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Impaired glucose regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218530/tracking-glut2-translocation-by-live-cell-imaging
#1
Sabina Tsytkin-Kirschenzweig, Merav Cohen, Yaakov Nahmias
The facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) family plays a key role in metabolic homeostasis, controlling the absorption rates and rapid response to changing carbohydrate levels. The facilitative GLUT2 transporter is uniquely expressed in metabolic epithelial cells of the intestine, pancreas, liver, and kidney. GLUT2 dysfunction is associated with several pathologies, including Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, a glycogen storage disease, characterized by growth retardation and renal dysfunction. Interestingly, GLUT2 activity is modulated by its cellular localization...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217485/developmental-origins-of-adult-health-and-disease-the-metabolic-role-of-bdnf-from-early-life-to-adulthood
#2
REVIEW
Despina D Briana, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
Accumulating evidence suggests that the origins of adult disease may occur during fetal life. Thus, the concept of "developmental programming" has been introduced and supported by epidemiological and experimental data. This concept supports the idea that the nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy could interfere in metabolism control. The mechanisms responsible for this "developmental programming" remain poorly documented. Current research indicates that neurotrophins and particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a crucial role in this process...
December 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217450/cadm2-regulates-body-weight-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mice
#3
Xin Yan, Zhen Wang, Vanessa Schmidt, Anton Gauert, Thomas E Willnow, Matthias Heinig, Matthew N Poy
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is strongly linked to genes regulating neuronal signaling and function, implicating the central nervous system in the maintenance of body weight and energy metabolism. Genome-wide association studies identified significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and multiple loci near Cell adhesion molecule2 (CADM2), which encodes a mediator of synaptic signaling enriched in the brain. Here we sought to further understand the role of Cadm2 in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and weight gain...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216217/the-emerging-role-of-asc-in-dendritic-cell-metabolism-during-chlamydia-infection
#4
Danielle N McKeithen, Yusuf O Omosun, Khamia Ryans, Jing Mu, Zhonglin Xie, Tankya Simoneaux, Uriel Blas-Machado, Francis O Eko, Carolyn M Black, Joseph U Igietseme, Qing He
Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial agent that causes sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The regulatory functions of dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in protective immunity against Chlamydia infections. Here, we investigated the role of ASC in DCs metabolism and the regulation of DCs activation and function during Chlamydia infection. Following Chlamydia stimulation, maturation and antigen presenting functions were impaired in ASC-/- DCs compared to wild type (WT) DCs, in addition, ASC deficiency induced a tolerant phenotype in Chlamydia stimulated DCs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213078/functional-status-of-microvascular-vasomotion-is-impaired-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#5
Mingming Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Bing Wang, Qingbin Wu, Bingwei Li, Ailing Li, Honggang Zhang, Ruijuan Xiu
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that microcirculation plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the current study, we demonstrated that pancreatic islet microvascular vasomotion of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) lost the ability to regulate blood flow perfusion and exhibited a lower microvascular blood perfusion pattern which was negative correlated with blood glucose level. SHRs administrated with insulin revealed an improvement of pancreatic islet microvascular vasomotion and blood perfusion pattern...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212951/glycolytic-requirement-for-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-and-cytomegalovirus-control
#6
Annelise Y Mah, Armin Rashidi, Molly P Keppel, Nermina Saucier, Emily K Moore, Joshua B Alinger, Sandeep K Tripathy, Sandeep K Agarwal, Emily K Jeng, Hing C Wong, Jeffrey S Miller, Todd A Fehniger, Emily M Mace, Anthony R French, Megan A Cooper
NK cell activation has been shown to be metabolically regulated in vitro; however, the role of metabolism during in vivo NK cell responses to infection is unknown. We examined the role of glycolysis in NK cell function during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection and the ability of IL-15 to prime NK cells during CMV infection. The glucose metabolism inhibitor 2-deoxy-ᴅ-glucose (2DG) impaired both mouse and human NK cell cytotoxicity following priming in vitro. Similarly, MCMV-infected mice treated with 2DG had impaired clearance of NK-specific targets in vivo, which was associated with higher viral burden and susceptibility to infection on the C57BL/6 background...
December 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212737/astrocytic-lrp4-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-4-contributes-to-ischemia-induced-brain-injury-by-regulating-atp-release-and-adenosine-a2ar-adenosine-a2a-receptor-signaling
#7
Xin-Chun Ye, Jin-Xia Hu, Lei Li, Qiang Li, Fu-Lei Tang, Sen Lin, Dong Sun, Xiang-Dong Sun, Gui-Yun Cui, Lin Mei, Wen-Cheng Xiong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lrp4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4) is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, where it regulates glutamatergic neurotransmission by suppressing ATP release. Here, we investigated Lrp4's function in ischemia/stroke-induced brain injury response, which includes glutamate-induced neuronal death and reactive astrogliosis. METHODS: The brain-specific Lrp4 conditional knockout mice (Lrp4GFAP-Cre), astrocytic-specific Lrp4 conditional knockout mice (Lrp4GFAP-creER), and their control mice (Lrp4f/f) were subjected to photothrombotic ischemia and the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
December 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209644/new-role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperones-in-regulating-metaplasia-during-tumorigenesis
#8
Jieli Shen, Daisy F Rangel, Dat Ha, Amy S Lee
Metaplasia is emerging as a key process in tumorigenesis. We discovered that 2 essential endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones, 78-kilodalton glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and 94-kilodalton glucose-regulated protein (GRP94) have a role in metaplasia. Grp78 haploinsufficiency in the mouse pancreas impairs acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, whereas in the uterus, Grp94 loss induces squamous cell metaplasia; both resulting in tumor suppression.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209168/direct-neuronal-glucose-uptake-is-required-for-contextual-fear-acquisition-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#9
Liang Kong, Yan Zhao, Wen-Juan Zhou, Hui Yu, Shuai-Wen Teng, Qi Guo, Zheyu Chen, Yue Wang
The metabolism of glucose is a nearly exclusive source of energy for maintaining neuronal survival, synaptic transmission and information processing in the brain. Two glucose metabolism pathways have been reported, direct neuronal glucose uptake and the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS), which can be involved in these functions simultaneously or separately. Although ANLS in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) has been proved to be required for memory consolidation, the specific metabolic pathway involved during memory acquisition remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207650/upregulation-of-mir-181a-impairs-hepatic-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis
#10
Xiliang Du, Yuchen Yang, Chuang Xu, Zhicheng Peng, Min Zhang, Lin Lei, Wenwen Gao, Yuhao Dong, Zhen Shi, Xudong Sun, Zhe Wang, Xiaobing Li, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
The contributions of altered post-transcriptional gene silencing to the development of metabolic disorders remain poorly understood thus far. The objective of this study was to evaluate the roles of miR-181a in the regulation of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. MiR-181a is abundantly expressed in the liver, and we found that blood and hepatic miR-181a levels were significantly increased in patients and dairy cows with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as in high-fat diet and ob/ob mice. We determined that sirtuin1 is a target of miR-181a...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205180/androgen-receptor-deficiency-in-monocytes-macrophages-does-not-alter-adiposity-or-glucose-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#11
Katya B Rubinow, Barbara Houston, Shari Wang, Leela Goodspeed, Kayoko Ogimoto, Gregory J Morton, Christopher McCarty, Robert E Braun, Stephanie T Page
Androgen deprivation in men leads to increased adiposity, but the mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of fat mass have not been fully defined. Androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in monocytes/macrophages, which are resident in key metabolic tissues and influence energy metabolism in surrounding cells. Male mice bearing a cell-specific knockout of the AR in monocytes/macrophages (M-ARKO) were generated to determine whether selective loss of androgen signaling in these cells would lead to altered body composition...
December 5, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203581/cardiac-insulin-signaling-regulates-glycolysis-through-phosphofructokinase-2-content-and-activity
#12
Lee B Bockus, Satoshi Matsuzaki, Shraddha S Vadvalkar, Zachary T Young, Jennifer R Giorgione, Maria F Newhardt, Michael Kinter, Kenneth M Humphries
BACKGROUND: The healthy heart has a dynamic capacity to respond and adapt to changes in nutrient availability. Diabetes mellitus disrupts this metabolic flexibility and promotes cardiomyopathy through mechanisms that are not completely understood. Phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK-2) is a primary regulator of cardiac glycolysis and substrate selection, yet its regulation under normal and pathological conditions is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine how changes in insulin signaling affect PFK-2 content, activity, and cardiac metabolism...
December 4, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200899/effects-of-exercise-on-obesity-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-skeletal-muscle
#13
REVIEW
Jun-Won Heo, Mi-Hyun No, Dong-Ho Park, Ju-Hee Kang, Dae Yun Seo, Jin Han, P Darrell Neufer, Hyo-Bum Kwak
Obesity is known to induce inhibition of glucose uptake, reduction of lipid metabolism, and progressive loss of skeletal muscle function, which are all associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Due to these critical roles of mitochondria, mitochondrial dysfunction results in various diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with impairment of mitochondrial function (e...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198707/impaired-vagus-function-in-rats-suppresses-bile-acid-synthesis-in-the-liver-by-disrupting-tight-junctions-and-activating-fxr-fgf15-signaling-in-the-intestine
#14
Fangyu Wang, Zhiqiang Lu, Xue Wang, Youcai Zhang
Bile acids (BAs) circulate between the liver and intestine, and regulate the homeostasis of glucose, lipid, and energy. Recent studies demonstrated an essential role of BAs in neurological diseases, suggesting an interaction between BAs and the nervous system. In the present study, we showed that impaired vagus function in rats induced by vagotomy resulted in an increase in bile flow without causing liver injury. The concentrations of unconjugated and glycine-conjugated BAs were increased in both serum and bile of rats after vagotomy, which was due to impaired tight junctions and thus increased passive absorption of BAs in the intestine...
November 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198028/adverse-bioeffect-of-perfluorooctanoic-acid-on-liver-metabolic-function-in-mice
#15
Xinmou Wu, Guojie Xie, Xiaoxiao Xu, Wei Wu, Bin Yang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a kind of manufactured material, is widely accumulated around environmental system and into wildlife, including human beings. Toxicologically, PFOA induces hepatomegaly (liver enlargement) in the dose- and time-dependent manners. However, biological mechanism of hepatotoxicity warrants to be further investigated. In the present study, mature male mice were exposed to dosed PFOA for 21 days before conducting biochemical tests and immunoassays. As results, decreased fast blood glucose and elevated insulin contents were observed in PFOA-dosed mice...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196219/diet-induced-insulin-resistance-state-disturbs-brain-clock-processes-and-alters-tuning-of-clock-outputs-in-the-sand-rat-psammomys-obesus
#16
Hanane Touati, Saliha Ouali-Hassenaoui, Aicha Dekar-Madoui, Etienne Challet, Paul Pévet, Patrick Vuillez
Reciprocal interactions closely connect energy metabolism with circadian rhythmicity. Altered clockwork and circadian desynchronization are often linked with impaired energy regulation. Conversely, metabolic disturbances have been associated with altered autonomic and hormonal rhythms. The effects of high-energy (HE) diet on the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) remain unclear.This question was addressed in the Sand rat (Psammomys obesus), a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) animal model...
November 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195942/protective-effect-of-mulberry-fruit-anthocyanin-on-human-hepatocyte-cells-lo2-and-caenorhabditis-elegans-under-hyperglycemic-conditions
#17
Fujie Yan, Xin'an Chen, Xiaodong Zheng
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease and hyperglycemia is important in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Exposure of LO2 cells to high glucose resulted in cellular glucose consumption and uptake decreases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anion (O2-) accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction, which could be partly recovered by mulberry anthocyanin extract (MAE). And these protective effects were partly associated with regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream targets...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195759/circadian-regulation-of-glucose-lipid-and-energy-metabolism-in-humans
#18
Eleonora Poggiogalle, Humaira Jamshed, Courtney M Peterson
The circadian system orchestrates metabolism in daily 24-hour cycles. Such rhythms organize metabolism by temporally separating opposing metabolic processes and by anticipating recurring feeding-fasting cycles to increase metabolic efficiency. Although animal studies demonstrate that the circadian system plays a pervasive role in regulating metabolism, it is unclear how, and to what degree, circadian research in rodents translates into humans. Here, we review evidence that the circadian system regulates glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism in humans...
November 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194408/exposure-to-night-time-traffic-noise-melatonin-regulating-gene-variants-and-change-in-glycemia-in-adults
#19
Ikenna C Eze, Medea Imboden, Maria Foraster, Emmanuel Schaffner, Ashish Kumar, Danielle Vienneau, Harris Héritier, Franziska Rudzik, Laurie Thiesse, Reto Pieren, Arnold von Eckardstein, Christian Schindler, Mark Brink, Jean-Marc Wunderli, Christian Cajochen, Martin Röösli, Nicole Probst-Hensch
Traffic noise has been linked to diabetes, with limited understanding of its mechanisms. We hypothesize that night-time road traffic noise (RTN) may impair glucose homeostasis through circadian rhythm disturbances. We prospectively investigated the relationship between residential night-time RTN and subsequent eight-year change in glycosylated hemoglobin (ΔHbA1c) in 3350 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA), adjusting for diabetes risk factors and air pollution levels...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191637/spontaneous-development-of-hepatosteatosis-in-perilipin-1-null-mice-with-adipose-tissue-dysfunction
#20
Suning Wei, Shangxin Liu, Xueying Su, Weiyi Wang, Fengjuan Li, Jingna Deng, Ying Lyu, Bin Geng, Guoheng Xu
Fatty liver features triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes and often occurs with obesity and lipodystrophy in humans. Here, we investigated the mechanism of maladaptive hepatosteatosis with adipose-tissue dysfunction. Perilipin 1 (Plin1) did not exist in hepatocytes but was expressed exclusively in adipocytes as a dual modulator for regulating two principal adipose-tissue functions, triglyceride storage and breakdown. Plin1-/- mice showed decreased fat storage but increased lipolysis and efflux of fatty acids from adipose tissue, and hepatosteatosis spontaneously developed without altered circulating inflammatory adipocytokine levels...
November 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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