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Megan B Cole, Brad Wright, Ira B Wilson, Omar Galárraga, Amal N Trivedi
BACKGROUND: To monitor progress towards eliminating health disparities, community health centers have reported on hypertension control, diabetes control, and birthweight by race and ethnicity since 2008. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate racial/ethnic time trends in quality outcomes in health centers and to assess both within- and between-center disparities in outcomes. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Using 2009-2014 data from all US health centers (n = 1047 centers, serving 19...
February 16, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Philip Smith, Caroline Kuo, Abigail Harrison, Mark N Lurie, Linda-Gail Bekker, Omar Galárraga
Interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) access are urgently needed to maximize the multiple benefits from ART. This pilot study examined the effect of a conditional economic incentive on linkage to care and uptake of treatment following ART referral by a mobile health clinic. Between April 2015 and May 2016, 86 individuals (≥18 years old) referred for ART in a resource-limited setting were randomized (1:1) to a control group or to an incentive: R300 cash (∼$23, or 3.5 days minimum wage in the domestic worker sector), conditional upon starting ART within 3 months...
February 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Leah S Honigman Warner, Jessica E Galarraga, Ori Litvak, Samuel Davis, Michael Granovsky, Jesse M Pines
BACKGROUND: Substantial variation exists in rates of emergency department (ED) admission. We examine this variation after accounting for local and community characteristics. OBJECTIVES: Elucidate the factors that contribute to admission variation that are amenable to intervention with the goal of reducing variation and health care costs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 1,412,340 patient encounters across 18 sites from 2012-2013...
February 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez, Airain Alejandra Montoya-Rodríguez, Omar Galárraga
Men who have sex with men (MSM) face a disproportionate burden of HIV incidence and HIV prevalence, particularly young men who have sex with men. The aim of this article was to analyze the relation between a psychological temporal perspective and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk behaviors among male sex workers (MSWs), a potentially highly present-oriented group of MSM. A total sample of 326 MSWs were included and responded to a validated psychological scale: the Zimbardo's Time Perspective Inventory; they also reported how frequently they engaged in protective behaviors against HIV and other STI risks behaviors, including condom use with casual and regular partners, as well as prior HIV testing...
January 29, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
M E Galarraga-Vinueza, J Mesquita-Guimarães, R S Magini, J C M Souza, M C Fredel, A R Boccaccini
The aim the present study was to evaluate the chemical reactivity of 58S mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) particles in as-synthesized condition and after embedding propolis and cranberry antibiofilm compounds at different concentrations. MBG 58S was synthesized by alkali sol-gel method with the addition of the triblock pluronic copolymer P123 as surfactant. Samples were characterized by physco-chemical properties measurement, N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) observations...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
David M Williams, Harold H Lee, Lauren Connell, Holly Boyle, Jessica Emerson, Kelley Strohacker, Omar Galárraga
Regular physical activity (PA) enhances weight-loss and reduces risk of chronic disease. However, as few as 10% of U.S. adults engage in regular PA. Incentive programs to promote PA have shown some promise, but have typically used incentives that are too large to sustain over time and have not demonstrated habit formation or been tested in community settings. This report presents the rationale and design of a randomized pilot study testing the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of small monetary incentives for PA (n=25) versus charitable donations in the same amount (n=25) versus control (n=25) over 12months among 75 low-active but otherwise healthy adults at a local YMCA...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Leo L Wang, Christopher B Highley, Yi-Cheun Yeh, Jonathan H Galarraga, Selen Uman, Jason A Burdick
The fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds is indispensable to tissue engineering and 3D printing is emerging as an important approach towards this. Hydrogels are often used as inks in extrusion-based 3D printing, including with encapsulated cells; however, numerous challenging requirements exist, including appropriate viscosity, the ability to stabilize after extrusion, and cytocompatibility. Here, we present a shear-thinning and self-healing hydrogel crosslinked through dynamic covalent chemistry for 3D bioprinting...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Qijuan Li, Amal N Trivedi, Omar Galarraga, Michael E Chernew, Daniel E Weiner, Vincent Mor
Populations with intensive health care needs and high care costs may be attracted to insurance plans that have high quality ratings, but patients may be likely to disenroll from a plan if their care needs are not met. We assessed the association between publicly reported Medicare Advantage plan star ratings and voluntary disenrollment of incident dialysis patients in the following year over the period 2007-13. We found that Medicare Advantage (MA) plans with lower star ratings had significantly higher rates of disenrollment by incident dialysis patients in the following year...
January 2018: Health Affairs
Ariadna Aparicio-Juárez, Mariana Duhne, Esther Lara-González, Fátima Ávila-Cascajares, Vladimir Calderón, Elvira Galarraga, José Bargas
Previously we have shown that chemical excitatory drives such as NMDA are capable of activating the striatal microcircuit exhibiting neuronal ensembles that alternate their activity producing temporal sequences. One aim of this work is to demonstrate whether similar activity could be evoked by delivering cortical stimulation. Dynamic calcium imaging allowed us to follow the activity of dozens of neurons with single cell resolution in mus musculus brain slices. A train of electrical stimuli in the cortex evoked network activity similar to the one induced by bath application of NMDA...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Laura Moreno-Galarraga, Laura Díaz Munilla, Mercedes Herranz Aguirre, Alexandra Navarro Jimenez, Antonio Moreno Galdó
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Javier Nogueira López, Laura Díaz Munilla, Natividad Viguria Sánchez, Laura Moreno-Galarraga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Marie E Sullivan, Abigail Harrison, Jane Harries, Namhla Sicwebu, Rochelle K Rosen, Omar Galárraga
Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health issue in South Africa. Despite free services including contraception, women face structural and institutional barriers to accessing care. This qualitative study comprised interviews with 16 women aged 18 to 40 years and receiving post-abortion services at a public clinic in Cape Town. Data analysis revealed three main themes: personal journeys in seeking abortion, contraceptive experiences, and contrasting feelings of empowerment (in reproductive decision making) and disempowerment (in the health care system)...
November 7, 2017: Health Care for Women International
Omar Galárraga, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Caroline Kuo, Pedro Gozalo, Andrea González, Biani Saavedra, Nathalie Gras-Allain, Carlos J Conde-Glez, Maria Olamendi-Portugal, Kenneth H Mayer, Don Operario
Randomized controlled pilot evaluated effect of conditional economic incentives (CEIs) on number of sex partners, condom use, and incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among male sex workers in Mexico City. Incentives were contingent on testing free of new curable STIs and/or clinic attendance. We assessed outcomes for n = 227 participants at 6 and 12 months (during active phase with incentives), and then at 18 months (with incentives removed). We used intention-to-treat and inverse probability weighting for the analysis...
December 2017: AIDS and Behavior
M A Arias-García, D Tapia, J A Laville, V M Calderón, Y Ramiro-Cortés, J Bargas, E Galarraga
Synaptic inputs from cortex and thalamus were compared in electrophysiologically defined striatal cell classes: direct and indirect pathways' striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs), fast-spiking interneurons (FS), cholinergic interneurons (ChINs), and low-threshold spiking-like (LTS-like) interneurons. Our purpose was to observe whether stimulus from cortex or thalamus had equivalent synaptic strength to evoke prolonged suprathreshold synaptic responses in these neuron classes. Subthreshold responses showed that inputs from either source functionally mix up in their dendrites at similar electrotonic distances from their somata...
November 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Janet Barroso-Flores, Marco A Herrera-Valdez, Elvira Galarraga, José Bargas
We focus on dynamical descriptions of short-term synaptic plasticity. Instead of focusing on the molecular machinery that has been reviewed recently by several authors, we concentrate on the dynamics and functional significance of synaptic plasticity, and review some mathematical models that reproduce different properties of the dynamics of short term synaptic plasticity that have been observed experimentally. The complexity and shortcomings of these models point to the need of simple, yet physiologically meaningful models...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xinqi C Li, Lillian Kusi, Theodore Marak, Thomas Bertrand, Philip A Chan, Omar Galárraga
To evaluate three testing strategies to identify new HIV diagnoses in Rhode Island (RI). RI deployed three testing strategies, by using rapid HIV tests at clinical settings, community-based organization (CBO) settings, and the Partner Notification Services (PNS) program from 2012 to 2014. We reviewed the rapid HIV test results and confirmatory test results to identify new diagnoses, and conducted a cost-utility analysis. The average cost per new diagnosis was $33,015 at CBO settings, $5446 at clinical settings, and $33,818 at the PNS program...
October 27, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Pedro González, José Thenier, Raúl Galárraga, Adolfo de la Lama, Eva Azevedo, Cesáreo Conde
OBJECTIVES: It is common to observe the persistence of extra-axial collections after craniotomies. Most of these disappear in weeks or months but some remain. The onset of focal symptoms or the growth of these persistent collections months or years after surgery may indicate the presence of a chronic and latent infection by germs of low virulence such as Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). METHODS: We present two clinical cases with persistent extra-axial collections, which required surgery years after diagnosis, in which P...
October 13, 2017: Neurocirugía
Omar Galárraga, Richard G Wamai, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Mercy G Mugo, David Contreras-Loya, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Helen Nyakundi, Joseph K Wang'ombe
We estimate costs and their predictors for three HIV prevention interventions in Kenya: HIV testing and counselling (HTC), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). As part of the 'Optimizing the Response of Prevention: HIV Efficiency in Africa' (ORPHEA) project, we collected retrospective data from government and non-governmental health facilities for 2011-12. We used multi-stage sampling to determine a sample of health facilities by type, ownership, size and interventions offered totalling 144 sites in 78 health facilities in 33 districts across Kenya...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
J Fernandez, M M Bruno-Galarraga, A T Soto, R L de la Sota, M I Cueto, I M Lacau, A E Gibbons
We determined the effect of GnRH or hCG treatment on day 4 post-time artificial insemination (FTAI) on the formation of accessory corpora lutea (acc-CL) and on the concentration of serum progesterone (P4) in sheep. Multiparous adult Merino ewes (n = 36) were synchronized for estrus using double injection of PGF2α agonist (125 μg Cloprostenol) with an interval of 14 days. At 53-56 h after the second PG application, FTAI was performed. On day 4 post FTAI, ewes were either treated with analogue of GnRH (4 μg buserelin; n = 12) or hCG (300 IU, hCG; n = 12) or saline solution (1 ml; Control; n = 12)...
January 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Caroline Kuo, Omar Galárraga, Philip Smith, Mark N Lurie, Linda-Gail Bekker, Abigail Harrison
Prompt antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation maximises the therapeutic and prevention benefits of a treat-all strategy for HIV therapy. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews with men and women 18 years and older (N = 41), who were highly motivated and seeking treatment, this study examined salient factors that were associated with delays in treatment access and initiation. Results revealed clinic-related barriers including an onerous, inefficient multi-step process to initiate ART. Participants experienced additional delays due to difficulties accessing care (e...
August 16, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
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