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Infection disease, children, immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283855/the-role-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infections-in-the-immunopathology-of-the-respiratory-tract
#1
REVIEW
Malgorzata Pawełczyk, Marek Leszek Kowalski
Viral infections are leading causes of both upper and lower airway acute illness in all age groups of healthy persons, and have also been implicated in the acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disorders like asthma and COPD. Human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus and coronavirus have been considered as the most important respiratory pathogens and relatively little attention has been paid to the role of parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs). Human parainfluenza viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that may evoke lower respiratory infections in infants, children and immunocompromised individuals...
March 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262277/-the-interactions-between-microorganisms-and-the-small-airways-a-paediatric-focus
#2
REVIEW
J de Blic, J Brouard, A Vabret, A Deschildre
The spectrum of respiratory viruses is expanding and emerging diseases have been described regularly over the last fifteen years. The origin of these emerging respiratory viruses may be zoonotic (by crossing species barrier, after changes to RNA viruses such as avian influenza virus type A or coronaviruses), or related to the use of new identification techniques (metapneumovirus, bocavirus). The relationship between bronchiolitis and asthma is now better understood thanks to prospective follow up of birth cohorts...
February 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261296/gastrointestinal-disorders-next-to-respiratory-infections-as-leading-symptoms-of-x-linked-agammaglobulinemia-in-children-34-year-experience-of-a-single-center
#3
Malgorzata Pac, Ewa A Bernatowska, Jarosław Kierkuś, Józef P Ryżko, Joanna Cielecka-Kuszyk, Teresa Jackowska, Bożena Mikołuć
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections constitute the most frequent manifestation of X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). There are not many papers elucidating gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in such patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders and IBD compared to respiratory tract infections in XLA individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of 1563 patients with primary immunodeficiencies diagnosed in the Department of Immunology, the Children's Memorial Health Institute (CMHI), 66 boys had a provisional diagnosis of agammaglobulinemia...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250126/respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-vectored-by-a-stable-chimeric-and-replication-deficient-sendai-virus-protects-mice-without-inducing-enhanced-disease
#4
Marian Alexander Wiegand, Gianni Gori-Savellini, Claudia Gandolfo, Guido Papa, Christine Kaufmann, Eva Felder, Alessandro Ginori, Maria Giulia Disanto, Donatella Spina, Maria Grazia Cusi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe respiratory infections in children and elderly people and no marketed vaccine exists. In this study, we generated and analyzed a subunit vaccine against RSV based on a novel genome replication-deficient Sendai virus (SeV) vector. We inserted the RSV F protein, known as a genetically stable antigen, into our vector in a specific way to optimize the vaccine features. Exchanging the ectodomain of the SeV F protein with its counterpart from RSV, we created a chimeric vectored vaccine that contains the RSV F protein as an essential structural component...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226227/protective-and-harmful-immunity-to-rsv-infection
#5
Peter J M Openshaw, Chris Chiu, Fiona J Culley, Cecilia Johansson
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an exceptional mucosal pathogen. It specializes in infection of the ciliated respiratory epithelium, causing disease of variable severity with little or no direct systemic effects. It infects virtually all children by the age of three years and then repeatedly infects throughout life; this it does despite relatively slight variations in antigenicity, apparently by inducing selective immunological amnesia. Inappropriate or dysregulated responses to RSV can be pathogenic, causing disease-enhancing inflammation that contributes to short- and long-term effects...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225941/-health-inequality-on-results-and-access-indicators-for-children-in-mexico-analysis-of-national-health-surveys
#6
Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, Sebastián García-Saisó, Rodrigo Espinosa-de la Peña, Dulce Alejandra Balandrán
Objective: To analyze inequalities in health care indicators of children 0 to 9 years old in Mexico reporting gap and gradient measures. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional analysis of national health surveys in 2000, 2006 and 2012, measuring absolute and relative gap measures as well as the Slope Index of Inequality for four health care indicators (vaccination, care for acute respiratory infections, care for acute diarrheal diseases, and care for accidents) with socioeconomic stratification, as well as absolute gaps by sex, urbanicity and ethnic background...
November 2016: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196317/common-skin-conditions-in-children-noninfectious-rashes
#7
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are among the most common noninfectious rashes of childhood. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are classified as morbilliform, urticarial, bullous, pustular, or psoriasiform. Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common inflammatory cutaneous eruptions, and is characterized by pruritus and flexural distribution. Emollients and topical corticosteroids are first-line therapies. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are second-line, steroid-sparing drugs for certain conditions, such as face and eyelid eczema...
February 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146189/-young-women-with-hiv-infection-acquired-by-vertical-transmission-expectations-of-having-uninfected-children
#8
Julia Villarroel, Ana M Álvarez, Francisco Salvador, Ana Chávez, Elba Wu, Verónica Contardo
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART), changed the prognosis of the disease, allowing young women infected by vertical transmission (TV) to be pregnant without risk for their fetus of acquiring this infection. AIM: To describe the clinical-immune status in pregnant women that acquired HV by vertical transmission, treatments received, monitoring of pregnancy and newborn characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A protocol was performed, evaluating clinical and immunological parameters during pregnancy, ART used, protocol preventing vertical transmission (PPTV), and follow up of children to 18 months of age...
December 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133957/efficacy-and-safety-of-vaccination-in-pediatric-patients-with-systemic-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
Sandra Sousa, Ana Catarina Duarte, Inês Cordeiro, Joana Ferreira, Maria João Gonçalves, Tiago Meirinhos, Teresa Martins Rocha, Vasco C Romão, Maria José Santos
INTRODUCTION: Children and adolescents with systemic rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of infections. Although some infections are vaccine-preventable, immunization among patients with juvenile rheumatic diseases is suboptimal, partly due to some doubts that still persist regarding its efficacy and safety in this patient population. OBJECTIVES: To review the available evidence regarding the immunological response and the safety of vaccination in children and adolescents with systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (SIRD)...
November 9, 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125549/o-001-a-diagnostic-approach-of-immune-dysregulation-on-very-early-onset-ibd
#10
Judith Kelsen, Noor Dawany, Maire Conrad, Kathleen Sullivan, Edward Behrens, Marcella Devoto
BACKGROUND: Immune deficiencies have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and are reported to be particularly enriched in patients with very early-onset IBD (VEO-IBD). However, the actual frequency of primary immune deficiencies in an unselected cohort of patients with VEO-IBD is not known, nor is the optimal screening approach for this population. This study was undertaken to identify a diagnostic approach that will enhance identification of children with primary immune deficiencies who present with VEO-IBD...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120843/helicobacter-pylori-infection-is-associated-with-an-altered-gastric-microbiota-in-children
#11
K M Brawner, R Kumar, C A Serrano, T Ptacek, E Lefkowitz, C D Morrow, D Zhi, K R Kyanam-Kabir-Baig, L E Smythies, P R Harris, P D Smith
The intestinal microbiome in early life influences development of the mucosal immune system and predisposition to certain diseases. Because less is known about the microbiome in the stomach and its relationship to disease, we characterized the microbiota in the stomachs of 86 children and adults and the impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on the bacterial communities. The overall composition of the gastric microbiota in children and adults without H. pylori infection was similar, with minor differences in only low abundance taxa...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115682/the-impact-of-hiv-and-antiretroviral-therapy-on-tb-risk-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
P J Dodd, A J Prendergast, C Beecroft, B Kampmann, J A Seddon
BACKGROUND: Children (<15 years) are vulnerable to TB disease following infection, but no systematic review or meta-analysis has quantified the effects of HIV-related immunosuppression or antiretroviral therapy (ART) on their TB incidence. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of HIV infection and ART on risk of incident TB disease in children. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies measuring HIV prevalence in paediatric TB cases ('TB cohorts') and paediatric HIV cohorts reporting TB incidence ('HIV cohorts')...
January 23, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072956/-clinical-and-immunological-analysis-of-the-patient-with-autoimmunity-due-to-germline-stat3-gain-of-function-mutation
#13
Y Ding, Y Zhang, Y P Wang, H Y Zhao, X M Chen, X H Xue, X M Bai, Y F An, Z Y Zhang, X M Tang, X D Zhao
Objective: To investigate the clinical and immunological laboratory features and gene mutation in a female patient who carried a germline gain-of-function mutation in STAT3. Method: A patient with lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia, visited the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology of Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in May 2016. The clinical and laboratory characteristics, results of immunophenotyping and exome sequencing were analyzed retrospectively and related literature was reviewed...
January 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072954/-clinical-and-immunological-analysis-of-patients-with-activated-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-%C3%AE-syndrome-resulting-from-pik3cd-mutation
#14
W J Tang, W Wang, Y Luo, Y P Wang, L Li, Y F An, L J Gou, M S Ma, T Y He, J Yang, X D Zhao, H M Song
Objective: To explore the clinical and immunological features, gene mutations, treatment and prognosis in patients with activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS) caused by PIK3CD gene heterozygous germline mutation. Method: The data of clinical, immunological phenotype, treatment, and prognosis of 15 patients with APDS, who visited Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, and Shenzhen Children's Hospital from June 2014 to November 2016, were collected and analyzed...
January 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065965/lessons-from-a-seven-year-experience-of-paediatric-hiv-in-pakistan-a-single-centre-experience
#15
Ejaz Ahmed Khan
OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic, clinical and immunologic features of children with human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from 2005 to 2011, and comprised children with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Patients with detailed physical examination and appropriate investigations and those eligible for therapy were included. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043608/new-options-in-tuberculosis-care-visions-for-the-future-are-crucial-for-controlling-the-disease
#16
Malin Ridell
The current strategies for controlling tuberculosis (TB) are not sufficient. Improved prophylactic and diagnostic tools are imperative, being crucial for decreasing TB incidence and mortality and for preventing outbreaks. Furthermore, new and better drugs are badly needed, particularly considering the increase in cases with multidrug-resistant strains. The current TB vaccine-the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine-has a preventive impact on disseminated TB in children, but little effect on the most common form of TB, that is, lung TB in adults and young adults...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002420/the-impact-of-the-newly-licensed-dengue-vaccine-in-endemic-countries
#17
Maíra Aguiar, Nico Stollenwerk, Scott B Halstead
BACKGROUND: With approximately 3 billion people at risk of acquiring the infection, dengue fever is now considered the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, with 390 million dengue infections occurring every year, of which 96 million manifest symptoms with any level of disease severity. Treatment of uncomplicated dengue cases is only supportive and severe dengue cases require hospital intensive care. A vaccine now licensed in several countries and developed by Sanofi Pasteur (CYD-TDV, named Dengvaxia), was able to protect, in the first 25 months of the two Phase III, 66% of a subset of 9-16 year old participants...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930337/genetic-immunological-and-clinical-features-of-patients-with-bacterial-and-fungal-infections-due-to-inherited-il-17ra-deficiency
#18
Romain Lévy, Satoshi Okada, Vivien Béziat, Kunihiko Moriya, Caini Liu, Louis Yi Ann Chai, Mélanie Migaud, Fabian Hauck, Amein Al Ali, Cyril Cyrus, Chittibabu Vatte, Turkan Patiroglu, Ekrem Unal, Marie Ferneiny, Nobuyuki Hyakuna, Serdar Nepesov, Matias Oleastro, Aydan Ikinciogullari, Figen Dogu, Takaki Asano, Osamu Ohara, Ling Yun, Erika Della Mina, Didier Bronnimann, Yuval Itan, Florian Gothe, Jacinta Bustamante, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Natalia Tahuil, Caner Aytekin, Aicha Salhi, Saleh Al Muhsen, Masao Kobayashi, Julie Toubiana, Laurent Abel, Xiaoxia Li, Yildiz Camcioglu, Fatih Celmeli, Christoph Klein, Suzan A AlKhater, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is defined as recurrent or persistent infection of the skin, nails, and/or mucosae with commensal Candida species. The first genetic etiology of isolated CMC-autosomal recessive (AR) IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) deficiency-was reported in 2011, in a single patient. We report here 21 patients with complete AR IL-17RA deficiency, including this first patient. Each patient is homozygous for 1 of 12 different IL-17RA alleles, 8 of which create a premature stop codon upstream from the transmembrane domain and have been predicted and/or shown to prevent expression of the receptor on the surface of circulating leukocytes and dermal fibroblasts...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911218/aberrant-t-cell-immunity-triggered-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#19
Andrea E González, Margarita K Lay, Evelyn L Jara, Janyra A Espinoza, Roberto S Gómez, Jorge Soto, Claudia A Rivera, Katia Abarca, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the two major etiological viral agents of lower respiratory tract diseases, affecting mainly infants, young children and the elderly. Although the infection of both viruses trigger an antiviral immune response that mediate viral clearance and disease resolution in immunocompetent individuals, the promotion of long-term immunity appears to be deficient and reinfection are common throughout life. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that hRSV and hMPV, can induce aberrant T cell responses, which leads to exacerbated lung inflammation and poor T and B cell memory immunity...
December 2, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904185/topical-therapy-in-atopic-dermatitis-in-children
#20
Dharshini Sathishkumar, Celia Moss
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic childhood skin disorder caused by complex genetic, immunological, and environmental interactions. It significantly impairs quality of life for both child and family. Treatment is complex and must be tailored to the individual taking into account personal, social, and emotional factors, as well as disease severity. This review covers the management of AD in children with topical treatments, focusing on: education and empowerment of patients and caregivers, avoidance of trigger factors, repair and maintenance of the skin barrier by correct use of emollients, control of inflammation with topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, minimizing infection, and the use of bandages and body suits...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
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