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Fluid kinetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691545/newtonian-to-non-newtonian-fluid-transition-of-a-model-transient-network
#1
Giovanni Nava, Tie Yang, Valerio Vitali, Paolo Minzioni, Ilaria Cristiani, Francesca Bragheri, Roberto Osellame, Lucas Bethge, Sven Klussmann, Elvezia Maria Paraboschi, Rosanna Asselta, Tommaso Bellini
The viscosity of gel-forming fluids is notoriously complex and its study can benefit from new model systems that enable a detailed control of the network features. Here we use a novel and simple microfluidic-based active microrheology approach to study the transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian behavior in a DNA hydrogel whose structure, connectivity, density of bonds, bond energy and kinetics are strongly temperature dependent and well known. In a temperature range of 15 °C, the system reversibly and continuously transforms from a Newtonian dispersion of low-valence nanocolloids into a strongly shear-thinning fluid, passing through a set of intermediate states where it behaves as a power-law fluid...
April 25, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690538/adipose-tissue-lactate-clearance-but-not-blood-lactate-clearance-is-associated-with-clinical-outcome-in-sepsis-or-septic-shock-during-the-post-resuscitation-period
#2
Ioannis Ilias, Sofia Apollonatou, Dimitra-Argyro Vassiliadi, Nikitas Nikitas, Maria Theodorakopoulou, Argyris Diamantakis, Anastasia Kotanidou, Ioanna Dimopoulou
No study has directly measured tissue lactate clearance in patients with sepsis during the post-resuscitation period. In this study we aimed to assess in ICU patients with sepsis ( n = 32) or septic shock ( n = 79)—during the post-resuscitation phase—the relative kinetics of blood/tissue lactate clearances and to examine whether these are associated with outcome. We measured serially—over a 48-h period—blood and adipose tissue interstitial fluid lactate levels (with microdialysis) and we calculated lactate clearance...
April 21, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686070/cryptographic-hashing-using-chaotic-hydrodynamics
#3
William Gilpin
Fluids may store and manipulate information, enabling complex applications ranging from digital logic gates to algorithmic self-assembly. While controllable hydrodynamic chaos has previously been observed in viscous fluids and harnessed for efficient mixing, its application to the manipulation of digital information has been sparsely investigated. We show that chaotic stirring of a viscous fluid naturally produces a characteristic signature of the stirring process in the arrangement of particles in the fluid, and that this signature directly satisfies the requirements for a cryptographic hash function...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680618/ultrasonic-cavitation-erosion-corrosion-behavior-of-friction-stir-processed-stainless-steel
#4
Karthikeyan Selvam, Priya Mandal, Harpreet Singh Grewal, Harpreet Singh Arora
Cavitation erosion remains the primary cause of material degradation in fluid machinery components operating at high speed. Micro-jets/shock waves caused by implosion of bubbles on material surface results in significant material loss and premature failure of the components. The presence of corrosive medium further exuberates this effect, causing rapid degradation. Here, we demonstrate a novel pathway to control cavitation erosion-corrosion by tailoring the surface properties using submerged friction stir processing (FSP), a severe plastic deformation process...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679468/high-efficiency-affinity-precipitation-of-multiple-industrial-mabs-and-fc-fusion-proteins-from-cell-culture-harvests-using-z-elp-e2-nanocages
#5
Andrew R Swartz, Xuankuo Xu, Steven J Traylor, Zheng Jian Li, Wilfred Chen
Affinity precipitation using Z-ELP-E2 nanocages has been shown to be a promising alternative to Protein A chromatography for monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification. We have previously described a high-yielding, affinity precipitation process capable of rapidly capturing mAbs from cell culture through spontaneous, multi-valent crosslinking into large aggregates. To challenge the capabilities of this technology, nanocage affinity precipitation was investigated using four industrial mAbs (mAbs A-D) and one Fc fusion protein (Fc A) with diverse molecular properties...
April 21, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677527/photolysis-of-glutaraldehyde-in-brine-a-showcase-study-for-removal-of-a-common-biocide-in-oil-and-gas-produced-water
#6
Soklida Hong, Thunyalux Ratpukdi, Jayaraman Sivaguru, Eakalak Khan
Glutaraldehyde (GA) has been used extensively as a biocide in hydraulic fracturing fluid leading to its presence in oil and gas produced water. In this study, photolysis was used to degrade GA from brine solutions simulating produced water. Photolysis of GA was performed under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. GA can be photolyzed by UV at all studied conditions with the efficiency ranging from 52 to 85% within one hour irradiation. Photolysis of GA followed pseudo-first order kinetics. A photolysis rate constant of GA at 0...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676747/membrane-integrated-process-for-advanced-treatment-of-high-strength-opium-alkaloid-wastewaters
#7
Güçlü Insel, Ahmet Karagunduz, Murat Aksel, Emine Cokgor, Gokce Kor-Bicakci, Goksin Ozyildiz, Ismail Toroz, Bulent Keskinler
In this study, an integrated aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR)-nanofiltration (NF) system has been applied for advanced treatment of Opium processing wastewaters to comply with strict discharge limits. Aerobic MBR treatment was successfully applied to high strength industrial wastewater. In aerobic MBR treatment, a non-fouling unique slot aeration system was designed using computational fluid dynamics techniques. The MBR was used to separate treated effluent from dispersed and non-settleable biomass. Respirometric modeling using MBR sludge indicated that the biomass exhibited similar kinetic parameters to that of municipal activated sludge systems...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676567/biomolecular-corona-dictates-a%C3%AE-fibrillation-process
#8
Alireza Lotfabadi, Mohammad Javad Hajipour, Hossein Derakhshankhah, Afshin Peirovi, Samaneh Saffar, Elnaz Shams, Elnaz Fatemi, Ebrahim Barzegari, Sajad Sarvari, Faezeh Moakedi, Maryam Ferdousi, Fatemeh Atyabi, Ali Akbar Saboury, Rassoul Dinarvand
Amyloid beta (Aβ), which forms toxic oligomers and fibrils in brain tissues of patients with Alzheimer's disease, is broadly used as a model protein to probe the effect of nanoparticles (NPs) on oligomerization and fibrillation process. However, majority of the reports in the field, ignored the effect of biomolecular corona on the fibrillogenesis of the Aβ proteins. Biomolecular corona, which is a layer composed of various types of biomolecules that covers surface of NPs upon their interaction with biological fluids, determines the biological fates of NPs...
April 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674042/qbd-approach-by-computer-aided-design-and-response-surface-methodology-for-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-based-on-magnetic-halloysite-nanotubes-for-extraction-of-norfloxacin-from-real-samples
#9
Meriem Fizir, Liu Wei, Niu Muchuan, Asma Itatahine, Yamina Ait Mehdi, Hua He, Pierre Dramou
This article describes the development, optimization, and evaluation of a novel composite imprinted polymer, on the basis of magnetic halloysite nanotubes (MHNTs-MIPs) using "Quality by Design (QbD)" approach combining computer simulation and response surface methodology. Norfloxacin, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as template, functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. As a comparison, two MHNTs-MIPs have been prepared with the most suitable functional monomer methacrylic acid (MAA) along with acrylamide (AM)...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673129/the-electrochemical-performance-of-silicon-nanoparticles-in-concentrated-electrolyte
#10
Zenghua Chang, Jiantao Wang, Zhaohui Wu, Min Gao, Shuaijin Wu, Shigang Lu
Silicon is a promising material for anodes in energy storage devices. However, excessive growth of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) caused by the severe volume change during the (de)lithiation processes lead to a dramatic capacity fading. Here we report a super-concentrated electrolyte composed of Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) and propylene carbonate (PC) with a molar ratio of 1 to 2 to improve the cycling performance of silicon nano particles (SiNPs). The SiNP electrode shows a remarkably improved cycling performance with an initial delithiation capacity of ca...
April 19, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668268/microfluidic-examination-of-the-hard-biomolecular-corona-formed-on-engineered-particles-in-different-biological-milieu
#11
Alessia C G Weiss, Kristian Kempe, Stephan Förster, Frank Caruso
The formation of a biomolecular corona around engineered particles determines, in large part, their biological behavior in vitro and in vivo. To gain a fundamental understanding of how particle design and the biological milieu influence the formation of the "hard" biomolecular corona, we conduct a series of in vitro studies using microfluidics. This setup allows the generation of a dynamic incubation environment with precise control over the applied flow rate, stream orientation, and channel dimensions, thus allowing accurate control of the fluid flow and the shear applied to the proteins and particles...
April 18, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665816/selective-localization-of-igg-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-to-brain-parenchyma
#12
Marlene Thorsen Mørch, Sofie Forsberg Sørensen, Reza Khorooshi, Nasrin Asgari, Trevor Owens
BACKGROUND: Encounter of autoantibodies with specific antigens can lead to hypersensitivity reactions and pathology. In multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD), immunoglobulin-G (IgG) deposition has been observed in pathological lesions in the central nervous system. The paradigmatic autoantibodies in NMOSD are specific for the water channel aquaporin-4, localized to astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier and ependymal cells at the cerebrospinal fluid-brain barrier...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665285/hemostatic-and-absorbent-polyhipe-kaolin-composites-for-3d-printable-wound-dressing-materials
#13
Benjamin C Streifel, Jeffrey G Lundin, Allix M Sanders, Karli A Gold, Thomas S Wilems, Sierra J Williams, Elizabeth Cosgriff-Hernandez, James H Wynne
A novel hemostatic and absorbent wound dressing material compatible with 3D printing is developed to address deficiencies in current wound dressing protocol. The design involves an open celled, microporous hydrogel foam via a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) template with biocompatible components and tunable hemostatic character by kaolin loading, the viscosity and cure kinetics of which are tailored for 3D printing applications. The use of nontoxic mineral oil organic phase results in cytocompatability with human dermal fibroblasts...
April 17, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665284/dual-functionalization-device-for-therapy-through-dopamine-release-and-monitoring
#14
Georgina Fabregat, Alessia Giménez, Angélica Díaz, Jordi Puiggalí, Carlos Alemán
A dual-functional device is fabricated to release progressively dopamine (DA) from a biohydrogel under real-time monitoring via electrochemical detection. For this purpose, a poly-γ-glutamic acid biohydrogel is assembled with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) layer, previously deposited onto a screen printed electrode. The biohydrogel is formulated to achieve dimensional stability and maximum DA-loading capacity. Conditions for DA-loading are influenced by the oxidation of the neurotransmitter in acid environments and the poor resistance of PEDOT to the lyophilization...
April 17, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655348/mesoscopic-electrohydrodynamic-simulations-of-binary-colloidal-suspensions
#15
Nicolas Rivas, Stefan Frijters, Ignacio Pagonabarraga, Jens Harting
A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are implemented using a pseudopotential model. The Nernst-Planck equation, describing the kinetics of dissolved ion species, is solved using a finite difference discretization based on the link-flux method...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652699/impact-of-the-glymphatic-system-on-the-kinetic-and-distribution-of-gadodiamide-in-the-rat-brain-observations-by-dynamic-mri-and-effect-of-circadian-rhythm-on-tissue-gadolinium-concentrations
#16
Toshiaki Taoka, Gregor Jost, Thomas Frenzel, Shinji Naganawa, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVES: The glymphatic system is a recently hypothesized waste clearance system of the brain in which perivascular space constitutes a pathway similar to the lymphatic system in other body regions. Sleep and anesthesia are reported to influence the activity of the glymphatic system. Because rats are nocturnal animals, the glymphatic system is expected to be more active during the day. We attempted to elucidate the influence of the glymphatic system for intravenously injected gadodiamide in the rat brain by 2 experiments...
April 12, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625107/cephalosporin-antibiotics-are-weak-blockers-of-gabaa-receptor-mediated-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-brain-slices
#17
Dmitry V Amakhin, Elena B Soboleva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antibiotics that are extensively used in medical practice and are reported to cause epileptic seizures in some patients. The primary cause of cephalosporin-induced convulsions is believed to be their ability to block GABAa receptors. However, direct evidence for the involvement of this mechanism has not yet been provided. The present study aims to investigate the ability of two cephalosporins - cefepime and ceftriaxone - to block inhibitory synaptic transmission in entorhinal cortex slices of rats...
April 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623063/amyloid-%C3%AE-plaques-in-clinical-alzheimer-s-disease-brain-incorporate-stable-isotope-tracer-in-vivo-and-exhibit-nanoscale-heterogeneity
#18
Norelle C Wildburger, Frank Gyngard, Christelle Guillermier, Bruce W Patterson, Donald Elbert, Kwasi G Mawuenyega, Theresa Schneider, Karen Green, Robyn Roth, Robert E Schmidt, Nigel J Cairns, Tammie L S Benzinger, Matthew L Steinhauser, Randall J Bateman
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with clinical manifestations of progressive memory decline and loss of executive function and language. AD affects an estimated 5.3 million Americans alone and is the most common form of age-related dementia with a rapidly growing prevalence among the aging population-those 65 years of age or older. AD is characterized by accumulation of aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the brain, which leads to one of the pathological hallmarks of AD-Aβ plaques. As a result, Aβ plaques have been extensively studied after being first described over a century ago...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608988/interaction-between-blood-brain-barrier-and-glymphatic-system-in-solute-clearance
#19
REVIEW
I C M Verheggen, M P J Van Boxtel, F R J Verhey, J F A Jansen, W H Backes
Neurovascular pathology concurs with protein accumulation, as the brain vasculature is important for waste clearance. Interstitial solutes, such as amyloid-β, were previously thought to be primarily cleared from the brain by blood-brain barrier transport. Recently, the glymphatic system was discovered, in which cerebrospinal fluid is exchanged with interstitial fluid, facilitated by the aquaporin-4 water channels on the astroglial endfeet. Glymphatic flow can clear solutes from the interstitial space. Blood-brain barrier transport and glymphatic clearance likely serve complementary roles with partially overlapping mechanisms providing a well-conditioned neuronal environment...
March 30, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604731/measurement-of-nanoscale-molten-polymer-droplet-spreading-using-atomic-force-microscopy
#20
Mohammadreza Soleymaniha, Jonathan R Felts
We present a technique for measuring molten polymer spreading dynamics with nanometer scale spatial resolution at elevated temperatures using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental setup is used to measure the spreading dynamics of polystyrene droplets with 2 μm diameters at 115-175 °C on sapphire, silicon oxide, and mica. Custom image processing algorithms determine the droplet height, radius, volume, and contact angle of each AFM image over time to calculate the droplet spreading dynamics. The contact angle evolution follows a power law with time with experimentally determined values of -0...
March 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
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