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Fluid kinetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632435/relative-effects-of-plasma-fibrinogen-concentrate-and-factor-xiii-on-rotem-coagulation-profiles-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-massive-transfusion-in-trauma
#1
David E Schmidt, Märit Halmin, Agneta Wikman, Anders Östlund, Anna Ågren
Massive traumatic haemorrhage is aggravated through the development of trauma-induced coagulopathy, which is managed by plasma transfusion and/or fibrinogen concentrate administration. It is yet unclear whether these treatments are equally potent in ensuring adequate haemostasis, and whether additional factor XIII (FXIII) administration provides further benefits. In this study, we compared ROTEM whole blood coagulation profiles after experimental massive transfusion with different transfusion regimens in an in vitro model of dilution- and transfusion-related coagulopathy...
June 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629540/kinetics-and-dose-dependency-of-intranasal-oxytocin-effects-on-amygdala-reactivity
#2
Franny B Spengler, Johannes Schultz, Dirk Scheele, Maximiliane Essel, Wolfgang Maier, Markus Heinrichs, René Hurlemann
BACKGROUND: Current neuroimaging perspectives on a variety of mental disorders emphasize dysfunction of the amygdala. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT), a key mediator in the regulation of social cognition and behavior, accumulates in cerebrospinal fluid after intranasal administration in macaques and humans and modulates amygdala reactivity in both species. However, the translation of neuromodulatory OXT effects to novel treatment approaches is hampered by the absence of studies defining the most effective dose and dose-response latency for targeting the amygdala...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628981/biodiesel-synthesis-from-calophyllum-inophyllum-oil-with-different-supercritical-fluids
#3
Neha Lamba, Kaveri Gupta, Jayant M Modak, Giridhar Madras
Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) is primarily synthesized using edible vegetable oils and methanol with a catalyst. However, in the present study, FAMEs were synthesized from a non-edible oil (Calophyllum inophyllum also called as sura honne, Punnagam, Alexandrian Laurel) in different supercritical fluids: methanol (MeOH), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), methyl acetate (MeOAc) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) non-catalytically. Reactions were performed from 523K to 673K at 30MPa with a molar ratio of 40:1 with times varying from 3min to 3h...
June 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623038/perfusion-kinetics-in-human-brain-tumor-with-dce-mri-derived-model-and-cfd-analysis
#4
A Bhandari, A Bansal, A Singh, N Sinha
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Among the strategies that are used for cancer treatment, the effectiveness of chemotherapy is often hindered by factors such as irregular and non-uniform uptake of drugs inside tumor. Thus, accurate prediction of drug transport and deposition inside tumor is crucial for increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic treatment. In this study, a computational model of human brain tumor is developed that incorporates dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data into a voxelized porous media model...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618641/kinetic-simulations-of-ladder-climbing-by-electron-plasma-waves
#5
Kentaro Hara, Ido Barth, Erez Kaminski, I Y Dodin, N J Fisch
The energy of plasma waves can be moved up and down the spectrum using chirped modulations of plasma parameters, which can be driven by external fields. Depending on whether the wave spectrum is discrete (bounded plasma) or continuous (boundless plasma), this phenomenon is called ladder climbing (LC) or autoresonant acceleration of plasmons. It was first proposed by Barth et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 075001 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.115.075001] based on a linear fluid model. In this paper, LC of electron plasma waves is investigated using fully nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations of collisionless bounded plasma...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618629/global-stability-and-h-theorem-in-lattice-models-with-nonconservative-interactions
#6
C A Plata, A Prados
In kinetic theory, a system is usually described by its one-particle distribution function f(r,v,t), such that f(r,v,t)drdv is the fraction of particles with positions and velocities in the intervals (r,r+dr) and (v,v+dv), respectively. Therein, global stability and the possible existence of an associated Lyapunov function or H theorem are open problems when nonconservative interactions are present, as in granular fluids. Here, we address this issue in the framework of a lattice model for granularlike velocity fields...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618628/two-dimensional-implosion-simulations-with-a-kinetic-particle-code
#7
I Sagert, W P Even, T T Strother
We perform two-dimensional implosion simulations using a Monte Carlo kinetic particle code. The application of a kinetic transport code is motivated, in part, by the occurrence of nonequilibrium effects in inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions, which cannot be fully captured by hydrodynamic simulations. Kinetic methods, on the other hand, are able to describe both continuum and rarefied flows. We perform simple two-dimensional disk implosion simulations using one-particle species and compare the results to simulations with the hydrodynamics code rage...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618607/fully-kinetic-simulation-study-of-ion-acoustic-solitons-in-the-presence-of-trapped-electrons
#8
S M Hosseini Jenab, F Spanier
The nonlinear fluid theory developed by Schamel suggests a modified KdV equation to describe the temporal evolution of ion acoustic (IA) solitons in the presence of trapped electrons. The validity of this theory is studied here by verifying solitons' main characteristic, i.e., stability against successive mutual collisions. We have employed a kinetic model as a more comprehensive theory than the fluid one, and utilized a fully kinetic simulation approach (both ions and electrons are treated based on the Vlasov equation)...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618566/towards-a-unified-lattice-kinetic-scheme-for-relativistic-hydrodynamics
#9
A Gabbana, M Mendoza, S Succi, R Tripiccione
We present a systematic derivation of relativistic lattice kinetic equations for finite-mass particles, reaching close to the zero-mass ultrarelativistic regime treated in the previous literature. Starting from an expansion of the Maxwell-Jüttner distribution on orthogonal polynomials, we perform a Gauss-type quadrature procedure and discretize the relativistic Boltzmann equation on space-filling Cartesian lattices. The model is validated through numerical comparison with standard tests and solvers in relativistic fluid dynamics such as Boltzmann approach multiparton scattering and previous relativistic lattice Boltzmann models...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618527/implementation-of-dual-time-stepping-strategy-of-the-gas-kinetic-scheme-for-unsteady-flow-simulations
#10
Ji Li, Chengwen Zhong, Yong Wang, Congshan Zhuo
In our study, the dual time-stepping strategy of the gas-kinetic scheme is constructed and used for the simulation of unsteady flows. In comparison to the previous implicit gas-kinetic scheme, both the inviscid and viscous flux Jacobian are considered in our work, and the linear system of the pseudo-steady-state is solved by applying generalized minimal residual algorithm. The accuracy is validated by several numerical cases, the incompressible flow around blunt bodies (stationary circular cylinder and square cylinder), and the transonic buffet on the NACA0012 airfoil under hybrid mesh...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618229/staggered-linear-assembly-of-spherical-cap-colloids
#11
Yogesh Shelke, Manigandan Sabapathy, Ethayaraja Mani
Linear assembly of colloidal particles is of fundamental interest in visualizing polymer dynamics and living organisms. We have developed a fluid-fluid interface based method to synthesize spherical-cap polymeric latex particles. These particles are shown to spontaneously self-assemble in zig-zag arrangement. The linear assembly is induced due to the shape anisotropy (one side is curved and the other side is nearly-flat) and heterogeneous charge distribution on the particle surfaces. The necessities of these conditions are justified within the framework of DLVO theory...
June 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616685/endocytic-uptake-transport-and-macromolecular-interactions-of-anionic-pamam-dendrimers-within-lung-tissue
#12
Christopher J Morris, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Omar Mansour, Peter Griffiths, Mark Gumbleton
PURPOSE: Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are a promising class of nanocarrier with applications in both small and large molecule drug delivery. Here we report a comprehensive evaluation of the uptake and transport pathways that contribute to the lung disposition of dendrimers. METHODS: Anionic PAMAM dendrimers and control dextran probes were applied to an isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL) model and lung epithelial monolayers. Endocytosis pathways were examined in primary alveolar epithelial cultures by confocal microscopy...
June 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609620/imparting-icephobicity-with-substrate-flexibility
#13
Thomas Vasileiou, Thomas M Schutzius, Dimos Poulikakos
Ice accumulation hinders the performance of, and poses safety threats for infrastructure both on the ground and in the air. Previously, rationally designed superhydrophobic surfaces have demonstrated some potential as a passive means to mitigate ice accretion; however, further studies on material solutions that reduce impalement and contact time for impacting supercooled droplets (high viscosity) and can also repel droplets that freeze during surface contact are urgently needed. Here we demonstrate the collaborative effect of substrate flexibility and surface micro/nanotexture on enhancing both icephobicity and the repellency of viscous droplets (typical of supercooled water)...
June 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605996/in-vitro-exposure-of-bull-sperm-cells-to-dmsa-coated-maghemite-nanoparticles-does-not-affect-cell-functionality-or-structure
#14
Denise Ferreira Caldeira, Fernanda Paulini, Renata Carvalho Silva, Ricardo Bentes de Azevedo, Carolina Madeira Lucci
Magnetic nanoparticles can be used in different areas of biology. It is therefore important to know the effects of such nanomaterials on germline cells as they may traverse the blood-testis barrier. This work aimed to evaluate the response of bull sperm after exposure to a magnetic fluid containing DMSA-coated maghemite nanoparticles (MNP-DMSA) in order to determine nanotoxicity. Bull sperm was incubated with MNP-DMSA at final concentrations of 0.06, 0.03 or 0.015 mg Fe/mL. Sperm kinetics, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome reaction were evaluated over a four-hour incubation period...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602093/particle-deposition-kinetics-of-colloidal-suspensions-in-microchannels-at-high-ionic-strength
#15
Cesare M Cejas, Fabrice Monti, Marine Truchet, Jean-Pierre Burnouf, Patrick Tabeling
Despite its considerable practical importance, the deposition of real Brownian particles transported in a channel by a liquid, at small Reynolds numbers, has never been described at a comprehensive level. Here, by coupling microfluidic experiments, theory, and numerics, we succeed in unravelling the problem for the case of straight channels at high salinity. We discover a broad regime of deposition (the van der Waals regime) in which particle-wall van der Waals interactions govern the deposition mechanism. We determine the range of existence of the regime, for which we calculate the concentration profiles, retention profiles, and deposition kinetics analytically...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595469/application-of-the-icrp-respiratory-tract-model-to-estimate-pulmonary-retention-of-industrially-sampled-indium-containing-dusts
#16
Aleksandr B Stefaniak, M Abbas Virji, Melissa A Badding, Kristin J Cummings
Inhalation of indium-containing dusts is associated with the development of indium lung disease. Workers may be exposed to several different chemical forms of indium; however, their lung dosimetry is not fully understood. We characterized the physicochemical properties and measured the lung dissolution kinetics of eight indium-containing dusts. Indium dissolution rates in artificial lung fluids spanned two orders of magnitude. We used the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) human respiratory model (HRTM) to estimate pulmonary indium deposition, retention and biokinetic clearance to blood...
June 8, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591600/elastic-fluid-model-for-dna-damage-and-mutation-from-nuclear-fluid-segregation-due-to-cell-migration
#17
Rachel R Bennett, Charlotte R Pfeifer, Jerome Irianto, Yuntao Xia, Dennis E Discher, Andrea J Liu
When cells migrate through constricting pores, they incur DNA damage and develop genomic variation. Experiments show that this damage is not due to DNA breakage from mechanical stress on chromatin in the deformed nucleus. Here we propose a model for a mechanism by which nuclear deformation can lead to DNA damage. We treat the nucleus as an elastic-fluid system with an elastic component (chromatin) and fluid component that can be squeezed out when the nucleus is deformed. We couple the elastic-fluid model to the kinetics of DNA breakage and repair by assuming that the local volume fraction of the elastic component controls the rate of damage per unit volume due to naturally occurring DNA breaks, whereas the volume fraction of the fluid component controls the rate of repair of DNA breaks per unit volume by repair factors, which are soluble in the fluid...
June 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590427/integral-design-methodology-of-photocatalytic-reactors-for-air-pollution-remediation
#18
REVIEW
Claudio Passalía, Orlando M Alfano, Rodolfo J Brandi
An integral reactor design methodology was developed to address the optimal design of photocatalytic wall reactors to be used in air pollution control. For a target pollutant to be eliminated from an air stream, the proposed methodology is initiated with a mechanistic derived reaction rate. The determination of intrinsic kinetic parameters is associated with the use of a simple geometry laboratory scale reactor, operation under kinetic control and a uniform incident radiation flux, which allows computing the local superficial rate of photon absorption...
June 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590045/computer-aided-design-and-synthesis-of-a-highly-selective-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-the-extraction-and-determination-of-buprenorphine-in-biological-fluids
#19
Farideh Ganjavi, Mehdi Ansari, Maryam Kazemipour, Leila Zeidabadinejad
Buprenorphine is widely used to aid the cessation of opioids in addicted patients. To the best of our knowledge, there is no selective extraction method for buprenorphine from biological fluids. Here we describe the synthesis of a molecularly imprinted polymer with the aid of computational design and its application for selective extraction of buprenorphine from plasma and urine. Computational design was used to study inter-molecular interactions in the pre-polymerization mixture by the comparison of the binding energy between buprenorphine (template) and functional monomers...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581804/electron-and-ion-dynamics-of-the-solar-wind-interaction-with-a-weakly-outgassing-comet
#20
Jan Deca, Andrey Divin, Pierre Henri, Anders Eriksson, Stefano Markidis, Vyacheslav Olshevsky, Mihály Horányi
Using a 3D fully kinetic approach, we disentangle and explain the ion and electron dynamics of the solar wind interaction with a weakly outgassing comet. We show that, to first order, the dynamical interaction is representative of a four-fluid coupled system. We self-consistently simulate and identify the origin of the warm and suprathermal electron distributions observed by ESA's Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and conclude that a detailed kinetic treatment of the electron dynamics is critical to fully capture the complex physics of mass-loading plasmas...
May 19, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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