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Infection disease, children, immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903523/fungal-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-children
#1
Matthew W McCarthy, Darius Kalasauskas, Vidmantas Petraitis, Ruta Petraitiene, Thomas J Walsh
Although uncommon in children, fungal infections of the central nervous system can be devastating and difficult to treat. A better understanding of basic mycologic, immunologic, and pharmacologic processes has led to important advances in the diagnosis and management of these diseases, but their mortality rates remain unacceptably high. In this focused review, we examine the epidemiology and clinical features of the most common fungal pathogens of the central nervous system in children and explore recent advances in diagnosis and antifungal therapy...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855396/increased-adaptive-immune-responses-and-proper-feedback-regulation-protect-against-clinical-dengue
#2
Etienne Simon-Lorière, Veasna Duong, Ahmed Tawfik, Sivlin Ung, Sowath Ly, Isabelle Casadémont, Matthieu Prot, Noémie Courtejoie, Kevin Bleakley, Philippe Buchy, Arnaud Tarantola, Philippe Dussart, Tineke Cantaert, Anavaj Sakuntabhai
Clinical symptoms of dengue virus (DENV) infection, the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease, range from classical mild dengue fever to severe, life-threatening dengue shock syndrome. However, most DENV infections cause few or no symptoms. Asymptomatic DENV-infected patients provide a unique opportunity to decipher the host immune responses leading to virus elimination without negative impact on an individual's health. We used an integrated approach of transcriptional profiling and immunological analysis to compare a Cambodian population of strictly asymptomatic viremic individuals with clinical dengue patients...
August 30, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804700/abridged-version-of-the-awmf-guideline-for-the-medical-clinical-diagnostics-of-indoor-mould-exposure-s2k-guideline-of-the-german-society-of-hygiene-environmental-medicine-and-preventive-medicine-ghup-in-collaboration-with-the-german-association-of-allergists
#3
Gerhard A Wiesmüller, Birger Heinzow, Ute Aurbach, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Albrecht Bufe, Walter Buzina, Oliver A Cornely, Steffen Engelhart, Guido Fischer, Thomas Gabrio, Werner Heinz, Caroline E W Herr, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Martin Köberle, Herbert Lichtnecker, Thomas Lob-Corzilius, Rolf Merget, Norbert Mülleneisen, Dennis Nowak, Uta Rabe, Monika Raulf, Hans Peter Seidl, Jens-Oliver Steiß, Regine Szewszyk, Peter Thomas, Kerttu Valtanen, Julia Hurraß
This article is an abridged version of the AWMF mould guideline "Medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure" presented in April 2016 by the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin, GHUP), in collaboration with the above-mentioned scientific medical societies, German and Austrian societies, medical associations and experts. Indoor mould growth is a potential health risk, even if a quantitative and/or causal relationship between the occurrence of individual mould species and health problems has yet to be established...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791823/echocardiographic-characteristics-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-children-with-horizontally-transmitted-hiv
#4
Anca Meda Georgescu, Cosmin Moldovan, Janos Szederjesi, Dan Georgescu, Leonard Azamfirei
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of primitive pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is estimated at approximately 0.5%, significantly higher than in the general population. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the echocardiographic modifications in HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 117 patients, aged under 16, with horizontally transmitted HIV staged according to the U...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783042/inborn-errors-in-rna-polymerase-iii-underlie-severe-varicella-zoster-virus-infections
#5
Benson Ogunjimi, Shen-Ying Zhang, Katrine B Sørensen, Kristian A Skipper, Madalina Carter-Timofte, Gaspard Kerner, Stefanie Luecke, Thaneas Prabakaran, Yujia Cai, Josephina Meester, Esther Bartholomeus, Nikhita Ajit Bolar, Geert Vandeweyer, Charlotte Claes, Yasmine Sillis, Lazaro Lorenzo, Raffaele A Fiorenza, Soraya Boucherit, Charlotte Dielman, Steven Heynderickx, George Elias, Andrea Kurotova, Ann Vander Auwera, Lieve Verstraete, Lieven Lagae, Helene Verhelst, Anna Jansen, Jose Ramet, Arvid Suls, Evelien Smits, Berten Ceulemans, Lut Van Laer, Genevieve Plat Wilson, Jonas Kreth, Capucine Picard, Horst Von Bernuth, Joël Fluss, Stephane Chabrier, Laurent Abel, Geert Mortier, Sebastien Fribourg, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Søren R Paludan, Trine H Mogensen
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically causes chickenpox upon primary infection. In rare cases, VZV can give rise to life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy people, but the immunological basis for this remains unexplained. We report 4 cases of acute severe VZV infection affecting the central nervous system or the lungs in unrelated, otherwise healthy children who are heterozygous for rare missense mutations in POLR3A (one patient), POLR3C (one patient), or both (two patients). POLR3A and POLR3C encode subunits of RNA polymerase III...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756176/infection-mediated-autoimmune-movement-disorders
#6
Alberto Cucca, Hamzeh A Migdadi, Alessandro Di Rocco
Infectious diseases remain the most common cause of neurological disability in the world. A number of movement disorders can develop in adults and children in response to infections. These can occur in isolation or as part of a broader neurological illness, with movement abnormalities consequent to an encephalopathy or a broader brain dysfunction. While most infection-related movement disorders are direct consequences of an active infectious process affecting cerebral structures implied in the motor network, at times a delayed immune-mediated process in response to a previous infectious is responsible for the neurological dysfunction...
July 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695368/an-interaction-of-lps-and-rsv-infection-in-augmenting-the-ahr-and-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#7
Na Zhou, Wei Li, Luo Ren, Xiaohong Xie, Enmei Liu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children under 5 years of age, especially infants with severe bronchiolitis. Our preliminary clinical experiments showed that bacterial colonization was commonly observed in children with virus-induced wheezing, particularly in those with recurrent wheezing, suggesting that bacterial colonization with an accompanying viral infection may contribute to disease severity. In most cases, RSV-infected infants were colonized with pathogenic bacteria (mainly Gram-negative bacteria)...
July 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691461/oral-manifestations-of-selective-iga-deficiency-review-and-case-report
#8
L Azzi, F Croveri, R Vinci, V Maurino, A Boggio, D Mantegazza, D Farronato, A Tagliabue, J Silvestre-Rangil, L Tettamanti
Immunoglobulin A deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency defined as decreased serum level of IgA (less than 7 mg/dl) in the presence of normal levels of other immunoglobulin isotypes. Most individuals with IgA deficiency are asymptomatic and identified coincidentally. However, some patients may present with recurrent infections, allergic disorders and autoimmune manifestations, such as diabetes mellitus, Graves disease and celiac disease. The international literature has not produced any kind of review yet about intra-oral manifestations of selective IgA-deficiency...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652068/epigenomic-susceptibility-to-the-social-world-plausible-paths-to-a-newest-morbidity
#9
W Thomas Boyce
This article-presented on the celebratory occasion of Dr Robert Haggerty's 91st birthday-describes how a 1962 article by Dr Haggerty and his colleague Dr Roger Meyer launched a previously unexplored, pediatric research enterprise by asserting that: "There are little precise data to explain why one person becomes ill with an infecting agent and another not." Noting a prospective association between family stressors and the acquisition of β-hemolytic streptococcal infections, the article introduced a generation of young academic pediatricians-the author of the present article among them-to the possibility of causal linkages among children's adversity exposures, compromised immunological processes, and the development of immune-mediated, acute or chronic diseases of childhood...
August 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635516/concentration-of-uhcl1-in-the-serum-of-children-with-acute-appendicitis-before-and-after-surgery-and-its-correlation-with-crp-and-prealbumin
#10
Ewa Matuszczak, Marzena Tylicka, Wojciech Dębek, Anna Tokarzewicz, Ewa Gorodkiewicz, Adam Hermanowicz
Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell differentiation, and stress response. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) is a unique deubiquitinating enzyme that has both hydrolase and ligase activities. The aim of this study was the determination of UCHL1 concentration in serum of children with appendicitis, before and after the surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 42 children with acute appendicitis, who were managed at the Pediatric Surgery Department, between 2013 and 2014, were randomly included into the study (age 9 months up to 14 years, mean age 2...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615061/synergistic-effect-of-il-12-and-il-18-induces-tim3-regulation-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-function-and-decreases-the-risk-of-clinical-malaria-in-children-living-in-papua-new-guinea
#11
Louis Schofield, Lisa J Ioannidis, Stephan Karl, Leanne J Robinson, Qiao Y Tan, Daniel P Poole, Inoni Betuela, Danika L Hill, Peter M Siba, Diana S Hansen, Ivo Mueller, Emily M Eriksson
BACKGROUND: γδ T cells are important for both protective immunity and immunopathogenesis during malaria infection. However, the immunological processes determining beneficial or detrimental effects on disease outcome remain elusive. The aim of this study was to examine expression and regulatory effect of the inhibitory receptor T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 3 (TIM3) on γδ T cells. While TIM3 expression and function on conventional αβ T cells have been clearly defined, the equivalent characterization on γδ T cells and associations with disease outcomes is limited...
June 15, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606185/non-malarial-infectious-diseases-of-antenatal-care-in-pregnant-women-in-franceville-gabon
#12
Irene Pegha Moukandja, Edgard Brice Ngoungou, Guy Joseph Lemamy, Ulrick Bisvigou, Antoine Gessain, Fousseyni S Toure Ndouo, Mirdad Kazanji, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki
BACKGROUND: In sub-tropical countries, infectious diseases remain one of the main causes of mortality. Because of their lack of active immunity, pregnant women and their unborn children represent the most susceptible people. In Gabon, data on infectious diseases of pregnant women such as syphilis and rubella are either scarce or very old. Few studies have assessed T. gondii infection during pregnancy in the country. Here, we evaluate seroprevalence of HIV, HTVL-1, syphilis and T. gondii and rubella infection during antenatal care among women living in Franceville, Gabon...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598702/a-safe-and-efficient-bcg-vectored-vaccine-to-prevent-the-disease-caused-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#13
Emma Rey-Jurado, Jorge Soto, Nicolás Gálvez, Alexis M Kalergis
The human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) causes lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Such infections also cause a large number of hospitalizations and affects mainly newborns, young children and the elderly worldwide. Symptoms associated with hRSV infection are due to an exacerbated immune response characterized by low levels of IFN-γ, recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils to the site of infection and lung damage. Although hRSV is a major health problem, no vaccines are currently available...
June 9, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597957/early-childhood-infections-precede-development-of-beta-cell-autoimmunity-and-type-1-diabetes-in-children-with-hla-conferred-disease-risk
#14
N Mustonen, H Siljander, A Peet, V Tillmann, T Härkönen, J Ilonen, H Hyöty, M Knip
BACKGROUND: The etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is largely unknown. Infections and microbial exposures are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis and in the development of islet autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationships between early childhood infections, islet autoimmunity, and progression to T1D in genetically predisposed children. METHODS: Children with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred disease susceptibility (N=790; 51...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570148/an-official-american-thoracic-society-workshop-report-obesity-and-metabolism-an-emerging-frontier-in-lung-health-and-disease
#15
Benjamin T Suratt, Niki D J Ubags, Deepa Rastogi, Kelan G Tantisira, Benjamin J Marsland, Irina Petrache, Janice B Allen, Jason H T Bates, Fernando Holguin, Meredith C McCormack, Evangelos D Michelakis, Stephen M Black, Manu Jain, Ana L Mora, Viswanathan Natarajan, Yury I Miller, Michael B Fessler, Konstantin G Birukov, Ross S Summer, Stephanie A Shore, Anne E Dixon
The world is in the midst of an unprecedented epidemic of obesity. This epidemic has changed the presentation and etiology of common diseases. For example, steatohepatitis, directly attributable to obesity, is now the most common cause of cirrhosis in the United States. Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children. Pulmonary researchers and clinicians are just beginning to appreciate the impact of obesity and altered metabolism on common pulmonary diseases. Obesity has recently been identified as a major risk factor for the development of asthma and for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565836/the-immune-mechanism-of-intestinal-tract-toll-like-receptor-in-mediating-ev71-virus-type-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-the-mapk-pathway
#16
Lei Zhu, Weihua Li, Gongjian Qi, Na Liu, Liping Sheng, Lei Shang, Boxiang Qi
Immunological response is thought to play a crucial role in the development of a severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) infection in children, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study was designed to help in elucidating the immunopathological pathways involved in the disease by quantifying Toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNAs, MAPK factors and cytokine levels in children experiencing the disease. A total of 86 enterovirus 71 (EV71)-infected HFMD children (49 with mild and 27 with severe disease), along with 30 healthy children were involved in the study...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553418/analysis-of-the-literature-on-chronic-cough-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Marcello Bergamini, Ahmad Kantar, Renato Cutrera, Italian Pediatric Cough Interest Group
Throughout childhood, various developmental phenomena influence the cough reflex. Among these are the modifications in the anatomy and functions of the respiratory tract and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, after birth, the immunological response undergoes progressive transformations with the acquisition of immune memory processes. These conditions make infections and airway abnormalities the overwhelming cause of chronic cough in children and infants. In children, chronic cough should be treated on the basis of etiology...
2017: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544224/quantification-of-specific-t-and-b-cells-immunological-markers-in-children-with-chronic-and-transient-itp
#18
Sarina Levy-Mendelovich, Atar Lev, Shraga Aviner, Nurit Rosenberg, Caim Kaplinsky, Nechama Sharon, Hagit Miskin, Aviya Dvir, Gili Kenet, Irit Eisen Schushan, Raz Somech
BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is characterized by a transient (nonchronic) or permanent (chronic) decline in the number of platelets. Predicting the course of ITP, at the time of diagnosis, is of importance. Here we studied at diagnosis, clinical and immunological parameters in order to distinguish between different courses. The latter included the measure of new B and T cells using quantification of kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) and T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), respectively...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482848/when-a-patient-suspected-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-turns-out-to-be-diagnosed-with-an-infectious-disease-a-review-of-lyme-arthritis-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Krzysztof Orczyk, Joanna Świdrowska-Jaros, Elżbieta Smolewska
The Lyme arthritis is a common manifestation of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete. Despite its infectious background, the inflammation clinically and histopatologically resembles juvenile idiopathic arthritis. As it affects a considerable number of Lyme disease patients, it should be routinely considered in differential diagnosis. Development of arthritis is partially dependent on spirochetal factors, including the ribosomal spacer type and the sequence of outer surface protein C. Immunological background involves Th1-related response, but IL-17 provides an additional route of developing arthritis...
May 8, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482391/-two-families-of-x-linked-lymphoproliferative-disease-type-1-characterized-by-agammaglobulinemia
#20
W Y Li, J S Chen, Q Zhao, R X Dai, Y P Wang, H Y Zhao, X M Chen, X H Xue, X Y Sun, X M Tang, Y Zhang, Y Ding, X D Zhao, Z Y Zhang
Objective: To investigate the clinical and immunological laboratory features, mutations in SH2D1A gene and SAP protein expression in four children of two families with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1(XLP-1). Method: Four patients (Family A including Patient 1 and Patient 2, Family B including Patient 3 and Patient 4) and their maternal relatives were enrolled in this study. The clinical manifestation, EBV infection status and chest CT scan were analyzed. The absolute and relative numbers of lymphocyte subsets, T lymphocyte proliferative response, SAP protein expression were assessed by flow cytometry...
May 4, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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