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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770521/nicotine-mediated-neuroprotection-of-rat-spinal-networks-against-excitotoxicity
#1
Jaspreet Kaur, Rossana Rauti, Andrea Nistri
Activation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine is reported to protect brain neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. We inquired whether a similar phenomenon can occur in the rat isolated spinal cord (or spinal slice culture) challenged by a transient (1 h) application of kainate (a powerful glutamate receptor agonist) to induce excitotoxicity mimicking spinal injury in vitro. We recorded spinal reflexes and fictive locomotion generated by the locomotor central pattern generator before and 24 h after applying kainate...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753867/topiramate-mitigates-3-nitropropionic-acid-induced-striatal-neurotoxicity-via-modulation-of-ampa-receptors
#2
Heba N Shalaby, Dalia M El-Tanbouly, Hala F Zaki
Prevalence of glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2)-lacking alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors is a hallmark of excitotoxicity-related neurodegenerative diseases. Topiramate (TPM) is a structurally novel anticonvulsant with a well-known modulatory effects on AMPA/kainate subtypes of glutamate receptors. The present study aimed at investigating the neuroprotective potential of TPM on 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced striatal neurodegeneration and Huntington's disease-like symptoms...
May 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753795/non-anesthetic-effects-of-ketamine-a-review-article-authors-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#3
REVIEW
Jabril Eldufani, Alireza Nekoui, Gilbert Blaise
Ketamine is considered a dissociative anesthetic medication, and it is a commonly administered by a parenteral route. It works mainly by blocking the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. It inhibits the voltage-gated Na_ and K_ channels and serotonin and dopamine re-uptake; also, it affects specific receptors, such as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), kainate and aminobutyric acid A receptors. Ketamine appears to have particular mechanisms that are potentially involved during analgesic induction, including enhancing of descending inhibition and anti-inflammatory effects...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731708/non-canonical-mechanisms-of-presynaptic-kainate-receptors-controlling-glutamate-release
#4
REVIEW
José V Negrete-Díaz, Talvinder S Sihra, Gonzalo Flores, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno
A metabotropic modus operandi for kainate receptors (KARs) was first discovered in 1998 modulating GABA release. These receptors have been also found to modulate glutamate release at different synapses in several brain regions. Mechanistically, a general biphasic mechanism for modulating glutamate release by presynaptic KARs with metabotropic actions has emerged, with low KA concentrations invoking an increase in glutamate release, whereas higher concentrations of KA mediate a decrease in the release of this neurotransmitter...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728616/the-role-of-kainate-receptors-in-the-pathophysiology-of-hypoxia-induced-seizures-in-the-neonatal-mouse
#5
Denise K Grosenbaugh, Brittany M Ross, Pravin Wagley, Santina A Zanelli
Kainate receptors (KARs) are glutamate receptors with peak expression during late embryonic and early postnatal periods. Altered KAR-mediated neurotransmission and subunit expression are observed in several brain disorders, including epilepsy. Here, we examined the role of KARs in regulating seizures in neonatal C57BL/6 mice exposed to a hypoxic insult. We found that knockout of the GluK2 subunit, or blockade of KARs by UBP310 reduced seizure susceptibility during the period of reoxygenation. Following the hypoxic insult, we observed an increase in excitatory neurotransmission in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells, which was blocked by treatment with UBP310 prior to hypoxia...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723577/ampa-receptor-dependent-glutamatergic-signaling-is-present-in-the-carotid-chemoreceptor
#6
Yuzhen Liu, Chaohong Li, Xianglei Jia, Lu Huang, J Woodrow Weiss
Exposure to both sustained and intermittent hypoxia for as little as a day produces sustained augmentation of carotid chemoreceptor sensitivity; however, the molecular basis for this chemoreflex plasticity remains uncertain. We previously reported that NMDA receptor dependent glutamatergic signaling in rat carotid body played a role in altered hypoxic sensitivity after exposure to cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Here we found that mRNAs of multiple AMPA and Kainate glutamate receptors were expressed in rat carotid body...
April 30, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713995/full-protection-against-soman-induced-seizures-and-brain-damage-by-ly293558-and-caramiphen-combination-treatment-in-adult-rats
#7
James P Apland, Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Taiza H Figueiredo, Marcio De Araujo Furtado, Maria F M Braga
Acute exposure to nerve agents induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. LY293558, an antagonist of AMPA and GluK1 kainate receptors is a very effective anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant against soman; however, some neuronal damage is still present after treatment of soman-exposed rats with LY293558. Here, we have tested whether combining LY293558 with an NMDA receptor antagonist can eliminate the residual damage. For this purpose, we chose caramiphen (CRM), an antimuscarinic compound with NMDA receptor antagonistic properties...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700853/detection-of-selection-signatures-for-agonistic-behaviour-in-cattle
#8
P G Eusebi, O Cortés, C Carleos, S Dunner, J Cañon
The identification of genomic regions including signatures of selection produced by domestication and its subsequent artificial selection processes allows the understanding of the evolution of bovine breeds. Although several studies describe the genomic variability among meat or milk production cattle breeds, there are limited studies orientated towards bovine behavioural features. This study is focused on mapping genomic signatures of selection which may provide insights of differentiation between neutral and selected polymorphisms...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675583/do-alcohol-related-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-adaptations-promote-intake
#9
F Woodward Hopf, Regina A Mangieri
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, and kainate receptors) play a central role in excitatory glutamatergic signaling throughout the brain. As a result, functional changes, especially long-lasting forms of plasticity, have the potential to profoundly alter neuronal function and the expression of adaptive and pathological behaviors. Thus, alcohol-related adaptations in ionotropic glutamate receptors are of great interest, since they could promote excessive alcohol consumption, even after long-term abstinence...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653194/chronic-agomelatine-treatment-prevents-comorbid-depression-in-the-post-status-epilepticus-model-of-acquired-epilepsy-through-suppression-of-inflammatory-signaling
#10
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Milena Atanasova, Nikolai Lazarov
Inflammatory signal molecules are suggested to be involved in the mechanism underlying comorbid depression in epilepsy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the novel antidepressant agomelatine, a potent melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and serotonin 5HT2C receptor antagonist, can prevent depressive symptoms developed during the chronic epileptic phase by suppressing an inflammatory response. Chronic treatment with agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated an hour after the kainate acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and maintained for a period of 10 weeks in Wistar rats...
July 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604046/initiation-and-slow-propagation-of-epileptiform-activity-from-ventral-to-dorsal-medial-entorhinal-cortex-is-constrained-by-an-inhibitory-gradient
#11
Thomas Ridler, Peter Matthews, Keith G Phillips, Andrew D Randall, Jonathan T Brown
The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) has an important role in the generation and propagation of seizure activity. The organisation of the mEC is such that a number of dorso-ventral relationships exist in neurophysiological properties of neurons. These range from intrinsic and synaptic properties to density of inhibitory connectivity. We examined the influence of these gradients on generation and propagation of epileptiform activity in the mEC. Using a 16-shank silicon probe array to record along the dorso-ventral axis of the mEC in vitro, we found 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) application produces ictal-like activity originating predominantly in ventral areas...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596901/periaqueductal-gray-glutamatergic-cannabinoid-and-vanilloid-receptor-interplay-in-defensive-behavior-and-aversive-memory-formation
#12
Franklin P Back, Antonio P Carobrez
Stimulation of the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) in humans elicits sensations of fear and impending terror, and mediates predator defensive responses in rodents. In rats, pharmacological stimulation of the dorsolateral portion of the PAG (dlPAG) with N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) induces aversive conditioning that acts as an unconditioned stimulus (US). In the present work, we investigated the interplay between the vanilloid TRPV1 and cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the NMDA-dlPAG defensive response and in subsequent aversive learning...
March 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581259/ltp-requires-postsynaptic-pdz-domain-interactions-with-glutamate-receptor-auxiliary-protein-complexes
#13
Nengyin Sheng, Michael A Bemben, Javier Díaz-Alonso, Wucheng Tao, Yun Stone Shi, Roger A Nicoll
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synaptic transmission in the brain and is arguably the most compelling cellular and molecular model for learning and memory. Previous work found that both AMPA receptors and exogenously expressed kainate receptors are equally capable of expressing LTP, despite their limited homology and their association with distinct auxiliary subunits, indicating that LTP is far more promiscuous than previously thought. What might these two subtypes of glutamate receptor have in common? Using a single-cell molecular replacement strategy, we demonstrate that the AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit TARP γ-8, via its PDZ-binding motif, is indispensable for both basal synaptic transmission and LTP...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560942/-the-neurotoxicity-biomarkers-as-potential-indicators-of-the-spinal-cord-ischemia
#14
G V Ponomarev, T V Lalayan, S A Dambinova, A A Skoromets
The study aimed at assessing the level of glutamate receptors antibodies (Abs) in blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with spinal cord ischemia along with traditional diagnostic approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty patients with spinal cord ischemia (10 with spinal stroke and 30 with subacute and chronic course of the disease) were enrolled. After exclusion of some participants, 27 patients continued the study. Comparison groups included 30 patients with ischemic stroke and 30 patients with radiculopathy...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540547/kainate-receptors-inhibit-glutamate-release-via-mobilization-of-endocannabinoids-in-striatal-direct-pathway-spiny-projection-neurons-dspns
#15
John J Marshall, Jian Xu, Anis Contractor
Kainate receptors are members of the glutamate receptor family that function both by generating ionotropic currents through an integral ion channel pore, and through coupling to downstream metabotropic signaling pathways. They are highly expressed in the striatum yet their roles in regulating striatal synapses are not known. Using mice of both sexes we demonstrate that GluK2 containing kainate receptors expressed in direct pathway Spiny Projection Neurons (dSPNs) inhibit glutamate release at corticostriatal synapses in the dorsolateral striatum...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526785/role-of-ampa-glutamate-receptors-in-the-conditioned-rewarding-effects-of-mdma-in-mice
#16
M P García-Pardo, J Miñarro, M A Aguilar
Currently, there is not an effective treatment for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) dependence but pharmacotherapies targeting glutamate neurotransmission are a promising strategy. Previously, we showed that blockade of glutamate NMDA and AMPA receptors impairs the conditioned rewarding effects of MDMA and cocaine, respectively. In this study we evaluated the role of AMPA receptors in the rewarding effects of MDMA in mice using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Mice were conditioned with MDMA (1...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510886/pre-and-postsynaptic-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-the-auditory-system-of-mammals
#17
REVIEW
Hideki Takago, Tomoko Oshima-Takago
The ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) concertedly mediate neurotransmission to convey, process, and integrate acoustic information along the auditory pathway. In order to ensure these challenging tasks, the iGluRs are variously expressed in auditory neurons in an age- and site-dependent manner. The subunit compositions of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are altered with development, underlying the acceleration in kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic responses...
May 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500804/nootropic-activity-of-a-novel-cytisine-derivative-3ar-4s-8s-12r-12as-12br-10-methyl-2-phenyloctahydro-1h-4-12a-etheno-8-12-methanopyrrolo-3-4-3-4-pyrido-1-2-a-1-5-diazocine-1-3-5-4h-trione
#18
N S Makara, T A Sapozhnikova, R Yu Khisamutdinova, I P Tsypysheva, S S Borisevich, A V Kovalskaya, P R Petrova, C L Khursan, F S Zarudii
We performed screening of nootropic properties of 10 new derivatives of quinolizidine alkaloid (-)-cytisine. Compounds with β-endo stereochemistry were more active than α-endo-isomers. Under stress conditions (3aR,4S,8S,12R,12aS,12bR)-10-methyl-2-phenyloctahydro-1H-4,12a-etheno-8,12-methanopyrrolo[3',4':3,4]pyrido[1,2-a] [1,5]diazocine-1,3,5(4H)-trione enhanced memory and had a positive effect on cognitive functions of rats. According to molecular docking data, the nootropic activity of the compound can be associated with its affinity for the glutamate-binding subunits GluK1 and GluR2 of the kainate and AMPA receptor, respectively...
March 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499586/hyperforin-and-miquelianin-from-st-john-s-wort-attenuate-gene-expression-in-neuronal-cells-after-dexamethasone-induced-stress
#19
Sheela Verjee, Anna Weston, Christiane Kolb, Heba Kalbhenn-Aziz, Veronika Butterweck
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important part in the development of depressive symptoms. In this study, the effects of a commercial St. John's wort extract (STW3-VI), hyperforin, miquelianin, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on the expression of genes relevant to HPA axis function were investigated in human neuronal cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with STW3-VI (20 µg/mL), hyperforin (1 µM), miquelianin (10 µM), or citalopram (10 µM) in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX,10 µM) for 6 h and 48 h, respectively...
March 2, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489692/therapeutic-time-window-for-the-effects-of-erythropoietin-on-astrogliosis-and-neurite-outgrowth-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Hea Nam Hong, Ju Hee Shim, You Jin Won, Jong Yoon Yoo, Chang Ho Hwang
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and the therapeutic time window for preventing astrogliosis with erythropoietin (EPO) treatment after in vitro modeled spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Cultured rat spinal cord astrocytes were treated with kainate and scratching to generate an in vitro model of SCI. EPO (100U/mL or 300U/mL) was added immediately or 2, 4, or 8 hours after injury. Some cultures were also treated with AG490, an inhibitor of the EPO-EPO receptor (EpoR) pathway mediator Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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