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Leo L Wang, Christopher B Highley, Yi-Cheun Yeh, Jonathan H Galarraga, Selen Uman, Jason A Burdick
The fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds is indispensable to tissue engineering and 3D printing is emerging as an important approach towards this. Hydrogels are often used as inks in extrusion-based 3D printing, including with encapsulated cells; however, numerous challenging requirements exist, including appropriate viscosity, the ability to stabilize after extrusion, and cytocompatibility. Here, we present a shear-thinning and self-healing hydrogel crosslinked through dynamic covalent chemistry for 3D bioprinting...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Qijuan Li, Amal N Trivedi, Omar Galarraga, Michael E Chernew, Daniel E Weiner, Vincent Mor
Populations with intensive health care needs and high care costs may be attracted to insurance plans that have high quality ratings, but patients may be likely to disenroll from a plan if their care needs are not met. We assessed the association between publicly reported Medicare Advantage plan star ratings and voluntary disenrollment of incident dialysis patients in the following year over the period 2007-13. We found that Medicare Advantage (MA) plans with lower star ratings had significantly higher rates of disenrollment by incident dialysis patients in the following year...
January 2018: Health Affairs
Ariadna Aparicio-Juárez, Mariana Duhne, Esther Lara-González, Fátima Ávila-Cascajares, Vladimir Calderón, Elvira Galarraga, José Bargas
Previously we have shown that chemical excitatory drives such as NMDA are capable of activating the striatal microcircuit exhibiting neuronal ensembles that alternate their activity producing temporal sequences. One aim of this work is to demonstrate whether similar activity could be evoked by delivering cortical stimulation. Dynamic calcium imaging allowed us to follow the activity of dozens of neurons with single cell resolution in mus musculus brain slices. A train of electrical stimuli in the cortex evoked network activity similar to the one induced by bath application of NMDA...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Laura Moreno-Galarraga, Laura Díaz Munilla, Mercedes Herranz Aguirre, Alexandra Navarro Jimenez, Antonio Moreno Galdó
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Javier Nogueira López, Laura Díaz Munilla, Natividad Viguria Sánchez, Laura Moreno-Galarraga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Marie E Sullivan, Abigail Harrison, Jane Harries, Namhla Sicwebu, Rochelle K Rosen, Omar Galárraga
Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health issue in South Africa. Despite free services including contraception, women face structural and institutional barriers to accessing care. This qualitative study comprised interviews with 16 women aged 18 to 40 years and receiving post-abortion services at a public clinic in Cape Town. Data analysis revealed three main themes: personal journeys in seeking abortion, contraceptive experiences, and contrasting feelings of empowerment (in reproductive decision making) and disempowerment (in the health care system)...
November 7, 2017: Health Care for Women International
Omar Galárraga, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Caroline Kuo, Pedro Gozalo, Andrea González, Biani Saavedra, Nathalie Gras-Allain, Carlos J Conde-Glez, Maria Olamendi-Portugal, Kenneth H Mayer, Don Operario
Randomized controlled pilot evaluated effect of conditional economic incentives (CEIs) on number of sex partners, condom use, and incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among male sex workers in Mexico City. Incentives were contingent on testing free of new curable STIs and/or clinic attendance. We assessed outcomes for n = 227 participants at 6 and 12 months (during active phase with incentives), and then at 18 months (with incentives removed). We used intention-to-treat and inverse probability weighting for the analysis...
November 7, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
M A Arias-García, D Tapia, J A Laville, V M Calderón, Y Ramiro-Cortés, J Bargas, E Galarraga
Synaptic inputs from cortex and thalamus were compared in electrophysiologically defined striatal cell classes: direct and indirect pathways' striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs), fast-spiking interneurons (FS), cholinergic interneurons (ChINs), and low-threshold spiking-like (LTS-like) interneurons. Our purpose was to observe whether stimulus from cortex or thalamus had equivalent synaptic strength to evoke prolonged suprathreshold synaptic responses in these neuron classes. Subthreshold responses showed that inputs from either source functionally mix up in their dendrites at similar electrotonic distances from their somata...
November 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Janet Barroso-Flores, Marco A Herrera-Valdez, Elvira Galarraga, José Bargas
We focus on dynamical descriptions of short-term synaptic plasticity. Instead of focusing on the molecular machinery that has been reviewed recently by several authors, we concentrate on the dynamics and functional significance of synaptic plasticity, and review some mathematical models that reproduce different properties of the dynamics of short term synaptic plasticity that have been observed experimentally. The complexity and shortcomings of these models point to the need of simple, yet physiologically meaningful models...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xinqi C Li, Lillian Kusi, Theodore Marak, Thomas Bertrand, Philip A Chan, Omar Galárraga
To evaluate three testing strategies to identify new HIV diagnoses in Rhode Island (RI). RI deployed three testing strategies, by using rapid HIV tests at clinical settings, community-based organization (CBO) settings, and the Partner Notification Services (PNS) program from 2012 to 2014. We reviewed the rapid HIV test results and confirmatory test results to identify new diagnoses, and conducted a cost-utility analysis. The average cost per new diagnosis was $33,015 at CBO settings, $5446 at clinical settings, and $33,818 at the PNS program...
October 27, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Pedro González, José Thenier, Raúl Galárraga, Adolfo de la Lama, Eva Azevedo, Cesáreo Conde
OBJECTIVES: It is common to observe the persistence of extra-axial collections after craniotomies. Most of these disappear in weeks or months but some remain. The onset of focal symptoms or the growth of these persistent collections months or years after surgery may indicate the presence of a chronic and latent infection by germs of low virulence such as Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). METHODS: We present two clinical cases with persistent extra-axial collections, which required surgery years after diagnosis, in which P...
October 13, 2017: Neurocirugía
Omar Galárraga, Richard G Wamai, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Mercy G Mugo, David Contreras-Loya, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Helen Nyakundi, Joseph K Wang'ombe
We estimate costs and their predictors for three HIV prevention interventions in Kenya: HIV testing and counselling (HTC), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). As part of the 'Optimizing the Response of Prevention: HIV Efficiency in Africa' (ORPHEA) project, we collected retrospective data from government and non-governmental health facilities for 2011-12. We used multi-stage sampling to determine a sample of health facilities by type, ownership, size and interventions offered totalling 144 sites in 78 health facilities in 33 districts across Kenya...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
J Fernandez, M M Bruno-Galarraga, A T Soto, R L de la Sota, M I Cueto, I M Lacau, A E Gibbons
We determined the effect of GnRH or hCG treatment on day 4 post-time artificial insemination (FTAI) on the formation of accessory corpora lutea (acc-CL) and on the concentration of serum progesterone (P4) in sheep. Multiparous adult Merino ewes (n = 36) were synchronized for estrus using double injection of PGF2α agonist (125 μg Cloprostenol) with an interval of 14 days. At 53-56 h after the second PG application, FTAI was performed. On day 4 post FTAI, ewes were either treated with analogue of GnRH (4 μg buserelin; n = 12) or hCG (300 IU, hCG; n = 12) or saline solution (1 ml; Control; n = 12)...
January 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Caroline Kuo, Omar Galárraga, Philip Smith, Mark N Lurie, Linda-Gail Bekker, Abigail Harrison
Prompt antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation maximises the therapeutic and prevention benefits of a treat-all strategy for HIV therapy. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews with men and women 18 years and older (N = 41), who were highly motivated and seeking treatment, this study examined salient factors that were associated with delays in treatment access and initiation. Results revealed clinic-related barriers including an onerous, inefficient multi-step process to initiate ART. Participants experienced additional delays due to difficulties accessing care (e...
August 16, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
N Viguria Sánchez, L Moreno-Galarraga, A Navascués Ortega, C Ezpeleta Baquedano, A González-Benavides, M Mendizabal Diez, E Bernaola Iturbe, J Castilla Catalán
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of admission in children under 2 years old. The RSV subgroups A and B may circulate simultaneously. We aimed to determine whether clinical differences exist between RSV subgroups A and B. Additionally, we tested the sensitivity of the rapid antigen detection test (RADT) based on immunochromatography in diagnosing subgroups A and B, taking the polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) as reference...
July 28, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Philip Smith, Caroline Kuo, Abigail Harrison, Mark N Lurie, Linda-Gail Bekker, Omar Galárraga
Using survey data collected immediately after referral for ART (N = 87), this study examined ART-readiness among individuals (18 years and older) attending a mobile health clinic in South Africa. Most participants reported being very ready (84%) and motivated (85%) to start ART, but only 72% were assessed as ready for ART on all measures. Treatment readiness was lower among individuals who did not think they would test HIV-positive (aOR 0.26, p < 0.05) and among individuals who reported being in good health (aOR 0...
July 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Bora Youn, Theresa I Shireman, Yoojin Lee, Omar Galárraga, Aadia I Rana, Amy C Justice, Ira B Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Whether the rate of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) persistence has improved over time in the United States is unknown. We examined ART persistence trends between 2001 and 2010, using non-HIV medications as a comparator. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims. We defined persistence as the duration of treatment from the first to the last fill date before a 90-day permissible gap and used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to assess crude and adjusted nonpersistence...
July 31, 2017: AIDS
Lawrence P O Were, Edwin Were, Richard Wamai, Joseph Hogan, Omar Galarraga
BACKGROUND: Healthcare financing through health insurance is gaining traction as developing countries strive to achieve universal health coverage and address the limited access to critical health services for specific populations including pregnant women and their children. However, these reforms are taking place despite limited evaluation of impact of health insurance on maternal health in developing countries including Kenya. In this study we evaluate the association of health insurance with access and utilization of obstetric delivery health services for pregnant women in Kenya...
July 3, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Jessica E Haberer, Lora Sabin, K Rivet Amico, Catherine Orrell, Omar Galárraga, Alexander C Tsai, Rachel C Vreeman, Ira Wilson, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Terrence F Blaschke, Bernard Vrijens, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Sheri D Weiser, Elizabeth Lowenthal, Michael J Stirratt, Papa Salif Sow, Bruce Thomas, Nathan Ford, Edward Mills, Richard Lester, Jean B Nachega, Bosco Mwebesa Bwana, Fred Ssewamala, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Paula Munderi, Elvin Geng, David R Bangsberg
Introduction: Successful population-level antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence will be necessary to realize both the clinical and prevention benefits of antiretroviral scale-up and, ultimately, the end of AIDS. Although many people living with HIV are adhering well, others struggle and most are likely to experience challenges in adherence that may threaten virologic suppression at some point during lifelong therapy. Despite the importance of ART adherence, supportive interventions have generally not been implemented at scale...
2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Sylvia Shangani, Don Operario, Becky Genberg, Kipruto Kirwa, Miriam Midoun, Lukoye Atwoli, David Ayuku, Omar Galárraga, Paula Braitstein
BACKGROUND: Orphaned and vulnerable adolescents (OVA) in sub-Saharan Africa are at greater risk for adverse psychological outcomes compared with their non-OVA counterparts. Social interventions that provide cash transfers (CTs) have been shown to improve health outcomes among young people, but little is known about their impact on the psychological wellbeing of OVA. OBJECTIVE: Among OVA in western Kenya, we assessed the association between living in a household that received monthly unconditional government CTs and psychological wellbeing...
2017: PloS One
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