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kainate receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143219/glutamatergic-gabaergic-and-endocannabinoid-neurotransmissions-within-the-dorsal-hippocampus-modulate-the-cardiac-baroreflex-function-in-rats
#1
Nilson Carlos Ferreira-Junior, Davi Campos Lagatta, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes Resstel
The dorsal hippocampus (DH) is involved in the modulation of the cardiac baroreflex function. There is a wide expression of the NMDA and AMPA/Kainate receptors within the DH. Glutamate administration into the DH triggers both tachycardia and pressor responses. Moreover, GABAergic interneurons and endocannabinoid system play an important role in modulation of the activity of glutamatergic neurons within the DH. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate the involvement of the glutamatergic, GABAergic, and endocannabinoid neurotransmissions within the DH in cardiac baroreflex function in rats...
November 15, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123180/the-gliadin-peptide-31-43-exacerbates-kainate-neurotoxicity-in-epilepsy-models
#2
Elisabetta Gerace, Francesco Resta, Elisa Landucci, Daniela Renzi, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Antonio Calabrò, Guido Mannaioni
Many neurological disorders of gluten-related diseases (GRD), not directly referable to the gastrointestinal tract, have been reported in association with celiac disease (CD), including ataxia, neuropathy and epilepsy. In particular, people with epilepsy diagnosed with CD seems to be characterized by intractable seizure. In these patients, gluten restriction diet has resulted in a reduction of both seizure frequency and antiepileptic medication. Many hypotheses have been suggested, however, molecular mechanisms that associates GRD and epileptogenesis are yet unknown...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120510/in-vitro-characterization-of-gamma-oscillations-in-the-hippocampal-formation-of-the-domestic-chick
#3
Pradeep Dheerendra, Nicholas M Lynch, Joseph Crutwell, Mark O Cunningham, Tom V Smulders
Avian and mammalian brains have evolved independently from each other for about 300 million years. During that time, the hippocampal formation (HF) has diverged in morphology and cyto-architecture, but seems to have conserved much of its function. It is therefore an open question how seemingly different neural organizations can generate the same function. A prominent feature of the mammalian hippocampus is that it generates different neural oscillations, including the gamma rhythm, which plays an important role in memory processing...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106899/vinpocetine-protects-inner-retinal-neurons-with-functional-nmda-glutamate-receptors-against-retinal-ischemia
#4
Lisa Nivison-Smith, Pauline Khoo, Monica L Acosta, Michael Kalloniatis
Retinal ischemia is involved in the pathogenesis of many major vision threatening diseases. Vinpocetine is a natural drug, which has a range of neuroprotective actions against retinal ischemia including modulating cation flow, improving metabolic activity and preventing apoptosis. The exact mechanism behind these actions remains unknown but may involve glutamate receptors, major components of the ischemic cascade. This study examined the effects of vinpocetine in association with specific ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate...
November 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104074/kainate-receptor-mediated-presynaptic-ltp-in-agranular-insular-cortex-contributes-to-fear-and-anxiety-in-mice
#5
Tian-Yao Shi, Shu-Fang Feng, Ming-Xiao Wei, Yan Huang, Gang Liu, Hai-Tao Wu, Yong-Xiang Zhang, Wen-Xia Zhou
Anxiety disorders represent serious social problems worldwide. Recent neuroimaging studies have found that elevated activity and altered connectivity of the insular cortex might account for the negative emotional states in highly anxious individuals. However, the exact synaptic mechanisms of specific insular subregions have yet to be studied in detail. To assess the electrophysiological properties of agranular insular cortex (AIC) neurons, basic synaptic transmission was recorded and different protocols were used to induce presynaptic and postsynaptic long-term potentiation in mice with anxiety-related behaviors...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063593/transmitter-receptors-reveal-segregation-of-the-arcopallium-amygdala-complex-in-pigeons-columba-livia
#6
Christina Herold, Christina Paulitschek, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Onur Güntürkün, Karl Zilles
At the beginning of the 20(th) century it was suggested that a complex group of nuclei in the avian posterior ventral telencephalon is comparable to the mammalian amygdala. Subsequent findings, however, revealed that most of these structures share premotor characteristics, while some indeed constitute the avian amygdala. These developments resulted in 2004 in a change of nomenclature of these nuclei, which from then on were named arcopallial or amygdala nuclei and referred to as the arcopallium/amygdala complex...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058671/preferential-assembly-of-heteromeric-kainate-and-ampa-receptor-amino-terminal-domains
#7
Huaying Zhao, Suvendu Lomash, Sagar Chittori, Carla Glasser, Mark L Mayer, Peter Schuck
Ion conductivity and the gating characteristics of tetrameric glutamate receptor ion channels are determined by their subunit composition. Competitive homo- and hetero-dimerization of their amino-terminal domains (ATDs) is a key step controlling assembly. Here we measured systematically the thermodynamic stabilities of homodimers and heterodimers of kainate and AMPA receptors using fluorescence-detected sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation. Measured affinities span many orders of magnitude, and complexes show large differences in kinetic stabilities...
October 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054430/nmda-receptor-dependent-changes-in-c-fos-and-p-creb-signaling-following-extinction-and-reinstatement-of-morphine-place-preference
#8
Ali Siahposht-Khachaki, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Yasaman Razavi, Abbas Haghparast
Neural circuitry comprising the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP) has a main role in reward phenomena. Previous behavioral studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of AP5 (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist) and CNQX (AMPA/kainate glutamate receptor antagonist) during the extinction and before reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) reduced the extinction period and reinstatement of morphine-CPP. Therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the effect of antagonism of NMDA glutamate receptors on the p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos expression in the NAc, PFC and HIP during these two phases of morphine-CPP in male adult albino Wistar rats...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051090/comparative-one-and-two-photon-uncaging-of-mni-glutamate-and-mni-kainate-on-hippocampal-ca1-neurons
#9
Stefan Passlick, Graham C R Ellis-Davies
BACKGROUND: The light-induced release of neurotransmitters from caging chromophores provides a powerful means to study the underlying receptors in a physiologically relevant context. Surprisingly, most caged neurotransmitters, including the widely used 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-glutamate, show strong antagonism against GABA-A receptors. Kainate has been shown to exhibit a higher efficacy at glutamate receptors compared to glutamate itself. Thus, uncaging of kainate might allow the application of the caged compound at lower, less antagonistic concentrations...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993263/angiotensin-1-7-in-the-rostro-ventrolateral-medulla-increases-blood-pressure-and-splanchnic-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-anesthetized-rats
#10
Mark S Bilodeau, J C Leiter
Angiotensin 1-7 (ANG-(1-7)), a derivative of angiotensin I or II, is involved in the propagation of sympathetic output to the heart and vasculature, and the receptor for ANG-(1-7), the Mas receptor, is expressed on astrocytes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We recorded blood pressure (BP) and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) before and after focal injection of ANG-(1-7) into the RVLM of rats. Unilateral injection of ANG-(1-7) into the RVLM, acting through the Mas receptor, increased SSNA and BP, and glutamate receptor antagonists, CNQX and D-AP5, partially reduced the ANG-(1-7) effect...
October 6, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986867/genetic-and-functional-analysis-of-grin2a-in-tumor-samples
#11
Todd D Prickett, Jared J Gartner, Yardena Samuels
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are large integral membrane multi-protein complexes that create ion channels in plasma membranes. Upon binding of receptor specific ligands (e.g., glutamate), increased efflux or influx of mono- or divalent cations (e.g., Ca(2+)) promotes synaptic transmission, cellular migration, and survival. Three classes of iGluRs were originally defined after their respective agonists: AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Recently, we examined iGluR families at the genetic level using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) (whole-exome sequencing (WES)) and discovered a high prevalence of somatic mutations within the gene for one of the NMDAR subunits, GRIN2A, specifically in malignant melanoma...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981700/sevoflurane-activates-hippocampal-ca3-kainate-receptors-gluk2-to-induce-hyperactivity-during-induction-and-recovery-in-a-mouse-model
#12
P Liang, F Li, J Liu, D Liao, H Huang, C Zhou
Background: In addition to general anaesthetic effects, sevoflurane can also induce hyperactive behaviours during induction and recovery, which may contribute to neurotoxicity; however, the mechanism of such effects is unclear. Volatile anaesthetics including isoflurane have been found to activate the kainate (GluK2) receptor. We developed a novel mouse model and further explored the involvement of kainate (GluK2) receptors in sevoflurane-induced hyperactivity. Methods: Maximal speed, mean speed, total movement distance and resting percentage of C57BL/6 mice were quantitatively measured using behavioural tracking software before and after sevoflurane anaesthesia...
November 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951616/prolonged-seizure-activity-causes-caspase-dependent-cleavage-and-dysfunction-of-g-protein-activated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channels
#13
Brian C Baculis, Amanda C Weiss, Weilun Pang, Han Gil Jeong, Jun Hee Lee, Dai-Chi Liu, Nien-Pei Tsai, Hee Jung Chung
Recurrent high-frequency epileptic seizures cause progressive hippocampal sclerosis, which is associated with caspase-3 activation and NMDA receptor-dependent excitotoxicity. However, the identity of caspase-3 substrates that contribute to seizure-induced hippocampal atrophy remains largely unknown. Here, we show that prolonged high-frequency epileptiform discharges in cultured hippocampal neurons leads to caspase-dependent cleavage of GIRK1 and GIRK2, the major subunits of neuronal G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels that mediate membrane hyperpolarization and synaptic inhibition in the brain...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939854/a-combination-of-nmda-and-ampa-receptor-antagonists-retards-granule-cell-dispersion-and-epileptogenesis-in-a-model-of-acquired-epilepsy
#14
Alina Schidlitzki, Friederike Twele, Rebecca Klee, Inken Waltl, Kerstin Römermann, Sonja Bröer, Sebastian Meller, Ingo Gerhauser, Vladan Rankovic, Dandan Li, Claudia Brandt, Marion Bankstahl, Kathrin Töllner, Wolfgang Löscher
Epilepsy may arise following acute brain insults, but no treatments exist that prevent epilepsy in patients at risk. Here we examined whether a combination of two glutamate receptor antagonists, NBQX and ifenprodil, acting at different receptor subtypes, exerts antiepileptogenic effects in the intrahippocampal kainate mouse model of epilepsy. These drugs were administered over 5 days following kainate. Spontaneous seizures were recorded by video/EEG at different intervals up to 3 months. Initial trials showed that drug treatment during the latent period led to higher mortality than treatment after onset of epilepsy, and further, that combined therapy with both drugs caused higher mortality at doses that appear safe when used singly...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935133/functional-validation-of-heteromeric-kainate-receptor-models
#15
Teresa Paramo, Patricia M G E Brown, Maria Musgaard, Derek Bowie, Philip C Biggin
Kainate receptors require the presence of external ions for gating. Most work thus far has been performed on homomeric GluK2 but, in vivo, kainate receptors are likely heterotetramers. Agonists bind to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) which is arranged as a dimer of dimers as exemplified in homomeric structures, but no high-resolution structure currently exists of heteromeric kainate receptors. In a full-length heterotetramer, the LBDs could potentially be arranged either as a GluK2 homomer alongside a GluK5 homomer or as two GluK2/K5 heterodimers...
September 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911857/new-mouse-model-for-inducing-and-evaluating-unilateral-vestibular-deafferentation-syndrome
#16
R Cassel, P Bordiga, D Pericat, C Hautefort, B Tighilet, C Chabbert
BACKGROUND: Unilateral vestibular deafferentation syndrome (uVDS) holds a particular place in the vestibular pathology domain. Due to its suddenness, the violence of its symptoms that often result in emergency hospitalization, and its associated original neurophysiological properties, this syndrome is a major source of questioning for the otoneurology community. Also, its putative pathogenic causes remain to be determined. There is currently a strong medical need for the development of targeted and effective countermeasures to improve the therapeutic management of uVDS...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891049/differential-projections-of-the-densocellular-and-intermediate-parts-of-the-hyperpallium-in-the-pigeon-columba-livia
#17
Yasuro Atoji, Sonjoy Sarkar, J Martin Wild
The visual Wulst in birds shows a four-layered structure: apical part of the hyperpallium (HA), interstitial part of HA (IHA), intercalated part of hyperpallium (HI), and densocellular part of hyperpallium (HD). HD also connects with the hippocampus and olfactory system. Because HD is subjacent to HI, the two have been treated as one structure in many studies, and the fiber connections of HD have been examined by afferents and efferents originating outside HD. However, to clarify the difference between these two layers, they need to be treated separately...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888867/pick1-facilitates-lasting-reduction-in-glua2-concentration-in-the-hippocampus-during-chronic-epilepsy
#18
Jan-Øyvind Lorgen, Daniel Lawer Egbenya, Janniche Hammer, Svend Davanger
Overstimulation of glutamate receptors resulting in excessive intracellular calcium concentrations is a major cause of neuronal cell death in epilepsy. The main source of increased calcium concentration during this excitotoxicity is an influx through NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors. The GluR2 (GluA2) hypothesis states that following a neurological insult such as an epileptic seizure, the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 protein is downregulated. This increases the likelihood of the formation of GluR2-lacking, calcium-permeable AMPA receptor which might further enhance the toxicity of the neurotransmitter, glutamate...
August 31, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886144/pharmacological-characterisation-of-s-47445-a-novel-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-ampa-receptors
#19
Sylvie Bretin, Caroline Louis, Laure Seguin, Stéphanie Wagner, Jean-Yves Thomas, Sylvie Challal, Nathalie Rogez, Karine Albinet, Fabrice Iop, Nadège Villain, Sonia Bertrand, Ali Krazem, Daniel Bérachochéa, Stéphanie Billiald, Charles Tordjman, Alex Cordi, Daniel Bertrand, Pierre Lestage, Laurence Danober
S 47445 is a novel positive allosteric modulator of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPA-PAM). S 47445 enhanced glutamate's action at AMPA receptors on human and rat receptors and was inactive at NMDA and kainate receptors. Potentiation did not differ among the different AMPA receptors subtypes (GluA1/2/4 flip and flop variants) (EC50 between 2.5-5.4 μM), except a higher EC50 value for GluA4 flop (0.7 μM) and a greater amount of potentiation on GluA1 flop. A low concentration of S 47445 (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872832/chemically-modified-%C3%AE-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-ampa-receptor-rna-aptamers-designed-for-in-vivo-use
#20
Zhen Huang, Wei Wen, Andrew Wu, Li Niu
Glutamate ion channels have three subtypes, that is, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole (AMPA), kainate, and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Excessive activity of these receptor subtypes either individually or collectively is involved in various neurological disorders. RNA aptamers as antagonists of these receptors are potential therapeutics. For developing aptamer therapeutics, the RNA aptamers must be chemically modified to become ribonuclease-resistant or stable in biological fluids. Using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and a chemically modified library, prepared enzymatically (i...
September 5, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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