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Marco bortolato

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907425/repurposing-steroidogenesis-inhibitors-for-the-therapy-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-promises-and-caveats
#1
REVIEW
Roberto Frau, Marco Bortolato
Steroids exert a profound influence on behavioral reactivity, by modulating the functions of most neurotransmitters and shaping the impact of stress and sex-related variables on neural processes. This background - as well as the observation that most neuroactive steroids (including sex hormones, glucocorticoids and neurosteroids) are synthetized and metabolized by overlapping enzymatic machineries - points to steroidogenic pathways as a powerful source of targets for neuropsychiatric disorders. Inhibitors of steroidogenic enzymes have been developed and approved for a broad range of genitourinary and endocrine dysfunctions, opening to new opportunities to repurpose these drugs for the treatment of mental problems...
May 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886003/mapping-risk-factors-for-depression-across-the-lifespan-an-umbrella-review-of-evidence-from-meta-analyses-and-mendelian-randomization-studies
#2
REVIEW
Cristiano A Köhler, Evangelos Evangelou, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Lazaros Belbasis, Beatrice Bortolato, Matias C A Melo, Camila A Coelho, Brisa S Fernandes, Mark Olfson, John P A Ioannidis, André F Carvalho
The development of depression may involve a complex interplay of environmental and genetic risk factors. PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched from inception through August 3, 2017, to identify meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization (MR) studies of environmental risk factors associated with depression. For each eligible meta-analysis, we estimated the summary effect size and its 95% confidence interval (CI) by random-effects modeling, the 95% prediction interval, heterogeneity with I2 , and evidence of small-study effects and excess significance bias...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748850/from-aggression-to-autism-new-perspectives-on-the-behavioral-sequelae-of-monoamine-oxidase-deficiency
#3
REVIEW
Marco Bortolato, Gabriele Floris, Jean C Shih
The two monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes, A and B, catalyze the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. The phenotypic outcomes of MAO congenital deficiency have been studied in humans and animal models, to explore the role of these enzymes in behavioral regulation. The clinical condition caused by MAOA deficiency, Brunner syndrome, was first described as a disorder characterized by overt antisocial and aggressive conduct. Building on this discovery, subsequent studies were focused on the characterization of the role of MAOA in the neurobiology of antisocial conduct...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724724/prevention-of-severe-hypoglycemia-induced-brain-damage-and-cognitive-impairment-with-verapamil
#4
David A Jackson, Trevin Michael, Adriana Vieira de Abreu, Rahul Agrawal, Marco Bortolato, Simon J Fisher
People with insulin-treated diabetes are uniquely at risk for severe hypoglycemia-induced brain damage. Since calcium influx may mediate brain damage, we tested the hypothesis that the calcium channel blocker, verapamil, would significantly reduce brain damage and cognitive impairment caused by severe hypoglycemia. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three treatments; 1) control hyperinsulinemic (200 mU.kg-1 min-1 ) euglycemic (80-100mg/dl) clamps (n=14), 2) hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic (10-15mg/dl) clamps (n=16), or 3) hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps followed by a single treatment with verapamil (20mg/kg) (n=11)...
May 3, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544191/steroid-5%C3%AE-reductase-2-deficiency-leads-to-reduced-dominance-related-and-impulse-control-behaviors
#5
Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marc Morissette, Kenneth M McFarlin, Simona Scheggi, Carla Gambarana, Stephen C Fowler, Thérèse Di Paolo, Marco Bortolato
The enzyme steroid 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Previous investigations showed that 5αR2 is expressed in key brain areas for emotional and socio-affective reactivity, yet the role of this enzyme in behavioral regulation remains mostly unknown. Here, we profiled the behavioral characteristics of 5αR2 heterozygous (HZ) and knockout (KO) mice, as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. While male 5αR2 KO mice displayed no overt alterations in motoric, sensory, information-processing and anxiety-related behaviors, they exhibited deficits in neurobehavioral correlates of dominance (including aggression against intruders, mating, and tube dominance) as well as novelty-seeking and risk-taking responses...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459141/a-descriptive-study-on-selected-growth-parameters-and-growth-hormone-receptor-gene-in-healthy-young-adults-from-the-american-midwest
#6
Samantha N Hartin, Waheeda A Hossain, Ann M Manzardo, Shaquanna Brown, Paula J Fite, Marco Bortolato, Merlin G Butler
CONTEXT: The first study of growth hormone receptor (GHR) genotypes in healthy young adults in the United States attending a Midwestern university and impact on selected growth parameters. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of GHR genotypes in a sample of healthy young adults from the United States attending a university in the Midwest and analyze the relationship between GHR genotypes and selected growth parameters. DESIGN: Saliva was collected from 459 healthy young adults (237 females, 222 males; age range = 18-25 y) and DNA isolated for genotyping of GHR alleles (fl/fl, fl/d3, or d3/d3)...
February 12, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314714/behavioral-fragmentation-in-the-d1ct-7-mouse-model-of-tourette-s-syndrome
#7
Andrea Santangelo, Marco Bortolato, Laura J Mosher, Giuseppe Crescimanno, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Emanuele Cassioli, Valdo Ricca, Maurizio Casarrubea
AIM: The transgenic D1CT-7 mouse is one of the best-characterized animal models of Tourette's syndrome (TS), exhibiting spontaneous tic-like Head-Body Twitches (HBT) and deficits in sensorimotor gating. This study is aimed at evaluating the behavioral dynamics of these mutants and their potential relevance to TS. METHODS: The behavior of D1CT-7 and Wild Type littermates was firstly assessed by considering frequencies and durations. To detect recurrent real-time behavioral sequences, the multivariate T-pattern analysis was employed...
January 3, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038076/editorial-on-special-issue-animal-models-of-tourette-syndrome
#8
EDITORIAL
Marco Bortolato, Giuseppe di Giovanni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940395/delay-discounting-as-impaired-valuation-delayed-rewards-in-an-animal-obesity-model
#9
David P Jarmolowicz, Jennifer L Hudnall, Luanne Hale, Stephen C Fowler, Marco Bortolato, Shea M Lemley, Michael J Sofis
Obesity is a major public health problem, which, like many forms of addiction, is associated with an elevated tendency to choose smaller immediate rather than larger delayed rewards, a response pattern often referred to as excessive delay discounting. Although some accounts of delay discounting conceptualize this process as impulsivity (placing the emphasis on overvaluing the smaller immediate reward), others have conceptualized delay discounting as an executive function (placing the emphasis on delayed rewards failing to retain their value)...
September 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611376/allopregnanolone-mediates-the-exacerbation-of-tourette-like-responses-by-acute-stress-in-mouse-models
#10
Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marianela Nelson, Stephen C Fowler, Graziano Pinna, Marco Bortolato
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple tics and sensorimotor abnormalities, the severity of which is typically increased by stress. The neurobiological underpinnings of this exacerbation, however, remain elusive. We recently reported that spatial confinement (SC), a moderate environmental stressor, increases tic-like responses and elicits TS-like sensorimotor gating deficits in the D1CT-7 mouse, one of the best-validated models of TS. Here, we hypothesized that these adverse effects may be mediated by neurosteroids, given their well-documented role in stress-response orchestration...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498599/prevalence-incidence-and-mortality-from-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-pooled-and-specific-severe-mental-illness-a-large-scale-meta-analysis-of-3-211-768-patients-and-113-383-368-controls
#11
Christoph U Correll, Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Beatrice Bortolato, Stella Rosson, Paolo Santonastaso, Nita Thapa-Chhetri, Michele Fornaro, Davide Gallicchio, Enrico Collantoni, Giorgio Pigato, Angela Favaro, Francesco Monaco, Cristiano Kohler, Davy Vancampfort, Philip B Ward, Fiona Gaughran, André F Carvalho, Brendon Stubbs
People with severe mental illness (SMI) - schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder - appear at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but a comprehensive meta-analysis is lacking. We conducted a large-scale meta-analysis assessing the prevalence and incidence of CVD; coronary heart disease; stroke, transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular disease; congestive heart failure; peripheral vascular disease; and CVD-related death in SMI patients (N=3,211,768) versus controls (N=113,383,368) (92 studies)...
June 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470927/systematic-assessment-of-environmental-risk-factors-for-bipolar-disorder-an-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#12
REVIEW
Beatrice Bortolato, Cristiano A Köhler, Evangelos Evangelou, Jordi León-Caballero, Marco Solmi, Brendon Stubbs, Lazaros Belbasis, Isabella Pacchiarotti, Lars V Kessing, Michael Berk, Eduard Vieta, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. METHODS: We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD...
March 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414491/associations-between-emotional-abuse-and-neglect-and-dimensions-of-alexithymia-the-moderating-role-of-sex
#13
Shaquanna Brown, Paula J Fite, Katie Stone, Allora Richey, Marco Bortolato
OBJECTIVE: Child maltreatment, specifically emotional maltreatment (i.e., an act, such as belittling, blaming, or rejection, that is potentially harmful to a child's emotional development), has emerged as an important correlate of alexithymia. However, the evidence is mixed with regard to how emotional abuse and neglect might relate to dimensions of alexithymia (i.e., externally oriented thinking, difficulty describing feelings, and difficulty identifying feelings). Furthermore, research is needed to identify individual factors that might influence these associations...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262605/impulsivity-as-a-moderator-of-the-associations-between-child-maltreatment-types-and-body-mass-index
#14
Shaquanna Brown, Tarrah B Mitchell, Paula J Fite, Marco Bortolato
Child maltreatment has emerged as an important risk factor for adult obesity (Danese & Tan, 2014; Hemmingsson et al., 2014). However, there is a need for research delineating the factors that play a role in this association. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated with both child maltreatment (Brodsky et al., 2001) and body mass index (BMI; Cortese et al., 2008; Thamotharan et al., 2013). Further, given previous research showing that adverse events interact with impulsivity to predict hazardous drinking behaviors (Fox et al...
May 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237575/modeling-tics-in-rodents-conceptual-challenges-and-paths-forward
#15
Marco Bortolato, Christopher Pittenger
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of tics have led to the development of novel rodent models capturing different pathophysiological and phenotypic aspects of Tourette syndrome. The proliferation of these models, however, raises vexing questions on what standards should be adopted to assess their theoretical validity and empirical utility. Assessing the homology of a rodent motoric burst with a tic remains problematic, due to our incomplete knowledge of the underpinnings of tics, their high phenotypic complexity and variability, limitations in our ability test key aspects of tic phenomenology (such as premonitory sensory phenomena) in animals, and between-species differences in neuroanatomy and behavioral repertoire...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131725/the-5-alpha-reductase-inhibitor-finasteride-reduces-dyskinesia-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Roberto Frau, Paola Savoia, Silvia Fanni, Chiara Fiorentini, Camino Fidalgo, Elisabetta Tronci, Roberto Stancampiano, Mario Meloni, Antonino Cannas, Francesco Marrosu, Marco Bortolato, Paola Devoto, Cristina Missale, Manolo Carta
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a disabling motor complication occurring in Parkinson's disease patients (PD) after long-term l-DOPA treatment. Although its etiology remains unclear, there is accumulating evidence that LID relies on an excessive dopamine receptor transmission, particularly at the downstream signaling of D1 receptors. We previously reported that the pharmacological blockade of 5-alpha reductase (5AR), the rate limiting enzyme in neurosteroids synthesis, rescued a number of behavioral aberrations induced by D1 receptor-selective and non-selective agonists, without inducing extrapyramidal symptoms...
May 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102229/the-neurosteroidogenic-enzyme-5%C3%AE-reductase-mediates-psychotic-like-complications-of-sleep-deprivation
#17
Roberto Frau, Valentina Bini, Alessio Soggiu, Simona Scheggi, Alessandra Pardu, Silvia Fanni, Paola Roncada, Monica Puligheddu, Francesco Marrosu, Donatella Caruso, Paola Devoto, Marco Bortolato
Acute sleep deprivation (SD) can trigger or exacerbate psychosis- and mania-related symptoms; the neurobiological basis of these complications, however, remains elusive. Given the extensive involvement of neuroactive steroids in psychopathology, we hypothesized that the behavioral complications of SD may be contributed by 5α-reductase (5αR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of progesterone into the neurosteroid allopregnanolone. We first tested whether rats exposed to SD may exhibit brain-regional alterations in 5αR isoenzymes and neuroactive steroid levels; then, we assessed whether the behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations induced by SD may be differentially modulated by the administration of the 5αR inhibitor finasteride, as well as progesterone and allopregnanolone...
October 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099872/assessment-of-gait-and-sensorimotor-deficits-in-the-d1ct-7-mouse-model-of-tourette-syndrome
#18
Stephen C Fowler, Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marco Bortolato
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics. While TS patients have been also shown to exhibit subtle abnormalities of sensorimotor integration and gait, animal models of this disorder are seldom tested for these functions. To fill this gap, we assessed gait and sensorimotor integration in the D1CT-7 mouse, one of the best-validated animal models of TS. D1CT-7 mice exhibit spontaneous tic-like manifestations, which, in line with the clinical phenomenology of TS, are markedly exacerbated by environmental stress...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939782/what-makes-you-tic-translational-approaches-to-study-the-role-of-stress-and-contextual-triggers-in-tourette-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Sean C Godar, Marco Bortolato
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by multiple, recurring motor and phonic tics. Rich empirical evidence shows that the severity of tics and associated manifestations is increased by several stressors and contextual triggers; however, the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for symptom exacerbation in TS remain poorly understood. This conceptual gap partially reflects the high phenotypic variability in tics, as well as the existing difficulties in operationalizing and standardizing stress and its effects in a clinical setting...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936453/biological-mechanisms-of-depression-following-treatment-with-interferon-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-critical-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Myrela O Machado, Giovanni Oriolo, Beatrice Bortolato, Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Marco Solmi, Iria Grande, Rocío Martín-Santos, Eduard Vieta, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: A significant subset of patients infected by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) develops a major depressive episode (MDE) during Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) based immunotherapy. We performed a systematic review of studies which examined biological mechanisms contributing to the onset of a MDE during IFN-α-based immunotherapy for HCV. METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched from inception up until 15th February 2016 for peer-reviewed prospective studies that had enrolled HCV infected patients who received IFN-α treatment...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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