi, H Bakheet, A Alrabiaah, F Alotibi, F Aljobair, M Alshamrani, E Alaki, F Alnahdi, A Alodyani, F Alzamil
OBJECTIVE: The bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered worldwide to prevent tuberculosis. Although, Post BCG vaccination complications like disseminated BCG infections are rare and immunocompromised children are at high risk of developing BCG-related complications including BCG-lymphadenitis and other disseminated diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of children who developed disseminated BCG after vaccination who were admitted in three tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in the year 2015...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510612/pediatrics-in-21-st-century-and-beyond
#17
Meharban Singh
Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473196/proceedings-from-the-nimh-symposium-on-neuroaids-in-africa-neurological-and-neuropsychiatric-complications-of-hiv
#18
Shilpa Buch, Ernest T Chivero, Jackie Hoare, Jibreel Jumare, Noeline Nakasujja, Victor Mudenda, Robert Paul, Georgette D Kanmogne, Ned Sacktor, Charles Wood, Walter Royal, Jeymohan Joseph
Despite major advances in HIV-1 treatment, the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains a problem, particularly as individuals on suppressive treatment continue to live longer. To facilitate discussion on emerging and future directions in HAND research, a meeting was held in Durban, South Africa in March 2015 as part of the Society of Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA) conference. The objective of the meeting was to assess the impact of HIV subtype diversity on HAND and immunological dysfunction...
October 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459853/rapidly-progressive-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-an-iraqi-boy-received-valproic-acid-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#19
Lika'a Fasih Y Al-Kzayer, Peter Keizer, Farah T Abdulraheem, Kenji Sano, Minoru Kamata, Kazuo Sakashita, Laith A Y Habbaba, Kenichi Koike
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an endothelial neoplasm, is associated with human herpes virus (HHV) -8 infection. KS has four clinical sub-types: Mediterranean/classic, African/endemic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -associated/epidemic, and transplantation-related/iatrogenic. Immunosuppression is an important cofactor in KS process. Classic KS (CKS) is exceedingly rare in children and when occurs, it is much more disseminated than adults. The epidemic, HIV-associated and the iatrogenic forms of childhood KS are a result of a profound and acquired T-cell deficiency...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456896/-neurological-presentations-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-children-current-possibilities-of-diagnosis-and-treatment
#20
L N Mazankova, O A Milovanova, D A Moiseenkova, I A Soldatova, E P Mikhalinova
AIM: To improve clinical/laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (BM) in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-seven patients, aged from 4 months to 12 years, with BM were examined. Bacteriological study of the mucus from the nasopharynx, sterility tests of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CNF), clinical and biochemical tests, serological study of paired samples of plasma - indirect hemagglutination test, latex agglutination assay, immunological study of plasma and CNF with the determination of interferon -α, -β and -γ, interferon procalcitonin and neopterin with ELISA were performed at admission and after CNF remediation...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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