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Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Marjorie Opuni, David Contreras-Loya, Ada Kwan, Claire Chaumont, Abson Chompolola, Jeanine Condo, Omar Galárraga, Neil Martinson, Felix Masiye, Sabin Nsanzimana, Ivan Ochoa-Moreno, Richard Wamai, Joseph Wang'ombe
OBJECTIVE: We estimate facility-level average annual costs per client along the HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service cascades. DESIGN: Data collected covered the period 2011-2012 in 230 HTC and 212 PMTCT facilities in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia. METHODS: Input quantities and unit prices were collected, as were output data. Annual economic costs were estimated from the service providers' perspective using micro-costing...
October 23, 2016: AIDS
M E Galarraga-Vinueza, J Mesquita-Guimarães, R S Magini, J C M Souza, M C Fredel, A R Boccaccini
Bioactive glasses (BGs) are promising materials for bone repair due to their desirable properties such as osteoconductivity, biodegradability, angiogenic potential, and antibacterial activity. Ionic dissolution products from bioactive glasses increase the medium pH reducing surrounding bacteria proliferation. The activity of BGs against biofilm formation has been enhanced by incorporating organic antibacterial compounds. The aim of this review was to summarize evidence in literature which assesses the efficacy of antibacterial and anti-biofilm compounds embedded in bioactive glasses to prevent peri-implant infection during bone healing...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Yao Liu, Omar Galárraga
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of low- and middle-income countries' (LMIC) national drug policies in managing antiretroviral (ARV) pharmaceutical prices is not well understood. Though ARV drug prices have been declining in LMIC over the past decade, little research has been done on the role of their national drug policies. This study aims to (i) analyse global ARV prices from 2004 to 2013 and (ii) examine the relationship of national drug policies to ARV prices. METHODS: Analysis of ARV drug prices utilized data from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization (WHO)...
September 1, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
José Luis Thenier-Villa, Raúl Alejandro Galárraga Campoverde, Adolfo Ramón DE LA Lama Zaragoza, Cesáreo Conde Alonso
Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors. Since the adhesions in the plane of dissection are of interest in surgical planning, we suggest that digital image subtraction of FLAIR data from the T2 sequence of MRI may represent better the CSF spaces in the brain-tumor interface and may be a predictor of the intraoperative cleavage plane. From 2006 to 2016, 83 convexity meningiomas were resected in the Department of Neurosurgery of the University Hospital Complex of Vigo, an analysis of preoperative MRI was performed to assess peritumoral edema (PTE), tumor volume, among others; a digital subtraction of T2-FLAIR sequences was performed and analyzed in relationship to the cleavage plane described in the intraoperative report and postoperative neurological deficits...
August 31, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Nerea Martin-Calvo, Laura Moreno-Galarraga, Miguel Angel Martinez-Gonzalez
Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been suggested as the gold standard to define obesity, but because its use is complex and expensive, anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) or the waist-to-height ratio (WtHr) have been used as alternatives. The aim of this study was to review the published literature and investigate the correlation of BMI and WtHr with body fat (BF) measured by DEXA in pediatric populations...
2016: Nutrients
A I Soipe, H Razavi, D Razavi-Shearer, O Galárraga, L E Taylor, B D L Marshall
We utilized a disease progression model to predict the number of viraemic infections, cirrhotic cases, and liver-related deaths in the state of Rhode Island (RI) under four treatment scenarios: (1) current HCV treatment paradigm (about 215 patients treated annually, Medicaid reimbursement criteria fibrosis stage ⩾F3); (2) immediate scale-up of treatment (to 430 annually) and less restrictive Medicaid reimbursement criteria (fibrosis stage ⩾F2); (3) immediate treatment scale-up and no fibrosis stage-specific Medicaid reimbursement criteria (⩾F0); (4) an 'elimination' scenario (i...
August 5, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Marjorie Opuni, David Contreras-Loya, Ada Kwan, Claire Chaumont, Abson Chompolola, Jeanine Condo, Omar Galárraga, Neil Martinson, Felix Masiye, Sabin Nsanzimana, Ivan Ochoa-Moreno, Richard Wamai, Joseph Wang'ombe
OBJECTIVE: We estimate facility-level average annual cost per client along the HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service cascades. DESIGN: Data were collected from 2011-2013 in 230 HTC and 212 PMTCT facilities in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia. METHODS: Input quantities and unit prices were collected, as were output data. Annual economic costs were estimated from the service providers' perspective using micro-costing...
July 29, 2016: AIDS
Jean B Nachega, Olatunji Adetokunboh, Olalekan A Uthman, Amy W Knowlton, Frederick L Altice, Mauro Schechter, Omar Galárraga, Elvin Geng, Karl Peltzer, Larry W Chang, Gilles Van Cutsem, Shabbar S Jaffar, Nathan Ford, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Edward J Mills
Little is known about the effect of community versus health facility-based interventions to improve and sustain antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, virologic suppression, and retention in care among HIV-infected individuals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We systematically searched four electronic databases for all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and comparative cohort studies in LMICs comparing community versus health facility-based interventions. Relative risks (RRs) for pre-defined adherence, treatment engagement (linkage and retention in care), and relevant clinical outcomes were pooled using random effect models...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Rosario Vélez-Galarraga, Francisco Guillén-Grima, Nerea Crespo-Eguílaz, Rocío Sánchez-Carpintero
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in a control population. To examine the relationship between sleep disorders and symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsiveness and executive dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 126 children with ADHD and 1036 control children aged between 5 and 18 years old. Caregivers completed the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Marianna Di Scala, Itziar Otano, Irene Gil-Fariña, Lucia Vanrell, Mirja Hommel, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Miguel Galarraga, Laura Guembe, Carlos Ortiz de Solorzano, Indrajit Ghosh, Mala K Maini, Jesús Prieto, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
UNLABELLED: In chronic hepatitis B (CHB), failure to control hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with T cell dysfunction. HBV transgenic mice mirror many features of the human disease, including T cell unresponsiveness, and thus represent an appropriate model in which to test novel therapeutic strategies. To date, the tolerant state of CD8(+) T cells in these animals could be altered only by strong immunogens or by immunization with HBV antigen-pulsed dendritic cells; however, the effectors induced were unable to suppress viral gene expression or replication...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Maricruz Rivera-Hernandez, Momotazur Rahman, Vincent Mor, Omar Galarraga
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of Seguro Popular (Mexican social health insurance for the poor; SP) on diabetes and hypertension care, intermediate process indicators for older adults (>50 years): pharmacological treatment, blood glucose tests, the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and adherence to their nutrition and exercise program. (CAM was defined as products or practices that were not part of the medical standard of care.) DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Repeated cross-sectional surveys from Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey, ENSANUT), a nationally representative health and nutrition survey sampling N = 45,294 older adults in 2000, N = 45,241 older adults in 2005-2006, and N = 46,277 older adults in 2011-2012...
August 2016: Health Services Research
Yordanos M Tiruneh, Omar Galárraga, Becky Genberg, Ira B Wilson
BACKGROUND: Poor retention in HIV care challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study assessed how well patients stay in care and explored factors associated with retention in the context of an initial ART rollout in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cohort of 385 patients was followed for a median of 4.6 years from ART initiation to lost-to-follow-up (LTFU-missing appointments for more than three months after last scheduled visit or administrative censoring)...
2016: PloS One
Gustavo David García Muentes, Lindsay Karen García Rodríguez, Ramiro Israel Burgos Galarraga, Franklin Almeida Carpio, Juan Carlos Ruiz Cabezas
INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered a necessary causative agent for developing oropharyngeal, anal and cervical cancer. Among women in Ecuadorian population, cervical cancer ranks as the second most common gynecological cancer. Not many studies about HPV burden have been published in Ecuador, and genotypes distribution has not been established yet. The little data available suggest the presence of other genotypes different than 16 and 18. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we attempt to estimate the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other 35 genotypes among Ecuadorian women undergoing cervical cancer screening...
March 2016: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Eduardo Menti, Denise Zaffari, Thais Galarraga, João Regis da Conceição E Lessa, Bruna Pontin, Lucia Campos Pellanda, Vera Lúcia Portal
BACKGROUND: Excessive weight is a cardiovascular risk factor since it generates a chronic inflammatory process that aggravates the endothelial function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the endothelial function in individuals with excess weight and mild dyslipidemia using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BAFMD), and the association of endothelial function with anthropometric and biochemical variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that included 74 individuals and evaluated anthropometric variables (body mass index [BMI], waist-hip ratio [WHR], waist circumference [AC], and percentage of body fat [PBF]), biochemical (blood glucose, insulinemia, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol) and endothelial function (BAFMD, evaluated by ultrasound)...
June 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Vania Galarraga, Paolo Boffetta
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic results on coffee consumption and lung cancer risk have not been consistent. Furthermore, not all studies have addressed the potential role of tobacco as a confounder in this association. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of coffee consumption on lung cancer risk independent of tobacco use. METHODS: A systematic review and a meta-analysis based on random effects models were performed using studies from the PubMed and EMBASE databases, and the references from the retrieved articles...
June 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Héctor Telechea, Juan Gesuele, Pedro Grosso, Florencia Galarraga, Florencia Guzzo, Noelia Speranza, Fernando Antúnez, Luciana Nanni, Gustavo Giachetto
BACKGROUND: Gentamicin is indicated as empiric treatment for neonatal sepsis. Plasmatic levels dosification of gentamicin is a common practice. The relationship between peak plasma concentration (Cmáx) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (Cmáx/MIC) is the parameter that best predicts treatment efficacy. AIM: To determine pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in term newborn infants. METHODS: Term newborn infants receiving gentamicin, without critical illness in which plasmatic levels of gentamicin was performed were included...
February 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Jesús Pérez-Ortega, Mariana Duhne, Esther Lara-González, Victor Plata, Deisy Gasca, Elvira Galarraga, Arturo Hernández-Cruz, José Bargas
A challenge in neuroscience is to integrate the cellular and system levels. For instance, we still do not know how a few dozen neurons organize their activity and relations in a microcircuit or module of histological scale. By using network theory and Ca(2+) imaging with single-neuron resolution we studied the way in which striatal microcircuits of dozens of cells orchestrate their activity. In addition, control and diseased striatal tissues were compared in rats. In the control tissue, functional connectomics revealed small-world, scale-free and hierarchical network properties...
July 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Andrew R Zullo, Chanelle J Howe, Omar Galárraga
Personal prescription drug importation occurs in the United States because of the high cost of U.S. medicines and lower cost of foreign equivalents. Importation carries a risk of exposure to counterfeit (i.e., falsified, fraudulent), adulterated, and substandard drugs. Inadequate health insurance may increase the risk of importation. We use inverse probability weighted marginal structural models and data on 87,494 individuals from the 2011-2013 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the marginal association between no health insurance and importation within U...
February 2, 2016: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Jessica E Galarraga, Jesse M Pines
BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) care is a focus of cost reduction efforts. Costs for acute care originating in the ED, including outpatient and inpatient encounters (i.e. ED episodes), have not been estimated. OBJECTIVE: We estimate total US costs of ED episodes, potentially avoidable costs, and proportional costs of national health expenditures (NHEs). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 2010 data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample...
March 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Andrew R Zullo, Katherine Caine, Omar Galárraga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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