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Infection disease, children, immunology

Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
(no author information available yet)
Tetanus is an acute specific infection caused by obligate anaerobes, which is still a serious public health problem. Tetanus bacterium is an obligate anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in nature, which can exist in dust, soil, human or animal excrement. The bacteria invade the body primarily through the skin or mucosal wounds, and most commonly in trauma and burn patients, unclean newborns, and unsafe surgical instruments. Exotoxin produced by tetanus bacteria can cause temporary changes in the central nervous system, manifested as systemic skeletal muscle persistence and paroxysmal spasm, severe cases of laryngospasm, asphyxia, lung infections and organ failure, which is a very serious and potentially fatal disease...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Ewa Matuszczak, Artur Weremijewicz, Marta Komarowska, Anna Sankiewicz, Diana Markowska, Wojciech Debek, Ewa Gorodkiewicz, Robert Milewski, Adam Hermanowicz
THE AIM: to determinate the immunoproteasome concentration in blood plasma of paediatric patients with moderate and major burns, and its correlation with circulating proteasome and UCHL1 with SPRI biosensor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population comprised 30 patients with moderate (n=21), and severe burns (n=9), aged 9 months to 14 years. The control group represented 18 healthy, age matched patients, admitted for herniotomy. Exclusion criteria were: admission to the hospital later than 6 hours after burn, cardiovascular or immunological diseases, and severe preexisting infections...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Paraskevi Xepapadaki, Claus Bachert, Susetta Finotto, Tuomas Jartti, George N Konstantinou, Alexander Kiefer, Marek Kowalski, Anna Lewandowska-Polak, Heikki Lukkarinen, Eirini Roumpedaki, Anna Sobanska, Ina Sintobin, Tytti Vuorinen, Nan Zhang, Theodor Zimmermann, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: The PreDicta cohort was designed to prospectively evaluate wheeze/asthma persistence in preschoolers in association to viral/microbial exposures and immunological responses. We present the cohort design, demographic/disease characteristics and evaluate unsupervised and predefined phenotypic subgroups at inclusion. METHODS: PreDicta is a 2-year prospective study conducted in five European regions, including children 4-6 years with a diagnosis of asthma as cases and healthy age-matched controls...
March 7, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
A Kalinowski, B T Galen, I F Ueki, Y Sun, A Mulenos, A Osafo-Addo, B Clark, J Joerns, W Liu, J A Nadel, C S Dela Cruz, J L Koff
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) persists as a significant human pathogen that continues to contribute to morbidity and mortality. In children, RSV is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections, and in adults RSV causes pneumonia and contributes to exacerbations of chronic lung diseases. RSV induces airway epithelial inflammation by activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a tyrosine kinase receptor. Recently, EGFR inhibition was shown to decrease RSV infection, but the mechanism(s) for this effect are not known...
February 7, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
S Yousefzadegan, M Tavakol, H Abolhassani, A Nadjafi, S Mansouri, R Yazdani, G Azizi, B Negahdari, N Rezaei, A Aghamohammadi
Recurrent infections seem to be a common complaint in children who are referred to general practitioners and pediatricians offices. Detection of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) etiology is very important for achieving appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these patients. The absence of appropriate treatment could lead to subsequent complications, in a hospital inpatient and/or outpatient settings. This study was performed in a group of children with recurrent infections to identify patients with underlying PID...
November 21, 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Elsa Maksoud, Berengere Koehl, Aude Facchin, Phuong Ha, Wei Zhao, Florentia Kaguelidou, Malika Benkerrou, Patricia Mariani, Albert Faye, Mathie Lorrot, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain
The pharmacokinetic profile of most drugs is dependent on patient's covariates and may be influenced by the disease. Cefotaxime is frequently prescribed in pediatric patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD), characterized by vaso-occlusive complications, chronic haemolytic anaemia and defective immunological function predisposing to severe infection. Data on the impact of the disease on cefotaxime disposition are missing. In the present study, our aims were to determine cefotaxime pharmacokinetics when prescribed in SCD children for suspected or proven bacterial infection, identify significant covariates and perform Monte-Carlo simulations to optimize drug dosage...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Emily R Thompson, Sarah A Hosgood, Michael L Nicholson, Colin H Wilson
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease. In a previous review we concluded that the routine use of ureteric stents in kidney transplantation reduces the incidence of major urological complications (MUC). Unfortunately, this reduction appears to lead to a concomitant rise in urinary tract infections (UTI). For kidney recipients UTI is now the commonest post-transplant complication. This represents a considerable risk to the immunosuppressed transplant recipient, particularly in the era of increased immunologically challenging transplants...
January 29, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Toshio Arai, Fernando Lopes, Adam Shute, Arthur Wang, Derek M McKay
Infection with helminth parasites reduces the severity of concomitant inflammatory disease in adult mice. There is an alarming increase of IBD in children. It is important to determine if helminth therapy would be of value in pediatric IBD, and if triggering immunological memory to the worm would be anti-colitic. Three-week (young) and eight-week (adult) old Balb/c mice were infected with H. diminuta, and infectivity and T helper (TH)-2 immunity assessed. Other mice received H. diminuta {plus minus} a crude worm extract (HdE) 28-42 days post-infection (dpi) {plus minus} dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS; 1...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Robert Paul, Tanakorn Apornpong, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Vonthanak Saphonn, Linda Aurpibul, Pope Kosalaraksa, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Wicharn Luesomboon, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Tulathip Suwanlerk, Kea Chettra, William T Shearer, Victor Valcour, Jintanat Ananworanich, Stephen Kerr
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected children with long-term nonprogressive disease (LTNPs) eventually convert to a progressive disease type, yet the extent to which these children experience the cognitive and emotional symptoms observed in typical progressive HIV (Progressors) is unknown. METHODS: Eighty-eight LTNPs, 53 Progressors, and 323 healthy controls completed annual assessments of cognitive and emotional health as part of a prospective study. The two HIV-infected groups and the healthy controls were matched on age and sex distribution at enrollment...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Hyppolite K Tchidjou, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Jessica Serafinelli, Rosaria Giampaolo, Alessandro Jenkner, Mathurin C Tadonkeng, Luca Avellis, Alessandro Fiocchi, Patrizio Pezzotti, Giovanni Rezza, Paolo Rossi
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of allergy has steeply increased during the past few decades, particularly in high-income countries. The development of atopy could present different characteristics in internationally adopted children with regard to incidence, specific patterns of allergies and timing of occurrence. We aimed to investigate the occurrence of allergic diseases among adopted children in Italy. METHODS: We collected demographic information, preadoption immunization data, infectious diseases screening results, immunological status, and performed hematological and biochemical tests according to a standardized protocol in 108 adopted children...
January 4, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Patricia Alvarez, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Adam Kravietz, Tiina Ilmet, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Alka Khaitan
BACKGROUND: HIV disease progresses more rapidly in children than adults with mortality rates exceeding 50% by 2 years of age without antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend universal treatment for all living persons with HIV, yet there is limited supporting evidence in pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether CD4 cell counts reflect immunological markers associated with disease progression in ART naïve perinatally-infected HIV+ children and adolescents and their response to ART...
2017: PloS One
Lila Farrington, Hilary Vance, John Rek, Mary Prahl, Prasanna Jagannathan, Agaba Katureebe, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Margaret E Feeney
BACKGROUND: Young children are at greatest risk for malaria-associated morbidity and mortality. The immune response of young children differs in fundamental ways from that of adults, and these differences likely contribute to the increased susceptibility of children to severe malaria and to their delayed development of immunity. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood during acute infection contribute to the control of parasitaemia, but are also responsible for much of the immunopathology seen during symptomatic disease...
December 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
Geeta Shukla, Anuj Sharma, Ruchika Bhatia, Mridul Sharma
Giardiasis is a re-emerging infectious disease with outbreaks reported globally specially in children and malnourished individuals leading to malabsorption, growth retardation, and severe diarrhea. Thus, in the present study, prophylactic administration of synbiotic as the functional food was used to assess its antigiardial potential in malnourished murine giardiasis. Interestingly, prior administration of synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei + inulin) even to malnourished-Giardia-infected mice led to increased body mass, small intestine mass, lactobacilli counts, and reduced severity of giardiasis as evident by decreased cyst and trophozoite counts...
December 19, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Tonney S Nyirenda, Wilson L Mandala, Melita A Gordon, Pietro Mastroeni
Malaria and anaemia are key underlying factors for iNTS disease in African children. Knowledge of clinical and epidemiological risk-factors for iNTS disease has not been paralleled by an in-depth knowledge of the immunobiology of the disease. Herein, we review human and animal studies on mechanisms of increased susceptibility to iNTS in children.
December 15, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Sean A Hebert, Rita D Swinford, David R Hall, Jason K Au, John S Bynon
Universally accepted as the treatment of choice for children needing renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation affords children the opportunity for an improved quality of life over dialysis therapy. Immunologic and surgical advances over the last 15 years have improved the pediatric patient and kidney graft survival. Unique to pediatrics, congenital genitourinary anomalies are the most common primary diseases leading to kidney failure, many with urological issues. Early urological evaluation for post-transplant bladder dysfunction and emphasis on immunization adherence are the mainstays of pediatric pretransplant and post-transplant evaluations...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Marcelo Comerlato Scotta, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro, Paula Renata Lima Machado, Simone Gusmão Ramos, Maria Célia Cervi, Benedito Antônio Lopes da Fonseca, Fabrizio Motta, Bento Vidal de Moura Negrini
Introduction: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with the pathogenesis of Kaposi Sarcoma and interstitial pneumonitis in adults. This study aims to evaluate association between HHV-8 and interstitial lung disease in HIV-infected children. Methods: HIV-infected children with interstitial pneumonitis underwent lung biopsies in a tertiary hospital and were investigated for HHV-8, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry in lung tissue...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
A Couderc, E Bérard, V Guigonis, I Vrillon, J Hogan, V Audard, V Baudouin, C Dossier, O Boyer
Primary nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common glomerular disease in children. It is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. It typically has a sudden onset and more than 70% of patients will experience at least one relapse. An immunological origin has long been postulated, although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the disease remain debated. Steroids are the first-line therapy with cumulative dose and duration of initial treatment varying among countries. Steroid-sparing agents may be indicated in case of steroid-dependency or frequent relapses...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
X Yang, G Pan, W H Li, L M Zhang, B B Wu, H J Wang, P Zhang, S Z Zhou
Objective: To summarize the gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason. Method: In this prospective study, data of patients with early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason were collected from neurological department of Children's Hospital of Fudan University between March 2016 and December 2016. Patients with known disorders such as infection, metabolic, structural, immunological problems and known genetic mutations were excluded. Patients with genetic disease that can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and phenotypic characteristics were also excluded...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Jinhuan Chen, Chao Zhang, Yu Zhou, Xiang Zhang, Chaoyun Shen, Xiaohua Ye, Wen Jiang, Zhong Huang, Yao Cong
Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has recently emerged as one of the predominant causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Structure of CVA6 mature viral particle has not been solved thus far. Our previous work shows that recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) of CVA6 represent a promising CVA6 vaccine candidate. Here, we report the first cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of CVA6 VLP at 3.0 Å resolution. CVA6 VLP exhibits the characteristic features of enteroviruses, but presents an open channel at the two-fold axis and an empty, collapsed VP1 pocket, which is broadly similar to the structures of enterovirus 71 (EV71) VLP and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) 135S expanded particle, indicating that CVA6 VLP is in an expanded conformation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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