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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431428/computational-and-in-vitro-experimental-investigation-of-intrathecal-drug-distribution-parametric-study-of-the-effect-of-injection-volume-cerebrospinal-fluid-pulsatility-and-drug-uptake
#1
Kevin M Tangen, Roxanne Leval, Ankit I Mehta, Andreas A Linninger
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal drug delivery is an attractive option to circumvent the blood-brain barrier for pain management through its increased efficacy of pain relief, reduction in adverse side effects, and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, there are limited guidelines for physicians to choose infusion or drug pump settings to administer therapeutic doses to specific regions of the spine or the brain. Although empiric trialing of intrathecal drugs is critical to determine the sustained side effects, currently there is no inexpensive in vitro method to guide the selection of spinal drug delivery parameters...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431127/cytomegalovirus-cmv-kinetics-following-primary-infection-in-healthy-women
#2
Michael S Forman, Dhananjay Vaidya D, Oluwaseyi Bolorunduro, Marie Diener-West, Robert F Pass, Ravit Arav-Boger
The kinetics of CMV DNA in infected asymptomatic hosts are largely unknown. We measured viral load (VL) in 124 fluid samples (oral, urine, vaginal, blood) collected from 21 women who acquired CMV. A quantitative real-time PCR of US17, which correlated with clinical assays, was used. VL decreased following primary infection in all fluids. The geometric mean VL of vaginal fluid was significantly higher than that of other sources: oral (3.89 95% CI [1.43 - 10.57]), urine (6.36 95% CI [2.48 - 16.32]) and whole blood (11...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425543/in-situ-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-microimaging-of-live-biofilms-in-a-microchannel
#3
R S Renslow, M J Marshall, A E Tucker, W B Chrisler, X-Y Yu
Biofilms are comprised of microbial cells and an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix that supports interactions between community members and with the local environment. The highly hydrated EPS matrix makes the application of many biofilm visualization techniques difficult. Hence, to better visualize how biofilms interact with their environment, there is a need for imaging techniques to monitor hydrated state biofilm dynamics. We employed an in situ dynamic approach to construct label-free images of biofilms...
April 20, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415189/slip-and-barodiffusion-phenomena-in-slow-flows-of-a-gas-mixture
#4
V M Zhdanov
The slip and barodiffusion problems for the slow flows of a gas mixture are investigated on the basis of the linearized moment equations following from the Boltzmann equation. We restrict ourselves to the set of the third-order moment equations and state two general relations (resembling conservation equations) for the moments of the distribution function similar to the conditions used by Loyalka [S. K. Loyalka, Phys. Fluids 14, 2291 (1971)10.1063/1.1693331] in his approximation method (the modified Maxwell method)...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414464/mechanisms-of-internalization-of-maltose-modified-poly-propylene-imine-glycodendrimers-into-leukemic-cell-lines
#5
Maciej Studzian, Aleksandra Szulc, Anna Janaszewska, Dietmar Appelhans, Łukasz Pułaski, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz
Poly(propylene imine) dendrimers of 4th generation partially modified with maltose (open shell structure, PPI-m OS) have been proposed as carriers for nucleotide anticancer drugs. The aim of this work was to provide basic insight into interactions between fluorescently labeled PPI-m dendrimer and two distinct leukemia cell models: CCRF-1301 lymphoid cell line and HL-60 myeloid cell line. We applied qualitative confocal imaging and quantitative flow cytometry, as well as trypan blue quenching and pharmacological inhibition, to investigate the course, kinetics and molecular mechanisms of internalization of nanoparticles...
April 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414145/real-time-analysis-of-tenofovir-release-kinetics-using-quantitative-phosphorus-31-p-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#6
Vivek Agrahari, Jianing Meng, Sudhaunshu S Purohit, Nathan A Oyler, Bi-Botti C Youan
The dialysis method is classically used for drug separation before analysis, but, does not provide direct and real-time drug quantification and has limitations affecting the dialysis rate. In this study, a phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P-qNMR) method is developed for the real-time quantification of therapeutic molecules in vitro. The release kinetics of model drug tenofovir (TFV: anti-HIV microbicide) was analyzed in vaginal fluid simulant (VFS), semen fluid simulant (SFS), and human plasma (HP) from chitosan nanofibers (size ∼100-200nm) using the NMR (direct) method and compared with dialysis/UV-Vis (indirect) method...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413347/a-biochemo-mechano-coupled-computational-model-combining-membrane-transport-and-pericellular-proteolysis-in-tissue-mechanics
#7
A-T Vuong, A D Rauch, W A Wall
We present a computational model for the interaction of surface- and volume-bound scalar transport and reaction processes with a deformable porous medium. The application in mind is pericellular proteolysis, i.e. the dissolution of the solid phase of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a response to the activation of certain chemical species at the cell membrane and in the vicinity of the cell. A poroelastic medium model represents the extra cellular scaffold and the interstitial fluid flow, while a surface-bound transport model accounts for the diffusion and reaction of membrane-bound chemical species...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412173/spontaneous-formation-of-single-component-liposomes-from-a-solution
#8
Sopan M Phapal, Chandra Has, P Sunthar
The diameter of lipid vesicles is generally known to be determined by parameters external to the system, such as fluid shear, electric fields, co-surfactants, etc. We present a mechanism by which a system consisting of a single component lipid can spontaneously assemble from a solution phase to form monodisperse unilamellar vesicles of well-defined diameters dictated only by thermodynamic parameters intrinsic to the system. Here, the lipids self-assemble as vesicles when an aqueous phase diffusively replaces the original solvent in a macroscopically stationary (or quiescent) manner...
April 12, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410199/chronic-intratracheal-application-of-the-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-stimulator-bay-41-8543-ameliorates-experimental-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
Matthieu Amirjanians, Bakytbek Egemnazarov, Akylbek Sydykov, Baktybek Kojonazarov, Ralf Brandes, Himal Luitel, Kabita Pradhan, Johannes-Peter Stasch, Gorden Redlich, Norbert Weissmann, Friedrich Grimminger, Werner Seeger, Hossein Ghofrani, Ralph Schermuly
Dysfunction of the NO/sGC/cGMP signaling pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Therefore, agents stimulating cGMP synthesis via sGC are important therapeutic options for treatment of PH patients. An unwanted effect of this novel class of drugs is their systemic hypotensive effect. We tested the hypothesis that aerosolized intra-tracheal delivery of the sGC stimulator BAY41-8543 could diminish its systemic vasodilating effect.Pharmacodynamics and -kinetics of BAY41-8543 after single intra-tracheal delivery was tested in healthy rats...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403200/identification-of-potential-biomarkers-in-donor-cows-for-in-vitro-embryo-production-by-granulosa-cell-transcriptomics
#10
Gianluca Mazzoni, Suraya M Salleh, Kristine Freude, Hanne S Pedersen, Lotte Stroebech, Henrik Callesen, Poul Hyttel, Haja N Kadarmideen
The Ovum Pick Up-In vitro Production (OPU-IVP) of embryos is an advanced reproductive technology used in cattle production but the complex biological mechanisms behind IVP outcomes are not fully understood. In this study we sequenced RNA of granulosa cells collected from Holstein cows at oocyte aspiration prior to IVP, to identify candidate genes and biological mechanisms for favourable IVP-related traits in donor cows where IVP was performed separately for each animal. We identified 56 genes significantly associated with IVP scores (BL rate, kinetic and morphology)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397335/proterozoic-microbial-mats-and-their-constraints-on-environments-of-silicification
#11
A R Manning-Berg, L C Kah
The occurrence of microfossiliferous, early diagenetic chert in Proterozoic successions is broadly restricted to peritidal marine environments. Such coastal environments are amongst the most environmentally variable of marine environments, experiencing both enhanced evaporation and potential influx of terrestrial freshwaters. To better understand potential conditions under which silicification occurs, we focus on microfossiliferous early diagenetic chert from the Mesoproterozoic Bylot Supergroup, northern Baffin Island...
April 11, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395819/evaluation-of-the-release-profile-stability-and-antioxidant-activity-of-a-proanthocyanidin-rich-cinnamon-cinnamomum-zeylanicum-extract-co-encapsulated-with-%C3%AE-tocopherol-by-spray-chilling
#12
Fabrício L Tulini, Volnei B Souza, Marcelo Thomazini, Marluci P Silva, Adna P Massarioli, Severino M Alencar, Eliria M J A Pallone, Maria I Genovese, Carmen S Favaro-Trindade
Cinnamon has many health improving compounds such as proanthocyanidins, which also have potential for the prevention of damages caused by diabetes. Similarly, α-tocopherol is a natural antioxidant with important role on protection of fatty acids in membranes and lipoproteins. However, the addition of antioxidants in food may result in interaction with food matrix, low stability and unpleasant taste. In the present study, a proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon extract (PRCE) (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) was co-encapsulated with α-tocopherol into solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) by spray chilling...
May 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395164/interaction-of-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoparticles-at-fluid-interfaces
#13
Gergő Gyulai, Éva Kiss
HYPOTHESIS: Adsorption and localization of nanoparticles at fluid interfaces are key factors in processes like transport through membranes or emulsion stabilization. Adsorption of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and Pluronic coated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were studied at three different fluid interfaces. The effect of particle surface modification and type of interface was investigated with the aim of fine tuning interfacial interaction of the nanoparticles. EXPERIMENTS: Surface tension measurements were carried out to determine the surface activity and adsorption kinetics of the particles...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388908/evaluation-of-antigen-induced-synovitis-in-a-porcine-model-immunological-arthroscopic-and-kinetic-studies
#14
Francisco-Javier Vela, Francisco-Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Rebeca Blázquez, Verónica Álvarez, Raquel Tarazona, M Teresa Mangas-Ballester, Alejandro Cristo, Javier G Casado
BACKGROUND: Synovitis is an inflammation-related disease linked to rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, infections and trauma. This inflammation is accompanied by immune cells infiltration which initiates an inflammatory response causing pain, discomfort and affecting the normal joint function. The treatment of synovitis is based on the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs or biological agents such as platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells. However, the evaluation and validation of more effective therapies of synovitis requires the establishment of clinically relevant animal models...
April 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378589/kinetic-insights-into-zn-2-induced-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-aggregation-revealed-by-stopped-flow-fluorescence-spectroscopy
#15
Jingjing Guo, Linling Yu, Yan Sun, Xiaoyan Dong
Zn(2+) has remarkable impacts on amyloid β-protein (Aβ) aggregation, which is crucial in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. However, the Zn(2+) concentration in human cerebrospinal fluid is commonly too low for interaction with Aβ, and only during neurotransmission is there a transient release of a high concentration of Zn(2+). It is difficult to explore the details of the interaction between Zn(2+) and Aβ within such a short time scale by using ordinary analytical methods. Herein, stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the fast aggregation kinetics of Aβ42 in the presence of Zn(2+) in the time scale from 1 ms to seconds...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372836/macroalga-padina-pavonica-water-extracts-obtained-by-pressurized-liquid-extraction-and-microwave-assisted-extraction-inhibit-hyaluronidase-activity-as-shown-by-capillary-electrophoresis
#16
Syntia Fayad, Reine Nehmé, Mona Tannoury, Eric Lesellier, Chantal Pichon, Philippe Morin
Hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid, the principal component of the extracellular matrix. Inhibition of this enzyme is thus expected to hinder skin aging. Brown alga Padina pavonica activity toward hyaluronidase was evaluated using capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based enzymatic assays. This green technique allows evaluation of the biological activity of the natural material in an economic manner. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction and electroporation extraction techniques were used...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367562/a-multi-fluid-model-for-microstructure-formation-in-polymer-membranes
#17
Douglas R Tree, Kris T Delaney, Hector D Ceniceros, Tatsuhiro Iwama, Glenn H Fredrickson
We develop a multi-fluid model for a ternary polymer solution using the Rayleighian formalism of Doi and Onuki, and give an efficient pseudo-spectral method for solving both the diffusion and momentum equations that result. Subsequently, we find that the numerical simulation is capable of describing systems at the micron length-scale and easily reaches millisecond time-scales. In addition, we characterize the model thermodynamics and kinetics including the (i) phase behavior, (ii) structure of the interfaces, (iii) mutual diffusion coefficients, (iv) bulk spinodal decomposition kinetics with and without hydrodynamics and (v) spinodal decomposition in the presence of an interface with a non-solvent bath...
April 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366804/effect-of-surfactant-chain-length-on-drug-release-kinetics-from-microemulsion-laden-contact-lenses
#18
Furqan A Maulvi, Ankita R Desai, Harsh H Choksi, Rahul J Patil, Ketan M Ranch, Bhavin A Vyas, Dinesh O Shah
The effect of surfactant chain lengths [sodium caprylate (C8), Tween 20 (C12), Tween 80 (C18)] and the molecular weight of block copolymers [Pluronic F68 and Pluronic F 127] were studied to determine the stability of the microemulsion and its effect on release kinetics from cyclosporine-loaded microemulsion-laden hydrogel contact lenses in this work. Globule size and dilution tests (transmittance) suggested that the stability of the microemulsion increases with increase in the carbon chain lengths of surfactants and the molecular weight of pluronics...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365551/microwave-drying-remediation-of-petroleum-contaminated-drill-cuttings
#19
Irineu Petri Júnior, André Leibsohn Martins, Carlos H Ataíde, Cláudio R Duarte
The oil reservoir drilling phase generates contaminated cuttings with oil formation itself. These cuttings must be subjected to a decontamination process before being disposed of in the environment. Several technologies are cited in literature for the remediation of soil contaminated with oil or diesel, but none have been reported to remedy drill cuttings contaminated with oil from reservoir. The reservoir drill cuttings are a problem because its discharge is not allowed. The drying technology using microwave has shown promise in the decontamination of cuttings with non-aqueous base drilling fluid, conciliating good robustness and high removal efficiency...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359896/yield-study-with-the-release-property-of-polysaccharide-based-physical-hydrogels
#20
Komla Ako
Water-release from kappa-Carrageenan (kC) hydrogels (syneresis) has been studied by two experimental methods (1) one in which the exudate is enabled to surround the gel and (2) one in which the exudate is continuously removed from the gel surfaces. The pressures Pg caused by the gel weight decrease from 1Pa for method (1) and 500Pa for method (2). The syneresis of the gels at 2g/L kC with 40mM KCl has been observed to decrease with Pg for the highest pressures. However, for the lowest pressures, the pressure-dependence of the syneresis has not been found, although this gel shrank remarkably...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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