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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111909/women-s-reproductive-decision-making-and-abortion-experiences-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-qualitative-study
#1
Marie E Sullivan, Abigail Harrison, Jane Harries, Namhla Sicwebu, Rochelle K Rosen, Omar Galárraga
Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health issue in South Africa. Despite free services including contraception, women face structural and institutional barriers to accessing care. This qualitative study comprised interviews with 16 women aged 18 to 40 years and receiving post-abortion services at a public clinic in Cape Town. Data analysis revealed three main themes: personal journeys in seeking abortion, contraceptive experiences, and contrasting feelings of empowerment (in reproductive decision making) and disempowerment (in the health care system)...
November 7, 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110216/punto-seguro-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-using-conditional-economic-incentives-to-reduce-sexually-transmitted-infection-risks-in-mexico
#2
Omar Galárraga, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Caroline Kuo, Pedro Gozalo, Andrea González, Biani Saavedra, Nathalie Gras-Allain, Carlos J Conde-Glez, Maria Olamendi-Portugal, Kenneth H Mayer, Don Operario
Randomized controlled pilot evaluated effect of conditional economic incentives (CEIs) on number of sex partners, condom use, and incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among male sex workers in Mexico City. Incentives were contingent on testing free of new curable STIs and/or clinic attendance. We assessed outcomes for n = 227 participants at 6 and 12 months (during active phase with incentives), and then at 18 months (with incentives removed). We used intention-to-treat and inverse probability weighting for the analysis...
November 7, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101523/functional-comparison-of-corticostriatal-and-thalamostriatal-postsynaptic-responses-in-striatal-neurons-of-the-mouse
#3
M A Arias-García, D Tapia, J A Laville, V M Calderón, Y Ramiro-Cortés, J Bargas, E Galarraga
Synaptic inputs from cortex and thalamus were compared in electrophysiologically defined striatal cell classes: direct and indirect pathways' striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs), fast-spiking interneurons (FS), cholinergic interneurons (ChINs), and low-threshold spiking-like (LTS-like) interneurons. Our purpose was to observe whether stimulus from cortex or thalamus had equivalent synaptic strength to evoke prolonged suprathreshold synaptic responses in these neuron classes. Subthreshold responses showed that inputs from either source functionally mix up in their dendrites at similar electrotonic distances from their somata...
November 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080020/models-of-short-term-synaptic-plasticity
#4
Janet Barroso-Flores, Marco A Herrera-Valdez, Elvira Galarraga, José Bargas
We focus on dynamical descriptions of short-term synaptic plasticity. Instead of focusing on the molecular machinery that has been reviewed recently by several authors, we concentrate on the dynamics and functional significance of synaptic plasticity, and review some mathematical models that reproduce different properties of the dynamics of short term synaptic plasticity that have been observed experimentally. The complexity and shortcomings of these models point to the need of simple, yet physiologically meaningful models...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079947/the-cost-and-cost-utility-of-three-public-health-hiv-case-finding-strategies-evidence-from-rhode-island-2012-2014
#5
Xinqi C Li, Lillian Kusi, Theodore Marak, Thomas Bertrand, Philip A Chan, Omar Galárraga
To evaluate three testing strategies to identify new HIV diagnoses in Rhode Island (RI). RI deployed three testing strategies, by using rapid HIV tests at clinical settings, community-based organization (CBO) settings, and the Partner Notification Services (PNS) program from 2012 to 2014. We reviewed the rapid HIV test results and confirmatory test results to identify new diagnoses, and conducted a cost-utility analysis. The average cost per new diagnosis was $33,015 at CBO settings, $5446 at clinical settings, and $33,818 at the PNS program...
October 27, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033263/-persistent-extra-axial-post-surgical-collections-and-propionibacterium-acnes-infection-presentation-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#6
Pedro González, José Thenier, Raúl Galárraga, Adolfo de la Lama, Eva Azevedo, Cesáreo Conde
OBJECTIVES: It is common to observe the persistence of extra-axial collections after craniotomies. Most of these disappear in weeks or months but some remain. The onset of focal symptoms or the growth of these persistent collections months or years after surgery may indicate the presence of a chronic and latent infection by germs of low virulence such as Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). METHODS: We present two clinical cases with persistent extra-axial collections, which required surgery years after diagnosis, in which P...
October 13, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029086/hiv-prevention-costs-and-their-predictors-evidence-from-the-orphea-project-in-kenya
#7
Omar Galárraga, Richard G Wamai, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Mercy G Mugo, David Contreras-Loya, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Helen Nyakundi, Joseph K Wang'ombe
We estimate costs and their predictors for three HIV prevention interventions in Kenya: HIV testing and counselling (HTC), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). As part of the 'Optimizing the Response of Prevention: HIV Efficiency in Africa' (ORPHEA) project, we collected retrospective data from government and non-governmental health facilities for 2011-12. We used multi-stage sampling to determine a sample of health facilities by type, ownership, size and interventions offered totalling 144 sites in 78 health facilities in 33 districts across Kenya...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987889/hormonal-therapeutic-strategy-on-the-induction-of-accessory-corpora-lutea-in-relation-to-follicle-size-and-on-the-increase-of-progesterone-in-sheep
#8
J Fernandez, M M Bruno-Galarraga, A T Soto, R L de la Sota, M I Cueto, I M Lacau, A E Gibbons
We determined the effect of GnRH or hCG treatment on day 4 post-time artificial insemination (FTAI) on the formation of accessory corpora lutea (acc-CL) and on the concentration of serum progesterone (P4) in sheep. Multiparous adult Merino ewes (n = 36) were synchronized for estrus using double injection of PGF2α agonist (125 μg Cloprostenol) with an interval of 14 days. At 53-56 h after the second PG application, FTAI was performed. On day 4 post FTAI, ewes were either treated with analogue of GnRH (4 μg buserelin; n = 12) or hCG (300 IU, hCG; n = 12) or saline solution (1 ml; Control; n = 12)...
January 1, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815325/stumbling-blocks-at-the-clinic-experiences-of-seeking-hiv-treatment-and-care-in-south-africa
#9
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Caroline Kuo, Omar Galárraga, Philip Smith, Mark N Lurie, Linda-Gail Bekker, Abigail Harrison
Prompt antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation maximises the therapeutic and prevention benefits of a treat-all strategy for HIV therapy. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews with men and women 18 years and older (N = 41), who were highly motivated and seeking treatment, this study examined salient factors that were associated with delays in treatment access and initiation. Results revealed clinic-related barriers including an onerous, inefficient multi-step process to initiate ART. Participants experienced additional delays due to difficulties accessing care (e...
August 16, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765656/-comparison-of-clinical-features-and-diagnosis-between-the-a-and-b-subgroups-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#10
N Viguria Sánchez, L Moreno-Galarraga, A Navascués Ortega, C Ezpeleta Baquedano, A González-Benavides, M Mendizabal Diez, E Bernaola Iturbe, J Castilla Catalán
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of admission in children under 2 years old. The RSV subgroups A and B may circulate simultaneously. We aimed to determine whether clinical differences exist between RSV subgroups A and B. Additionally, we tested the sensitivity of the rapid antigen detection test (RADT) based on immunochromatography in diagnosing subgroups A and B, taking the polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) as reference...
July 28, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752353/readiness-for-antiretroviral-therapy-implications-for-linking-hiv-infected-individuals-to-care-and-treatment
#11
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Philip Smith, Caroline Kuo, Abigail Harrison, Mark N Lurie, Linda-Gail Bekker, Omar Galárraga
Using survey data collected immediately after referral for ART (N = 87), this study examined ART-readiness among individuals (18 years and older) attending a mobile health clinic in South Africa. Most participants reported being very ready (84%) and motivated (85%) to start ART, but only 72% were assessed as ready for ART on all measures. Treatment readiness was lower among individuals who did not think they would test HIV-positive (aOR 0.26, p < 0.05) and among individuals who reported being in good health (aOR 0...
July 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700393/ten-year-trends-in-antiretroviral-therapy-persistence-among-us-medicaid-beneficiaries
#12
Bora Youn, Theresa I Shireman, Yoojin Lee, Omar Galárraga, Aadia I Rana, Amy C Justice, Ira B Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Whether the rate of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) persistence has improved over time in the United States is unknown. We examined ART persistence trends between 2001 and 2010, using non-HIV medications as a comparator. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims. We defined persistence as the duration of treatment from the first to the last fill date before a 90-day permissible gap and used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to assess crude and adjusted nonpersistence...
July 31, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673344/the-association-of-health-insurance-with-institutional-delivery-and-access-to-skilled-birth-attendants-evidence-from-the-kenya-demographic-and-health-survey-2008-09
#13
Lawrence P O Were, Edwin Were, Richard Wamai, Joseph Hogan, Omar Galarraga
BACKGROUND: Healthcare financing through health insurance is gaining traction as developing countries strive to achieve universal health coverage and address the limited access to critical health services for specific populations including pregnant women and their children. However, these reforms are taking place despite limited evaluation of impact of health insurance on maternal health in developing countries including Kenya. In this study we evaluate the association of health insurance with access and utilization of obstetric delivery health services for pregnant women in Kenya...
July 3, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630651/improving-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-resource-limited-settings-at-scale-a-discussion-of-interventions-and-recommendations
#14
Jessica E Haberer, Lora Sabin, K Rivet Amico, Catherine Orrell, Omar Galárraga, Alexander C Tsai, Rachel C Vreeman, Ira Wilson, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Terrence F Blaschke, Bernard Vrijens, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Sheri D Weiser, Elizabeth Lowenthal, Michael J Stirratt, Papa Salif Sow, Bruce Thomas, Nathan Ford, Edward Mills, Richard Lester, Jean B Nachega, Bosco Mwebesa Bwana, Fred Ssewamala, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Paula Munderi, Elvin Geng, David R Bangsberg
Introduction: Successful population-level antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence will be necessary to realize both the clinical and prevention benefits of antiretroviral scale-up and, ultimately, the end of AIDS. Although many people living with HIV are adhering well, others struggle and most are likely to experience challenges in adherence that may threaten virologic suppression at some point during lifelong therapy. Despite the importance of ART adherence, supportive interventions have generally not been implemented at scale...
2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562627/unconditional-government-cash-transfers-in-support-of-orphaned-and-vulnerable-adolescents-in-western-kenya-is-there-an-association-with-psychological-wellbeing
#15
Sylvia Shangani, Don Operario, Becky Genberg, Kipruto Kirwa, Miriam Midoun, Lukoye Atwoli, David Ayuku, Omar Galárraga, Paula Braitstein
BACKGROUND: Orphaned and vulnerable adolescents (OVA) in sub-Saharan Africa are at greater risk for adverse psychological outcomes compared with their non-OVA counterparts. Social interventions that provide cash transfers (CTs) have been shown to improve health outcomes among young people, but little is known about their impact on the psychological wellbeing of OVA. OBJECTIVE: Among OVA in western Kenya, we assessed the association between living in a household that received monthly unconditional government CTs and psychological wellbeing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514280/ten-year-trends-in-anti-retroviral-therapy-persistence-among-us-medicaid-beneficiaries-2001-2010
#16
Bora Youn, Theresa I Shireman, Yoojin Lee, Omar Galárraga, Aadia I Rana, Amy C Justice, Ira B Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Whether the rate of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) persistence has improved over time in the U.S. is unknown. We examined ART persistence trends between 2001 and 2010, using non-HIV medications as a comparator. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims. We defined persistence as the duration of treatment from the first to the last fill date before a 90-day permissible gap, and used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to assess crude and adjusted non-persistence...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435119/linear-accelerator-stereotactic-radiosurgery-of-central-nervous-system-arteriovenous-malformations-a-15-year-analysis-of-outcome-related-factors-in-a-single-tertiary-center
#17
José Luis Thenier-Villa, Raúl Alejandro Galárraga-Campoverde, Rosa María Martínez Rolán, Adolfo Ramón De La Lama Zaragoza, Pedro Martínez Cueto, Víctor Muñoz Garzón, Manuel Salgado Fernández, Cesáreo Conde Alonso
BACKGROUND: Linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery is one of the modalities available for the treatment of central nervous system arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The aim of this study was to describe our 15-year experience with this technique in a single tertiary center and the analysis of outcome-related factors. METHODS: From 1998 to 2013, 195 patients were treated with linear accelerator-based radiosurgery; we conducted a retrospective study collecting patient- and AVM-related variables...
July 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410917/the-relative-contribution-of-provider-and-ed-level-factors-to-variation-among-the-top-15-reasons-for-ed-admission
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Imad Khojah, Suhui Li, Qian Luo, Griffin Davis, Jessica E Galarraga, Michael Granovsky, Ori Litvak, Samuel Davis, Robert Shesser, Jesse M Pines
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We examine adult emergency department (ED) admission rates for the top 15 most frequently admitted conditions, and assess the relative contribution in admission rate variation attributable to the provider and hospital. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of ED encounters (≥18years) from 19 EDs and 603 providers (January 2012-December 2013), linked to the Area Health Resources File for county-level information on healthcare resources...
September 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364569/improving-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-resource-limited-settings-at-scale-a-discussion-of-interventions-and-recommendations
#19
Jessica E Haberer, Lora Sabin, K Rivet Amico, Catherine Orrell, Omar Galárraga, Alexander C Tsai, Rachel C Vreeman, Ira Wilson, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Terrence F Blaschke, Bernard Vrijens, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Sheri D Weiser, Elizabeth Lowenthal, Michael J Stirratt, Papa Salif Sow, Bruce Thomas, Nathan Ford, Edward Mills, Richard Lester, Jean B Nachega, Bosco Mwebesa Bwana, Fred Ssewamala, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Paula Munderi, Elvin Geng, David R Bangsberg
INTRODUCTION: Successful population-level antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence will be necessary to realize both the clinical and prevention benefits of antiretroviral scale-up and, ultimately, the end of AIDS. Although many people living with HIV are adhering well, others struggle and most are likely to experience challenges in adherence that may threaten virologic suppression at some point during lifelong therapy. Despite the importance of ART adherence, supportive interventions have generally not been implemented at scale...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351364/task-shifting-alcohol-interventions-for-hiv-persons-in-kenya-a-cost-benefit-analysis
#20
Omar Galárraga, Burke Gao, Benson N Gakinya, Debra A Klein, Richard G Wamai, John E Sidle, Rebecca K Papas
BACKGROUND: Among HIV+ patients, alcohol use is a highly prevalent risk factor for both HIV transmission and poor adherence to HIV treatment. The large-scale implementation of effective interventions for treating alcohol problems remains a challenge in low-income countries with generalized HIV epidemics. It is essential to consider an intervention's cost-effectiveness in dollars-per-health-outcome, and the long-term economic impact -or "return on investment" in monetary terms. METHODS: We conducted a cost-benefit analysis, measuring economic return on investment, of a task-shifted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention delivered by paraprofessionals to reduce alcohol use in a modeled cohort of 13,440 outpatients in Kenya...
March 28, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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