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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691147/gastric-bypass-simultaneously-improves-adipose-tissue-function-and-insulin-dependent-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Adrian T Billeter, Spiros Vittas, Barbara Israel, Katharina M Scheurlen, Asa Hidmark, Thomas H Fleming, Stefan Kopf, Markus W Büchler, Beat P Müller-Stich
OBJECTIVE: The underlying causes of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue dysfunction with high leptin, inflammation, and increased oxidative stress may play a pivotal role in T2DM development in obese patients. Little is known about the changes in the adipose tissue after Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in non-severely obese patients (BMI < 35 kg/m(2)) and since these patients have more T2DM-associated complications than obese patients ("obesity paradox"), we investigated changes in adipose tissue function in a cohort of BMI <35 kg/m(2) with insulin-dependent T2DM after RYGB surgery which resolves T2DM...
July 9, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681591/o-glcnacylation-of-nf-kappab-promotes-lung-metastasis-of-cervical-cancer-cells-via-upregulation-of-cxcr4-expression
#2
Akhtar Ali, Sung Hwan Kim, Min Jun Kim, Mee Young Choi, Sang Soo Kang, Gyeong Jae Cho, Yoon Sook Kim, Jun-Young Choi, Wan Sung Choi
C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) stimulates cancer metastasis. NF-kappaB regulates CXCR4 expression in cancer cells, and O-GlcNAc modification of NF-kappaB promotes its transcriptional activity. Here, we determined whether CXCR4 expression is affected by O-GlcNAcylation of NF-kappaB in lung metastasis of cervical cancer. We found elevated levels of O-linked-Nactylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcylation in cervical cancer cells compared to those in non-malignant epithelial cells and detected increased expression of NF-kappaB p65 (p65) and CXCR4 in cervical cancer cells...
July 6, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666238/protective-effects-of-paeoniflorin-on-tnbs-induced-ulcerative-colitis-through-inhibiting-nf-kappab-pathway-and-apoptosis-in-mice
#3
Peiqing Gu, Lei Zhu, Yajun Liu, Lu Zhang, Junlou Liu, Hong Shen
Paeoniflorin is traditionally used to treat inflammatory disorders. In our laboratory, we have scientifically validated the anti-inflammatory effect of paeoniflorin. In this study, it has been aimed to evaluate in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of paeoniflorin isolated from the dried peeled root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. It was further intended to find out the probable mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of paeoniflorin. The anti-inflammatory effect of paeoniflorin (15, 30 and 45mg/kg) was measured employing TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis model of acute inflammation...
June 27, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629826/silencing-of-fkbp51-alleviates-the-mechanical-pain-threshold-inhibits-drg-inflammatory-factors-and-pain-mediators-through-the-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#4
Hong-Mei Yu, Qi Wang, Wen-Bo Sun
Neuropathic pain is chronic pain caused by lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system, currently available analgesics provide only temporal relief. The precise role of FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) is not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of FKBP51 in neuropathic pain in the rat model of CCI. Our results showed that FKBP51 was obviously upregulated in a time-dependent manner in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in CCI rats...
June 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623958/knockdown-of-subunit-3-of-the-cop9-signalosome-inhibits-c2c12-myoblast-differentiation-via-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#5
Mariam A Ba, Jeffrey Surina, Cherie A Singer, Maria L Valencik
BACKGROUND: The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex composed of 8 subunits designated CSN1-CSN8. CSN3 represents the third subunit of the CSN and maintains the integrity of the complex. CSN3 binds to the striated muscle-specific β1D integrin tail, and its subcellular localization is altered in differentiated skeletal muscle cells. However, the role of CSN3 in skeletal muscle differentiation is unknown. The main goal of this study was to identify whether CSN3 participates in myoblast differentiation and the signalling mechanisms involved using C2C12 cells as a skeletal muscle cell model...
June 17, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615451/molecular-mechanisms-of-signaling-via-the-docosanoid-neuroprotectin-d1-for-cellular-homeostasis-and-neuroprotection
#6
Aram Asatryan, Nicolas G Bazan
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 essential fatty acid family member that is enriched in the nervous system, generates bioactive docosanoids that can counteract disruptions of cellular homeostasis. Docosanoids include neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), which is decreased in the CA1 hippocampal area of patients with early-stage Alzheimers disease (AD). We summarize here how NPD1 elicits neuroprotection by up-regulating c-REL, a nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB subtype that, in turn, enhances expression of BIRC3 (baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 3, or cIAP2) in retinal cells...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611356/the-osteogenesis-promoting-effects-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-against-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-through-the-nox4-nf-kappab-jnk-and-pi3k-akt-pathways
#7
Shi-Yu Lu, Chang-Yuan Wang, Yue Jin, Qiang Meng, Qi Liu, Zhi-Hao Liu, Ke-Xin Liu, Hui-Jun Sun, Mo-Zhen Liu
Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is closely related to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a naturally endogenous anti-oxidant, possesses anti-oxidative and anti-apoptosis activities, implicating LA as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of GIOP. In this study, the osteogenesis-promoting effects of LA against GIOP were investigated and the mechanisms were further probed. Here, the results showed that LA inhibited oxidative stress, suppressed apoptosis and improved osteopenia by promoting the expression of osteogenesis markers, including ALP, COL-I, OCN, BMP-2, RUNX2 and OSX...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601055/the-effect-of-lactobacillus-actobacillus-peptidoglycan-on-bovine-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-sensitized-mice-via-tlr2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#8
Ai-Li Li, Yi-Qio Sun, Peng Du, Xiang-Chen Meng, Ling Guo, Shuang Li, Chao Zhang
Our previous study reported that Lactobacillus acidophilus(L.acidophilus)  key laboratory of dairy science  (KLDS) 1.0738 had an effective impact on inhibiting β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) allergy. This study further investigated the anti-allergic activity of peptidoglycan (PGN) isolated from KLDS 1.0738. This study aimed to assess whether toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/NF-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling activated by PGN was responsible for reducing allergic inflammation.  Our data showed that administration of  L. acidophilus PGN inhibited IgE production and improved the Treg/Th17 balance toward a Treg response in a mouse model of β-lg allergy...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598072/-the-effects-of-nf-kappab-signalling-on-the-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-ratios-of-mmps-to-timps-in-chondrocytes
#9
Lin-Yi Cai, Xiang-Li Kong, Qiang Xie, Jing Xie
OBJECTIVES: To explore the influence of the NF-κB inhibitor (bay11-7082) on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced different ratios of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in chondrocytes. METHODS: Chondrocytes were isolated from the knee joint of a 1-day old mouse by trypsin digestion method. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) stain was used to show the morphology of isolated chondrocytes; Semi-quantitative PCR was applied to analyze the influence of bay11-7082 on gene expressions of TNF-α-induced MMPsand TIMPsin chondrocytes; Zymography was used to elucidate activities of the gelatinases induced by TNF-α and/or bay11-7082...
September 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585206/adipocyte-macrophage-cross-talk-in-obesity
#10
Ayse Basak Engin
Obesity is characterized by the chronic low-grade activation of the innate immune system. In this respect, macrophage-elicited metabolic inflammation and adipocyte-macrophage interaction has a primary importance in obesity. Large amounts of macrophages are accumulated by different mechanisms in obese adipose tissue. Hypertrophic adipocyte-derived chemotactic monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway also promotes more macrophage accumulation into the obese adipose tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585201/the-pathogenesis-of-obesity-associated-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#11
Atilla Engin
Obesity is characterized by a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. However, excessive fatty acid release may worsen adipose tissue inflammation and contributes to insulin resistance. In this case, several novel and highly active molecules are released abundantly by adipocytes like leptin, resistin, adiponectin or visfatin, as well as some more classical cytokines. Most likely cytokines that are released by inflammatory cells infiltrating obese adipose tissue are such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) (CCL-2) and IL-1...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585197/human-protein-kinases-and-obesity
#12
Atilla Engin
The action of protein kinases and protein phosphatases is essential for multiple physiological responses. Each protein kinase displays its own unique substrate specificity, and a regulatory mechanism that may be modulated by association with other proteins. Protein kinases are classified by the target amino acid in their substrates. Some protein kinases can phosphorylate both serine/threonine, as well as tyrosine residues. This group of kinases has been known as dual specificity kinases. Unlike the dual specificity kinases, a heterogeneous group of protein phosphatases are known as dual-specificity phosphatases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558962/galangin-ameliorates-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-by-attenuating-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-cell-death-in-mice-through-inhibition-of-erk-and-nf-kappab-signaling
#13
Yu-Ching Huang, Ming-Shiun Tsai, Pei-Chi Hsieh, Jheng-Hong Shih, Tsu-Shing Wang, Yi-Chun Wang, Ting-Hui Lin, Sue-Hong Wang
Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of various cancers. However, cisplatin can induce nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity, limiting its dosage and usage. Galangin, a natural flavonol, has been found to exhibit anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Here, we investigated the effects of galangin on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and its molecular mechanisms in mice. Galangin administration reduced the cisplatin-induced oxidative stress by decreasing renal MDA and 3-NT formations...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553317/meta-analysis-of-human-alzgene-database-benefits-and-limitations-of-using-c-elegans-for-the-study-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-co-morbid-conditions
#14
Behrad Vahdati Nia, Christine Kang, Michelle G Tran, Deborah Lee, Shin Murakami
Human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and linkage studies have identified 695 genes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the vast majority of which are associated with late-onset AD. Although orthologs of these AD genes have been studied in several model species, orthologs in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, remain incompletely identified, with orthologs to only 17 AD-related genes identified in the C. elegans database, WormBase. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive search for additional C...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535663/up-regulation-of-rank-expression-via-erk1-2-by-insulin-contributes-to-the-enhancement-of-osteoclast-differentiation
#15
Ju Hee Oh, Na Kyung Lee
Despite the importance of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-RANK signaling mechanisms on osteoclast differentiation, little has been studied on how RANK expression is regulated or what regulates its expression during osteoclastogenesis. We show here that insulin signaling increases RANK expression, thus enhancing osteoclast differentiation by RANKL. Insulin stimulation induced RANK gene expression in time- and dose-dependent manners and insulin receptor shRNA completely abolished RANK expression induced by insulin in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage cells (BMMs)...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502732/swimming-exercise-prevents-behavioural-disturbances-induced-by-an-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-peptide-through-modulation-of-cytokine-nf-kappab-pathway-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-mouse-brain
#16
Leandro Cattelan Souza, Cristiano R Jesse, Lucian Del Fabbro, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Carlos Borges Filho, Cristiane Luchese, Albanin Aparecida Mielniczki Pereira, Silvana Peterini Boeira
Emerging evidence indicates that the activation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a first and rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, is involved in amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42)-neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Physical exercise has been considered an effective intervention in AD, attenuating or limiting their progression. Nevertheless, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of exercise have not yet been fully elucidated. In present study, we investigated the protective effect of an 8-week swimming training (ST) exercise on cognitive and non-cognitive functions and its role in modulating biomarkers of KYN pathway, before an intracerebroventricular (i...
May 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487501/oocyte-exposure-to-zno-nanoparticles-inhibits-early-embryonic-development-through-the-%C3%AE-h2ax-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#17
Jing Liu, Yong Zhao, Wei Ge, Pengfei Zhang, Xinqi Liu, Weidong Zhang, Yanan Hao, Shuai Yu, Lan Li, Meiqiang Chu, Lingjiang Min, Hongfu Zhang, Wei Shen
The impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles on embryonic development following oocyte stage exposure are unknown and the underlying mechanisms are sparsely understood. In the current investigation, intact nanoparticles were detected in ovarian tissue in vivo and cultured cells in vitro under zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles exposure during the oocyte stage inhibited embryonic development. Notably, in vitro culture data closely matched in vivo embryonic data, in that the impairments caused by Zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment passed through cell generations; and both gamma-H2AX and NF-kappaB pathways were involved in zinc oxide nanoparticles caused embryo-toxicity...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472897/the-anticancer-effect-of-mebendazole-may-be-due-to-m1-monocyte-macrophage-activation-via-erk1-2-and-tlr8-dependent-inflammasome-activation
#18
Kristin Blom, Wojciech Senkowski, Malin Jarvius, Malin Berglund, Jenny Rubin, Lena Lenhammar, Vendela Parrow, Claes Andersson, Angelica Loskog, Mårten Fryknäs, Peter Nygren, Rolf Larsson
Mebendazole (MBZ), a drug commonly used for helminitic infections, has recently gained substantial attention as a repositioning candidate for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism of action behind its anticancer activity remains unclear. To address this problem, we took advantage of the curated MBZ-induced gene expression signatures in the LINCS Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The analysis revealed strong negative correlation with MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitors. Moreover, several of the most upregulated genes in response to MBZ exposure were related to monocyte/macrophage activation...
May 4, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452703/cigarette-smoke-extract-increases-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-production-via-tlr4-ros-mapks-nf-kappab-pathway-in-nasal-fibroblast
#19
Jae-Min Shin, Joo-Hoo Park, Hwee-Jin Kim, Il-Ho Park, Heung-Man Lee
PURPOSE: Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of various chemical compounds, including free radicals and highly toxic compounds. Cigarette smoke exposure has been shown to be associated with chronic rhinosinusitis and tissue remodeling in upper airway. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the cytokines with a crucial role in tissue remodeling of airway. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on VEGF expression and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of CSE in nasal fibroblasts...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428278/oncogenic-role-of-snd1-in-development-and-progression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Nidhi Jariwala, Devaraja Rajasekaran, Rachel G Mendoza, Xue-Ning Shen, Ayesha Siddiq, Maaged A Akiel, Chadia L Robertson, Mark A Subler, Jolene J Windle, Paul B Fisher, Arun J Sanyal, Devanand Sarkar
SND1, a subunit of the miRNA regulatory complex RISC, has been implicated as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we show that hepatocyte-specific SND1 transgenic mice (Alb/SND1 mice) develop spontaneous HCC with partial penetrance and exhibit more highly aggressive HCC induced by chemical carcinogenesis. Livers from Alb/SND1 mice exhibited a relative increase in inflammatory markers and spheroid-generating tumor-initiating cells (TIC). Mechanistic investigations defined roles for Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways in promoting TIC formation in Alb/SND1 mice...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Research
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