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Impaired glucose regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691147/maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-early-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-alters-cardiac-metabolism-in-sprague-dawley-rat-offspring
#1
K A De Jong, S Barrand, R J Wood-Bradley, D L de Almeida, J K Czeczor, G D Lopaschuk, J A Armitage, S L McGee
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Maternal high fat diets (mHFD) have been associated with an increased offspring cardiovascular risk. Recently we found that the class IIa HDAC-MEF2 pathway regulates gene programs controlling fatty acid oxidation in striated muscle. This same pathway controls hypertrophic responses in the heart. We hypothesized that mHFD is associated with activation of signal controlling class II a HDAC activity and activation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cardiac hypertrophy in offspring...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689422/consequences-of-a-double-hit-of-stress-during-the-perinatal-period-and-midlife-in-female-rats-mismatch-or-cumulative-effect
#2
Gilles Van Camp, Jenny Cigalotti, Hammou Bouwalerh, Jérôme Mairesse, Eleonora Gatta, Paola Palanza, Stefania Maccari, Sara Morley-Fletcher
The interplay between experiences during critical developmental periods and later adult life is crucial in shaping individual variability in stress coping strategies. Exposure to stressful events in early life has strongly programs an individual's phenotype and adaptive capabilities. Until now, studies on programming and reversal strategies in early life stress animal models have been essentially limited to males. By using the perinatal stress (PRS) rat model (a model more sensitive to aging changes) in middle-aged females, we investigated the behavioral and endocrine responses following exposure in later life to an unpredictable chronic mild stress (uCMS) condition for six weeks...
April 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686650/glucose-transporters-in-diabetic-kidney-disease-friends-or-foes
#3
REVIEW
Anita A Wasik, Sanna Lehtonen
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major microvascular complication of diabetes and a common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. DKD manifests as an increased urinary protein excretion (albuminuria). Multiple studies have shown that insulin resistance correlates with the development of albuminuria in non-diabetic and diabetic patients. There is also accumulating evidence that glomerular epithelial cells or podocytes are insulin sensitive and that insulin signaling in podocytes is essential for maintaining normal kidney function...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680662/insulin-sensitivity-linked-skeletal-muscle-nr4a1-dna-methylation-is-programmed-by-the-maternal-diet-and-modulated-by-voluntary-exercise-in-mice
#4
Juliane Kasch, Isabel Kanzleiter, Sophie Saussenthaler, Annette Schürmann, Jaap Keijer, Evert van Schothorst, Susanne Klaus, Sara Schumann
Perinatal maternal high-fat consumption is known to increase the obesity and type 2 diabetes susceptibility and to impair exercise performance in the offspring. We hypothesize that epigenetic modifications in the skeletal muscle are partly responsible for this phenotype. To detect skeletal muscle genes affected by maternal nutrition, male offspring of low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diet fed dams (BL6 mice) received LF diet upon weaning and were sacrificed at 6 or 25 weeks of age. Gene expression of Musculus quadriceps was investigated by microarray analysis revealing an up-regulation of the nuclear receptor Nr4a1 by maternal HF feeding...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680359/effects-of-6-vs-3-eucaloric-meal-patterns-on-glycaemic-control-and-satiety-in-people-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance-or-overt-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-trial
#5
E Papakonstantinou, M D Kontogianni, P Mitrou, E Magriplis, D Vassiliadi, T Nomikos, V Lambadiari, E Georgousopoulou, G Dimitriadis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to compare the effects of two eucaloric meal patterns (3 vs 6 meals/day) on glycaemic control and satiety in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and plasma glucose (PG) levels 140-199mg/dL at 120min (IGT-A) or PG levels 140-199mg/dL at 120min and >200mg/dL at 30/60/90min post-oral glucose load on 75-g OGTT (IGT-B), or overt treatment-naïve type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this randomized crossover study, subjects with IGT-A (n=15, BMI: 32...
April 6, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680250/relevance-of-the-hippocampal-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Yasuhiro Kosuge, Nobuhiro Osada, Akiko Shimomura, Hiroko Miyagishi, Taira Wada, Kumiko Ishige, Shigeki Shimba, Yoshihisa Ito
It has been shown that the incidence of cognitive impairment increases with the severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A previous study has demonstrated that hippocampal oxidative stress contributes to cognitive dysfunction in CKD model mice. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is thought to contribute significantly to neuronal dysfunction, but its role in the hippocampal dysfunction seen in CKD still remains unclear. The present study examined whether the ER stress response as well as oxidative stress was activated in the hippocampus of CKD model mice...
April 19, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679925/tocotrienol-rich-fraction-supplementation-reduces-hyperglycemia-induced-skeletal-muscle-damage-through-regulation-of-insulin-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#7
Heaji Lee, Yunsook Lim
Chronic hyperglycemia induces impairment of muscle growth and development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Since skeletal muscle is the major site for disposal of ingested glucose, impaired glucose metabolism causes imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation which adversely affects physical mobility. In this study, we investigated the effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation on skeletal muscle damage in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet with streptozotocin (STZ) injection (100 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6J mice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678286/g-protein-coupled-receptors-gpcrs-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-current-view-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Guido Sebastiani, Elena Ceccarelli, Maria Grazia Castagna, Francesco Dotta
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest receptor family in the genome and are of great interest for the design of novel drugs in a wide variety of diseases including neurologic disorders, obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The latter is a chronic disease characterized by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, affecting >400 million patients worldwide. Here we provide an overview on: a) The molecular basis of GPCR signalling and of its involvement in the regulation of insulin secretion and of glucose homeostasis; b) the role of GPCRs in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology and as therapeutic targets of current and future glucose-lowering drugs...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674342/app-deficiency-results-in-resistance-to-obesity-but-impairs-glucose-tolerance-upon-high-fat-feeding
#9
Juliane Czeczor, Amanda Genders, Kathryn Aston-Mourney, Timothy Connor, Liam Hall, Kyoko Hasebe, Megan Ellis, Kirstie De Jong, Darren Henstridge, Peter Meikle, Mark Febbraio, Ken Walder, Sean L McGee
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates a number of peptides when processed through different cleavage mechanisms, including the Aβ peptide that is implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease. It is well established that APP via its cleaved peptides regulates aspects of neuronal metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that amyloidogenic processing of APP can lead to altered systemic metabolism, similar to that observed in metabolic disease states. In the present study, we investigated the effect of APP deficiency on obesity-induced alterations in systemic metabolism...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672742/older-subjects-with-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-have-an-accentuated-incretin-release
#10
José de Jesús Garduno-Garcia, Amalia Gastaldelli, Ralph A DeFronzo, Raweewan Lertwattanarak, Jens J Holst, Nicolas Musi
Objective: Insulin secretion declines with age and this contributes to the increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older subjects. Insulin secretion is regulated by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Here we tested the hypotheses that incretin release is reduced in older subjects, and that this decline is associated with β-cell dysfunction. Research Design: 40 young (25±3 y) and 53 older (74±7 y) lean non-diabetic subjects underwent a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669812/tankyrase-modulates-insulin-sensitivity-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-by-regulating-the-stability-of-glut4-vesicle-proteins
#11
Zhiduan Su, Vinita Deshpande, David E James, Jacqueline Stöckli
Tankyrase1 and 2, members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family, have previously been shown to play a role in insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. However, their precise mechanism of action, and their role in insulin action in other cell types, such as myocytes, remains elusive. Treatment of differentiated L6 myotubes with the small molecule tankyrase inhibitor XAV939 resulted in insulin resistance as determined by impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Proteomic analysis of XAV939-treated myotubes identified down-regulation of several glucose transporter GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) proteins including RAB10, VAMP8, SORT1 and GLUT4...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669745/gpr119-agonism-increases-glucagon-secretion-during-insulin-induced-hypoglycemia
#12
Nina Xiaoyan Li, Stacey Brown, Tim Kowalski, Margaret Wu, Liming Yang, Ge Dai, Aleksandr Petrov, Yuyan Ding, Tamara Dlugos, H Blair Woods, Liangsu Wang, Mark Erion, Robert Sherwin, David E Kelley
Insulin-induced hypoglycemia in diabetes is associated with impaired glucagon secretion. Here we tested whether stimulation of GPR119, a G-protein coupled receptor expressed in pancreatic islet as well as enteroendocrine cells, and previously shown to stimulate insulin and incretin secretion might enhance glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia. In the study, GPR119 agonists were applied to isolated islets or perfused pancreata perfusions to assess insulin and glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia or hyperglycemic conditions...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669261/chrebp-deficiency-leads-to-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
Ah-Reum Oh, Seonyong Sohn, Junghoon Lee, Jong-Min Park, Ki Taek Nam, Ki-Baik Hahm, Young-Bum Kim, Ho-Jae Lee, Ji-Young Cha
OBJECTIVE: Fructose malabsorption is a common digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose in the small intestine is impaired. An abnormality of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins has been proposed as a cause for fructose malabsorption. However the underlying molecular mechanism for this remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) plays a role in intestinal fructose absorption through the regulation of genes involved in fructose transport and metabolism and ion transport...
April 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665823/exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-pm-2-5-alters-the-composition-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-murine-model
#14
Wanjun Wang, Ji Zhou, Minjie Chen, Xingke Huang, Xiaoyun Xie, Weihua Li, Qi Cao, Haidong Kan, Yanyi Xu, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) correlates with abnormal glucose homeostasis, but the underlying biological mechanism has not been fully understood. The gut microbiota is an emerging crucial player in the homeostatic regulation of glucose metabolism. Few studies have investigated its role in the PM2.5 exposure-induced abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. METHODS: C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2...
April 17, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665363/isoquercetin-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-and-regulates-key-enzymes-of-glucose-metabolism-via-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#15
Muthukumaran Jayachandran, Tongze Zhang, Kumar Ganesan, Baojun Xu, Stephen Sum Man Chung
Among the foremost common flavonoids within the human diet, quercetin glycosides possess neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-oxidative, chemopreventive, and anti-allergic properties. Isoquercetin is one such promising candidate with anti-diabetic potential. However, complete studies of its molecular action on insulin signaling pathway and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes remain unclear. Hence, we have designed this study to accumulate the experimental evidence in support of anti-diabetic effects of isoquercetin...
April 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662125/netrin-1-promotes-diabetic-corneal-wound-healing-through-molecular-mechanisms-mediated-via-the-adenosine-2b-receptor
#16
Yangyang Zhang, Peng Chen, Guohu Di, Xia Qi, Qingjun Zhou, Hua Gao
Netrins are secreted chemoattractants with the roles in axon guidance, cell migration and epithelial plasticity. In the present study, we investigated the roles of netrin-1 in the regulation of corneal epithelial wound healing, inflammation response and nerve fiber regeneration in diabetic mice and cultured corneal epithelial cells. In diabetic mice, the expression of netrin-1 was decreased when compared with that of normal mice. Furthermore, high glucose blocked the wounding-induced up-regulation of netrin-1 expression in corneal epithelial cells...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660453/tgf-%C3%AE-1-down-regulation-in-the-mediobasal-hypothalamus-attenuates-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity
#17
Natália F Mendes, Joana M Gaspar, José C Lima-Júnior, Jose Donato, Lício A Velloso, Eliana P Araújo
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats induces hypothalamic inflammation and impairs the function of the melanocortin system, leading to a defective regulation of caloric intake and whole-body energy expenditure. In mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), TGF-β1 expression was increased and NF-κB signaling was activated in proopiomelanocortin neurons, which plays an important role in the obesity-associated hypothalamic inflammation scenario. However, whether excessive hypothalamic TGF-β1 impairs energy homeostasis remains unclear...
April 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659786/impact-of-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-the-long-term-regulation-of-energy-balance-in-female-mice
#18
Sharon Rachel Ladyman, Zin Khant Aung, David Ross Grattan
During pregnancy and lactation, the maternal body undergoes many changes in the regulation of appetite, body weight and glucose homeostasis to deal with the metabolic demands of the growing fetus and subsequent demands of providing milk for offspring. The aim of the current study was to investigate the consequences of one reproductive cycle of pregnancy and lactation on the long-term regulation of energy homeostasis. After weaning of pups, reproductively experienced (RE) mice maintained a higher body weight compared to age-matched control mice...
April 11, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658582/sirt1-nrf2-signalling-pathway-prevents-cognitive-impairment-in-diabetic-rats-through-anti%C3%A2-oxidative-stress-induced-by-mirna%C3%A2-23b%C3%A2-3p-expression
#19
Jinhua Han, Xiaoning Liu, Yingzhi Li, Jun Zhang, Haichi Yu
In the present study the exact roles and mechanisms underlying the effect of miRNA‑23b‑3p on the cognitive impairment of diabetic rats were investigated. The in vivo model of diabetes was established in Wistar rats via a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Cognitive function was evaluated using a Morris water maze test. Oxidative stress was measured using ELISA kits, and the protein expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein, silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) and GAPDH were measured by western blot analysis...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656931/synaptotagmin-4-regulates-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-maturation-by-modulating-the-ca-2-sensitivity-of-insulin-secretion-vesicles
#20
Chen Huang, Emily M Walker, Prasanna K Dadi, Ruiying Hu, Yanwen Xu, Wenjian Zhang, Tiziana Sanavia, Jisoo Mun, Jennifer Liu, Gopika G Nair, Hwee Yim Angeline Tan, Sui Wang, Mark A Magnuson, Christian J Stoeckert, Matthias Hebrok, Maureen Gannon, Weiping Han, Roland Stein, David A Jacobson, Guoqiang Gu
Islet β cells from newborn mammals exhibit high basal insulin secretion and poor glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Here we show that β cells of newborns secrete more insulin than adults in response to similar intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, suggesting differences in the Ca2+ sensitivity of insulin secretion. Synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4), a non-Ca2+ binding paralog of the β cell Ca2+ sensor Syt7, increased by ∼8-fold during β cell maturation. Syt4 ablation increased basal insulin secretion and compromised GSIS...
April 12, 2018: Developmental Cell
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