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Fluid kinetics

Robert G Hahn
BACKGROUND: A recent review article suggests that elimination of infused crystalloid fluid might occur faster in females than in males. To study this question, a population kinetic analysis was performed to compare the turnover of buffered Ringer's solution when infused at different rates in males and females. METHODS: Data were retrieved from seven series of experiments where 44 intravenous infusions of Ringer's acetate had been given to female volunteers and 67 to male volunteers...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Lucille Arragain, Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Olivia O'Connor, Nathalie Sigur, Jean-Paul Grangeon, Emilie Huguon, Clothilde Dechanet, Cécile Cazorla, Ann-Claire Gourinat, Elodie Descloux
: We investigated 10 mother-newborn pairs and found a 90% rate of dengue virus (DENV) transmission during the perinatal period. Here, we describe DENV kinetics in the sera of newborns before the onset of disease. Of the breast-milk samples analyzed, 75% tested positive for DENV. BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in humans. With this study, we aimed to investigate the risk of vertical (DENV) transmission during the peripartum period and to describe its viral kinetics in serum and breast milk...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Hiroaki Kitamura, Daisuke Nakano, Zhang Yifan, Akira Nishiyama
OBJECTIVE: Carperitide, alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide, is used in expectation of protecting the kidney during sepsis in internal care unit; however, the detailed mechanism of action has not been clarified yet. As septic acute kidney injury (AKI) does not induce characteristic histological damage, we aimed assess the effects of carperitide treatment on the decline of renal function during lipopolysaccharide-induced AKI by using real-time intravital imaging technique. DESIGN AND METHOD: The renal function was analyzed by the bolus-shot FITC-inulin kinetics method that visualizes the tubular flow after free filtration from glomeruli...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
João Casaca-Carreira, Yasin Temel, Iñaki Larrakoetxea, Ali Jahanshahi
Antisense oligonucleotide (AON) therapy is emerging as a potential treatment strategy for neurodegenerative diseases, such as spinal muscular atrophy, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. AONs function at the cellular level by, for example, direct interference with the expression of gene products or the molecular activation of neuroprotective pathways. However, AON therapy faces a major obstacle limiting its clinical application for central nervous system (CNS) disorders: the blood-brain barrier...
October 18, 2016: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Stephan Holzschuh, Kathrin Kaeß, Guilherme Volpe Bossa, Christiane Decker, Alfred Fahr, Sylvio May
Liposomal delivery constitutes a promising approach for i.v. administration of mTHPC because lipid membranes can host these drug molecules. This study investigates the transfer and release of temoporfin (mTHPC) to plasma proteins and stability of various liposomal formulations. To this end, we employed traces of radioactive markers and studied the effects of fatty acid chain length and the degree of saturation in the lipophilic tail, addition of cholesterol, and PEGylation of the membrane surface and different drug-to-lipid ratios...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Liposome Research
Jenny M Pedersen, Yoo-Sik Shim, Vaibhav Hans, Martin B Phillips, Jeffrey M Macdonald, Glenn Walker, Melvin E Andersen, Harvey J Clewell, Miyoung Yoon
Accurate prediction of metabolism is a significant outstanding challenge in toxicology. The best predictions are based on experimental data from in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes. The predictivity of the primary hepatocyte-based culture systems, however, is still limited due to well-known phenotypic instability and rapid decline of metabolic competence within a few hours. Dynamic flow bioreactors for three-dimensional cell cultures are thought to be better at recapitulating tissue microenvironments and show potential to improve in vivo extrapolations of chemical or drug toxicity based on in vitro test results...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Kms Kanhai, S C Goulooze, J Stevens, J L Hay, G Dent, A Verma, T Hankemeier, T de Boer, H Meijering, J C Chavez, A F Cohen, G J Groeneveld
Therapeutics promoting myelin synthesis may enhance recovery in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. However, no suitable method exists to quantify myelination. The turnover of galactosylceramide (myelin component) is indicative of myelination in mice, but its turnover has not been determined in humans. Here, six healthy subjects consumed 120 mL 70% D2 O daily for 70 days to label galactosylceramide. We then used mass spectrometry and compartmental modeling to quantify the turnover rate of galactosylceramide in cerebrospinal fluid...
October 15, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
Nicholas M Rathmann, Peter D Ditlevsen
Fully developed homogeneous isotropic turbulence in two dimensions is fundamentally different from that in three dimensions. In two dimensions, the simultaneous inviscid conservation of both kinetic energy and enstrophy within the inertial range of scales leads to a forward cascade of enstrophy and a reverse cascade of energy. In three dimensions, helicity, the integral of the scalar product of velocity and vorticity, is also an inviscid flow invariant along with the energy. Unlike the enstrophy, however, the helicity does not block the forward cascade of energy to small scales...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Farron L McIntee, Patrizia Giannoni, Steven Blais, George Sommer, Thomas A Neubert, Agueda Rostagno, Jorge Ghiso
Amyloid β (Aβ) is the major constituent of the brain deposits found in parenchymal plaques and cerebral blood vessels of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several lines of investigation support the notion that synaptic pathology, one of the strongest correlates to cognitive impairment, is related to the progressive accumulation of neurotoxic Aβ oligomers. Since the process of oligomerization/fibrillization is concentration-dependent, it is highly reliant on the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate the steady state levels of Aβ influencing the delicate balance between rate of synthesis, dynamics of aggregation, and clearance kinetics...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
P Blanpain-Avet, C André, M Khaldi, L Bouvier, J Petit, T Six, R Jeantet, T Croguennec, G Delaplace
Fouling of plate heat exchangers (PHE) is a severe problem in the dairy industry, notably because the relationship between the build-up of protein fouling deposits and the chemical reactions taking place in the fouling solution has not yet been fully elucidated. Experiments were conducted at pilot scale in a corrugated PHE, and fouling deposits were generated using a model β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) fouling solution for which the β-LG thermal denaturation reaction constants had been previously determined experimentally...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Mahesh Kandula, K B Sunil Kumar, Sivanesan Palanichamy, Ashok Rampal
Mesalamine (5-ASA) is one of the drugs indicated as first line therapy in ulcerative colitis for induction and maintenance of remission. Sulfasalazine and formulations of 5-ASA (pH-dependent and controlled release formulations) were developed to minimize the systemic absorption and maximize the delivery of the mesalamine to colon. Although, its efficacy and safety is well documented there are approximately 30% nonresponders to 5-ASA therapy. This necessitates the need for novel therapeutic options to improve the efficacy and safety of the currently available 5-ASA therapy...
October 4, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Sharmin Jahan, Qiang Zhang, Amit Pratush, Haiyang Xie, Hua Xiao, Liu-Yin Fan, Cheng-Xi Cao
Presented herein was a novel headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) based on temperature gradient (TG) for on-site preconcentration technique of volatile and semi-volatile samples. Firstly, an inner vial cap was designed as a cooling device for acceptor droplet in HS-SDME unit to achieve fast and efficient microextraction. Secondly, for the first time an in-vial TG was generated between the donor phase in sample vial at 80oC and the acceptor droplet under the inner vial cap containing cooling liquid at -20°C for a TG-HS-SDME...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Gianpiero Bonetti, Paola Tedeschi, Giuseppe Meca, Davide Bertelli, Jordi Mañes, Vincenzo Brandolini, Annalisa Maietti
Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant with a wide historical background use of stems, roots and leaves. Nettle leaves are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, principally 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) and rutin. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV) and the antioxidant activity of nettle phenolic compounds present in foods and supplements. The BAC of nettle phenolics was evaluated with an in vitro dynamic digestion of real food matrices: the type of food matrix and chemical characteristic affected the kinetics of release and solubilization, with the highest BAC after duodenal digestion...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Amalia Katafigioti, Ioannis Katafigiotis, Stavros Sfoungaristos, Christos Alamanis, Konstantinos Stravodimos, Ioannis Anastasiou, Eleni Roumelioti, Mordechai Duvdevani, Constantinos Constantinides
OBJECTIVE: To search which category of proteins can be detected in urine in order to examine subsequently its ability to improve our accuracy for the diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PCa) as biomarkers in clinical useful fluids like urine and serum. Material and method(s): Urine samples of 127 patients were obtained after a vigorous transrectal prostatic massage to both lobes. The patients were considered to have a high risk for PCa according to their PSA (> 4 ng/ml), their digital rectal examination (DRE) (positive for suspicious prostatic lesions) or to their abnormal PSA kinetics (PSA velocity (PSAV > 0...
October 5, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Daniel A Wolf, Jacob Y Hesterman, Jenna M Sullivan, Kelly D Orcutt, Matthew D Silva, Merryl Lobo, Tyler Wellman, Jack Hoppin, Ajay Verma
The intrathecal (IT) dosing route offers a seemingly obvious solution for delivering drugs directly to the central nervous system. However, gaps in understanding drug molecule behavior within the anatomically and kinetically unique environment of the mammalian IT space have impeded the establishment of pharmacokinetic principles for optimizing regional drug exposure along the neuraxis. Here, we have utilized high-resolution single-photon emission tomography with X-ray computed tomography to study the behavior of multiple molecular imaging tracers following an IT bolus injection, with supporting histology, autoradiography, block-face tomography, and MRI...
February 25, 2016: JCI Insight
Giridhar Murlidharan, Andrew Crowther, Rebecca A Reardon, Juan Song, Aravind Asokan
Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for gene therapy of CNS disorders. However, host factors that influence the spread, clearance, and transduction efficiency of AAV vectors in the brain are not well understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that fluid flow mediated by aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels located on astroglial end feet is essential for exchange of solutes between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. This phenomenon, which is essential for interstitial clearance of solutes from the CNS, has been termed glial-associated lymphatic transport or glymphatic transport...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
Markus Pirklbauer, Ramona Schupart, Gert Mayer
INTRODUCTION: To avoid excessive calcium loading in hemodialysis (HD) patients, current guidelines suggest a dialysate calcium concentration (dCa) of 2.5 mEq/l based on relatively stable intradialytic serum calcium levels. However, the latter do not account for possible calcium storage in acutely accessible pools. A rapidly exchangeable calcium pool located at the bone level has been previously proposed to be involved in acute (minute-to-minute) extracellular calcium regulation. DESIGN: To evaluate the contribution of this pool in the maintenance of serum calcium levels, acute calcium buffer capacity was assessed by measuring intradialytic dialysate-sided ionized calcium mass balance (iCaMB ) and change in extracellular fluid calcium mass in chronic HD patients using a dCa of 3...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Camille Pasquet, Peggy Gunkel-Grillon, Christine Laporte-Magoni, Arnaud Serres, Thomas Quiniou, François Rocca, Fabrice Monna, Remi Losno, Folkert van Oort, Carmela Chateau
A simple new device for dry separation of fine particulate matter from bulk soil samples is presented here. It consists of a stainless steel tube along which a nitrogen flow is imposed, resulting in the displacement of particles. Taking into account particle transport, fluid mechanics, and soil sample composition, a tube 6-m long, with a 0.04-m diameter, was found best adapted for PM10 separation. The device rapidly produced several milligrams of particulate matter, on which chemical extractions with EDTA were subsequently performed to study the kinetic parameters of extractable metals...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jessy Lauer, Stéphane Vigier, Frédéric Delage, Alain Meudec, Jean-Michel Pollet, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Annie Rouard
OBJECTIVE: Aquatic shoulder exercises are widely implemented into rehabilitation programs to provide early muscle strengthening and improved joint mobility. However, since the drag - the force exerted by the water on the moving segments - is very hard to measure, an in-depth knowledge of internal joint load is lacking, which ultimately prevents healthcare professionals from understanding all clinical implications. For the first time, shoulder joint moment, work, and power were calculated through a novel, validated numerical approach coupling fluid flow simulations and inverse dynamics...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Chris Eckstein, Elisabet Xifré-Pérez, Maria Porta-I-Batalla, Josep Ferré-Borrull, Lluis F Marsal
Fluid imbibition-coupled laser interferometry (FICLI) is a technique in which the kinetics of a fluid infiltrating a nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) membrane is monitored by the interference of a laser beam at the membrane top and bottom surfaces. Further processing of the measured data results in an estimate of the pore radius. In this work, we study the accuracy of FICLI in the detection of small changes in pore radius, and we evaluate the possibility of using such detection as a sensing paradigm. The accuracy is estimated by measuring samples with increasing pore radius, obtained by successive wet etching steps, and repeatability is evaluated by using different liquids...
October 5, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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