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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349516/new-perspectives-in-the-history-of-twentieth-century-life-sciences-historical-historiographical-and-epistemological-themes
#1
Robert Meunier, Kärin Nickelsen
The history of twentieth-century life sciences is not exactly a new topic. However, in view of the increasingly rapid development of the life sciences themselves over the past decades, some of the well-established narratives are worth revisiting. Taking stock of where we stand on these issues was the aim of a conference in 2015, entitled "Perspectives for the History of Life Sciences" (Munich, Oct 30-Nov 1, 2015). The papers in this topical collection are based on work presented and discussed at and around this meeting...
January 18, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342005/from-theoretical-physics-to-atomic-bombs-learning-to-value-medical-epistemology
#2
Benjamin L Mazer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326103/understanding-the-complex-relationship-between-critical-thinking-and-science-reasoning-among-undergraduate-thesis-writers
#3
Jason E Dowd, Robert J Thompson, Leslie A Schiff, Julie A Reynolds
Developing critical-thinking and scientific reasoning skills are core learning objectives of science education, but little empirical evidence exists regarding the interrelationships between these constructs. Writing effectively fosters students' development of these constructs, and it offers a unique window into studying how they relate. In this study of undergraduate thesis writing in biology at two universities, we examine how scientific reasoning exhibited in writing (assessed using the Biology Thesis Assessment Protocol) relates to general and specific critical-thinking skills (assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test), and we consider implications for instruction...
2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305820/authoring-the-identity-of-learner-before-doctor-in-the-figured-world-of-medical-school
#4
Evangeline Stubbing, Esther Helmich, Jennifer Cleland
INTRODUCTION: Students enter the 'figured world' of medical school with preconceptions of what it means to be a doctor. The meeting of these early preconceptions and their newly developing identities can create emotional tensions. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of how such tensions were experienced and managed. Using figured worlds as a theoretical framework we explored students' interactions of preconceptions with their newly developing professional identities in their first year at medical school...
January 5, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303691/early-preparation-and-inspiration-for-stem-careers-preliminary-report-of-the-epidemiology-challenge-randomized-intervention-2014-2015
#5
Robin Taylor Wilson, Emma Watson, Mark Kaelin, Wendy Huebner
OBJECTIVES: Early Preparation and Inspiration for Careers in the Biomedical Sciences (EPIC) is a university-high school partnership for increasing high school student interest and persistence in the biomedical sciences. EPIC includes a year-long, project-based learning intervention, the Think Like an Epidemiologist Challenge (Epi Challenge). We describe the main components of the Epi Challenge and report on short-term changes in scientific literacy and science-related motivations and beliefs...
January 2018: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295002/men-s-reflections-on-their-experiences-of-gender-based-violence
#6
Ada L Sinacore, Samir Durrani, Sarah Khayutin
Using Multicultural and Gender Case Conceptualization (MGCC) epistemology, the aim of this phenomenological study was to explore adult male victims' perceptions of gender and reflections on their experiences of gender-based violence (GBV). Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results indicated that, regardless of sexual orientation, participants experienced verbal and physical abuse due to their feminine gender expression, beginning in primary school and continuing through university and into the workplace...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280271/paper-1-nursing-as-concrete-philosophy-part-i-risjord-on-nursing-knowledge
#7
Kyriakos Theodoridis
This essay addresses the problem of the essentiality of nursing knowledge and what kind of theory, if any, is essential to nursing practice. The overarching aim of the essay was to argue for the thesis that nursing may be described as a kind of philosophical activity, and, consequently, that philosophy is the kind of "theory" that is essential to nursing practice and to the nursing discipline at large. The essay consists of two papers. The present paper, Part I, is a critical examination of Mark Risjord's discussion of the problem of the theory-practice gap in his Nursing Knowledge: Practice, Science, Philosophy, from 2010...
December 26, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276633/health-and-safety-at-work-analysis-from-the-brazilian-documentary-film-flesh-and-bone
#8
Luciano Mendes, Heliani Berlato Dos Santos, Elisa Yoshie Ichikawa
Background: The objective of this article is to make some analysis on the process of work and accidents occurring in slaughterhouses, evidenced in the Brazilian documentary film called Flesh and Bone. As such, it was necessary to discuss an alternative theoretical concept in relation to theories about health and safety at work. This alternative discussion focuses on the concepts of biopower and biopolitics. Methods: The use of audiovisual elements in research is not new, and there is already a branch of studies with methodological and epistemological variations...
December 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251600/a-few-shades-fairer-please
#9
Rakhi Ghoshal
This piece critically reflects on the growing Indian desire for fairer shades of skin. While skin-whitening products vanish off store shelves, notwithstanding protests against such products, the event that generated a storm some time ago in the media was the Garbha Sanskar workshops. In these workshops, women were allegedly taught methods to purify their wombs and beget fairer (and taller) children. In this article I argue that not only is it simplistic to label this ideology regressive, but that it becomes rather difficult to criticise the sanskaris because of the "register" they employ, ie the language they use to rationalise and explain their actions...
November 30, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238855/epigenesis-by-experience-romantic-empiricism-and-non-kantian-biology
#10
Amanda Jo Goldstein
Reconstructions of Romantic-era life science in general, and epigenesis in particular, frequently take the Kantian logic of autotelic "self-organization" as their primary reference point. I argue in this essay that the Kantian conceptual rubric hinders our historical and theoretical understanding of epigenesis, Romantic and otherwise. Neither a neutral gloss on epigenesis, nor separable from the epistemological deflation of biological knowledge that has received intensive scrutiny in the history and philosophy of science, Kant's heuristics of autonomous "self-organization" in the third Critique amount to the strategic capture of epigenesis from nature, for thought, in thought's critical transcendence of nature...
December 13, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238423/an-epistemological-view-on-risk-exposure-assessment-a-case-study
#11
Daniele Chiffi, Paola Berchialla, Dario Gregori
Background: Research in Health Risk Assessment is increasingly covering a preeminent role in health care studies. However, risk assessment faces the issue of properly measuring risk exposure. Objective: The aim of the study has been to tackle some methodological issues regarding the risk assessment analysis in the health field, giving more emphasis to a philosophical and epistemological approach in order to show the difficulties in adopting suitable exposure assessment techniques...
2017: Open Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237237/clinical-judgement-in-the-era-of-big-data-and-predictive-analytics
#12
Benjamin Chin-Yee, Ross Upshur
Clinical judgement is a central and longstanding issue in the philosophy of medicine which has generated significant interest over the past few decades. In this article, we explore different approaches to clinical judgement articulated in the literature, focusing in particular on data-driven, mathematical approaches which we contrast with narrative, virtue-based approaches to clinical reasoning. We discuss the tension between these different clinical epistemologies and further explore the implications of big data and machine learning for a philosophy of clinical judgement...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236806/the-circulation-of-psychoanalytical-knowledge-and-practice-in-the-social-sciences
#13
Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte
A concise but broad-based review is presented of the circulation of knowledge and practices from psychoanalysis in the social sciences, especially anthropology. The different contexts in which the concepts and conceptions of psychoanalysis have been read, refuted, or appropriated by different national schools of thought and intellectual traditions and the ways psychoanalysis itself has interacted with anthropological knowledge and its incorporations of psychoanalytical knowledge are explored. The interpretations of these two major groups of knowledge are referred to as participating in a common cultural horizon with a common epistemological orientation, and the sources of the frequent mistaken beliefs occurring in this interplay are also addressed...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235958/caring-science-or-science-of-caring
#14
Marian C Turkel, Jean Watson, Joseph Giovannoni
The concepts caring science and science of caring have different meanings; however, they are often used interchangeably. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the synthesis of the scholarly literature on the definitions of the science of caring and caring science and to affirm the authors' perspective relating to the language of caring science. Caring science advances the epistemology and ontology of caring. Ideas related to caring science inquiry are presented, and the authors acknowledge the future of caring science as unitary caring science...
January 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235408/balint-work-and-the-creation-of-medical-knowledge
#15
John Muench
Michael Balint's pioneering work in primary care was not simply the application of psychodynamic theory to the complex problems and relationships encountered by clinicians. Rather, Balint's work was part of a wider conversation in Western epistemology that had already begun to break down the enlightenment rationalist agenda. Since the time of Descartes, we sought to find certain truth through decontextualizing and abstracting problems, and through separation of the observer from the thing observed, with a focus on finding universal timeless laws that could be generalized...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234992/beyond-trust-plagiarism-and-truth
#16
Bart Penders
Academic misconduct distorts the relationship between scientific practice and the knowledge it produces. The relationship between science and the knowledge it produces is, however, not something universally agreed upon. In this paper I will critically discuss the moral status of an act of research misconduct, namely plagiarism, in the context of different epistemological positions. While from a positivist view of science, plagiarism only influences trust in science but not the content of the scientific corpus, from a constructivist point of view both are at stake...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231127/view-from-the-penthouse-epistemological-bumps-and-emergent-metaphors-as-method-for-team-reflexivity
#17
Melissa Park, Hiba Zafran
Research in health care occurs within interdisciplinary teams that include clinician-researchers who have multiple epistemological orientations. Rigor in collaborative projects requires reflexive attention to how the paradigmatic questions raised by diverse epistemological orientations, and the ethical stances of each researcher, shape findings. This methodological article draws on three events during an ethnography of stigma in psychiatry to define and illustrate how we used double hermeneutics in data analysis...
December 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214964/the-ethics-of-making-patients-responsible
#18
Sven Ove Hansson
In their daily clinical work, healthcare professionals generally apply what seems to be a double standard for the responsibility of patients. On the one hand, patients are encouraged to take responsibility for lifestyle changes that can improve their chances of good health. On the other hand, when patients fail to follow such recommendations, they are not held responsible for the failure. This seeming inconsistency is explained in terms of the distinction between task responsibility and blame responsibility...
January 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204457/employing-a-qualitative-description-approach-in-health-care-research
#19
Carmel Bradshaw, Sandra Atkinson, Owen Doody
A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. Another challenge when considering qualitative description design is differentiating qualitative description from other qualitative approaches...
January 2017: Global Qualitative Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200503/from-eminent-men-to-excellent-universities-university-rankings-as-calculative-devices
#20
Björn Hammarfelt, Sarah de Rijcke, Paul Wouters
Global university rankings have become increasingly important 'calculative devices' for assessing the 'quality' of higher education and research. Their ability to make characteristics of universities 'calculable' is here exemplified by the first proper university ranking ever, produced as early as 1910 by the American psychologist James McKeen Cattell. Our paper links the epistemological rationales behind the construction of this ranking to the sociopolitical context in which Cattell operated: an era in which psychology became institutionalized against the backdrop of the eugenics movement, and in which statistics of science became used to counter a perceived decline in 'great men...
2017: Minerva
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