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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080833/from-distillation-to-standardization-a-french-perspective-on-the-shaping-of-turpentine-spirit-1909-1976
#1
Marcin Krasnodebski
Turpentine is a complex substance of pine resin origin, widely used as a solvent in multiple industries. Attempts to define it, even when elaborated by scientists, have been marked by a whole range of extra-scientific market considerations. While the Pine Institute, a resin chemistry research centre in Bordeaux, succeeded in stabilizing the meaning of the word "turpentine" on the national level in France, its expertise was contested abroad. When the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Committee 35 tried to establish a new international standard for turpentine, France was accused of protecting its industry by twisting scientific definitions for its own needs...
January 12, 2017: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079493/ernst-mach-invents-a-new-sphygmograph
#2
Alexandre Métraux
Argument The sphygmograph as designed and tested by Jules-Étienne Marey - an apparatus destined to write pulse tracings on paper - revolutionized medical diagnostics in the early 1860s. Since the accuracy with which this device registered and objectified the pulse was controversial from the outset, the young scholar Ernst Mach (soon to become a leading theoretician and philosopher) decided to thoroughly examine Marey's sphygmograph. The investigation led to the invention of an alternative, truly Machian, sphygmograph...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079490/paris-vs-prague-a-suspicion-of-fraud-ernst-mach-argues-over-photographs-and-epistemological-prerequisites
#3
Christoph Hoffmann
Argument In spring 1888, an anonymous critic raised severe doubts about Ernst Mach's and Peter Salcher's studies, published one year before, on the processes in the air caused by very rapid projectiles. Paraphrasing the experiments for the French popular science magazine La Nature, the critic insinuated that the photographs upon which Mach and Salcher's argument were ostensibly based must have been of such low quality that they did not allow any well-founded conclusion. The critic did not deny the phenomena Mach and Salcher had presented in their article; he denied that the photographs taken in the course of the experiments could permit any observation of the phenomena...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076344/qualitative-aspects-of-the-process-of-neonatal-hearing-screening-program-in-mexico-evaluated-from-the-parental-perspective
#4
Maria Del Consuelo Martínez Wbaldo, María de Los Ángeles Torres Lagunas
INTRODUCTION: The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Program in Mexico began in 2010. Its results, published in 2013 by the National Council for the Development and Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities (CONADIS), report low coverage and, currently, there is a dearth of information about its activities. This study describes the process of the program from the epistemological perspective of women whose children participated in the program, evaluating it under the sustenance of the constructivist-respondent model in search of aspects that could help explain its results...
December 12, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067919/-significance-and-effect-of-guidelines-1-some-observations-concerning-paradigms-with-respect-to-guidelines
#5
J Craandijk
Clinical guidelines are currently receiving considerable attention. An important goals of guidelines are to improve the quality of care and to increase patient safety. Linguistic, legal and (proto)-professional paradigms differ on the meaning, scope and effectiveness of guidelines. The underlying propositions are very different. Since guidelines lack uniformity, the benefit of guidelines on the quality of care is unclear. In the use of the term guideline there is the implicit assumption that the significance and effect of a guideline remain unchanged in a changed context...
January 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064257/epistemic-cognition-in-medical-education-a-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer L Eastwood, Elysa Koppelman-White, Misa Mi, Jason Adam Wasserman, Ernest F Krug Iii, Barbara Joyce
Objective: To review the research literature on epistemic cognition in medical education. Methods: We conducted database searches using keywords related to epistemic cognition and medical education or practice. In duplicate, authors selected and reviewed empirical studies with a central focus on epistemic cognition and participant samples including medical students or physicians. Independent thematic analysis and consensus procedures were used to identify major findings about epistemic cognition and implications for research and medical education...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064253/the-ethics-of-clinical-care-and-the-ethics-of-clinical-research-yin-and-yang
#7
Charles J Kowalski, Raymond J Hutchinson, Adam J Mrdjenovich
The Belmont Report's distinction between research and the practice of accepted therapy has led various authors to suggest that these purportedly distinct activities should be governed by different ethical principles. We consider some of the ethical consequences of attempts to separate the two and conclude that separation fails along ontological, ethical, and epistemological dimensions. Clinical practice and clinical research, as with yin and yang, can be thought of as complementary forces interacting to form a dynamic system in which the whole exceeds the sum of its parts...
February 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062650/euthanasia-embedded-in-palliative-care-responses-to-essentialistic-criticisms-of-the-belgian-model-of-integral-end-of-life-care
#8
Jan L Bernheim, Kasper Raus
The Belgian model of 'integral' end-of-life care consists of universal access to palliative care (PC) and legally regulated euthanasia. As a first worldwide, the Flemish PC organisation has embedded euthanasia in its practice. However, some critics have declared the Belgian-model concepts of 'integral PC' and 'palliative futility' to fundamentally contradict the essence of PC. This article analyses the various essentialistic arguments for the incompatibility of euthanasia and PC. The empirical evidence from the euthanasia-permissive Benelux countries shows that since legalisation, carefulness (of decision making) at the end of life has improved and there have been no significant adverse 'slippery slope' effects...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058037/queer-genes-realism-sexuality-and-science
#9
David Andrew Griffiths
What are 'gay genes' and are they real? This article looks at key research into these hypothesized gay genes, made possible, in part, by the Human Genome Project. I argue that the complexity of both genetics and human sexuality demands a truly critical approach: one that takes into account feminist epistemologies of science and queer approaches to the body, while putting into conversation resources from agential realism and critical realism. This approach is able to maintain the agential complexity of genetic materiality, while also critically challenging the seemingly stable relationships between sex, gender and sexuality...
October 19, 2016: J Crit Realism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045888/look-who-is-talking-now-eliciting-the-concept-of-fatherhood-among-filipino-fathers-using-metaphor-analysis
#10
Neil Jupiter E Villamor, Allan B de Guzman, Evangeline T Matienzo
BACKGROUND: Although the increased interest in investigating the dynamics of fatherhood in developed nations has been documented in the literature, its collective meaning and implications in nursing remain largely unknown in the context of East Asia, especially in developing countries such as the Philippines. PURPOSE: Capitalizing on the unique power of metaphors to improve the understanding of complex and abstract ideas and to shape healthcare practices, this qualitative semiotic investigation intended to define the essence of fatherhood from the perspective of Filipino fathers...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032782/disciplinary-perspectives-on-multicultural-research-reply-to-dvorakova-2016-and-yakushko-et-al-2016
#11
Gordon C Nagayama Hall, Tiffany Yip, Michael A Zárate
In their comments on Hall, Yip, and Zárate (2016), Dvorakova (2016) addresses cultural psychology methods and Yakushko, Hoffman, Consoli, and Lee (2016) address qualitative research methods. We provide evidence of the neglect of underrepresented groups in the publications of major journals in cultural psychology and qualitative psychology. We do not view any particular research method as inherently contributing to "epistemological violence" (Yakushko et al., 2016, p. 5), but it is the misguided application and/or interpretation of data generated from such methods that perpetuate oppression...
December 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032781/on-methods-methodologies-and-continued-colonization-of-knowledge-in-the-study-of-ethnic-minorities-comment-on-hall-et-al-2016
#12
Oksana Yakushko, Louis Hoffman, Melissa L Morgan Consoli, Gordon Lee
Multicultural scholarship continues to reflect unexamined assumptions regarding the exclusive use of natural science methodologies, reliance on dominant Western scientific paradigms, and entrenchment in institutionalized research priorities that privilege efficiency and investigators' career promotion rather than the needs of diverse communities. Current practices in psychological research with ethnic minority groups also may contribute to the potential for epistemological violence, which occurs when scientific investigations are used as a pretext to justify interpretations of data in research with "ethnic minorities" in ways that perpetuate oppression or are lacking in their focus on social action...
December 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025894/imagining-uses-for-things-teaching-useful-knowledge-in-the-early-eighteenth-century
#13
Kelly J Whitmer
There has been an explosion of interest in "innovation-oriented knowledge" and utility in early modern knowledge economies. Despite this, a healthy skepticism surrounding the category of "useful knowledge" persists, at least in part because of its association with intentional concealment. Helpful in many ways, this skepticism has fostered a tendency to overlook a variety of efforts to teach "useful knowledge" in the period: efforts that were anchored in engagement with the real and involved the cultivation of an ability to direct the powers of the imagination...
December 1, 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012731/another-stage-of-development-biological-degeneracy-and-the-study-of-bodily-ageing
#14
REVIEW
Paul H Mason, Ryszard Maleszka, Juan F Dominguez D
Ageing is a poorly understood process of human development mired by a scientific approach that struggles to piece together distributed variable factors involved in ongoing transformations of living systems. Reconfiguring existing research paradigms, we review the concept of 'degeneracy', which has divergent popular and technical definitions. The technical meaning of degeneracy refers to the structural diversity underlying functional plasticity. Degeneracy is a distributed system property that can be observed within individual brains or across different brains...
December 21, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004895/cooperation-collective-action-and-the-archeology-of-large-scale-societies
#15
David M Carballo, Gary M Feinman
Archeologists investigating the emergence of large-scale societies in the past have renewed interest in examining the dynamics of cooperation as a means of understanding societal change and organizational variability within human groups over time. Unlike earlier approaches to these issues, which used models designated voluntaristic or managerial, contemporary research articulates more explicitly with frameworks for cooperation and collective action used in other fields, thereby facilitating empirical testing through better definition of the costs, benefits, and social mechanisms associated with success or failure in coordinated group action...
November 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002140/look-who-is-talking-now-eliciting-the-concept-of-fatherhood-among-filipino-fathers-using-metaphor-analysis
#16
Neil Jupiter E Villamor, Allan B de Guzman, Evangeline T Matienzo
BACKGROUND: Although the increased interest in investigating the dynamics of fatherhood in developed nations has been documented in the literature, its collective meaning and implications in nursing remain largely unknown in the context of East Asia, especially in developing countries such as the Philippines. PURPOSE: Capitalizing on the unique power of metaphors to improve the understanding of complex and abstract ideas and to shape healthcare practices, this qualitative semiotic investigation intended to define the essence of fatherhood from the perspective of Filipino fathers...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001141/cases-from-the-cleveland-clinic-foundation-what-s-knowledge-got-to-do-with-it-ethics-epistemology-and-intractable-conflicts-in-the-medical-setting
#17
Bryan Kibbe, Paul J Ford
This article utilizes the case of Ms H. to examine the contrasting ways that surrogate decision makers move from simply hearing information about the patient to actually knowing and understanding the patient's medical condition. The focus of the case is on a family's request to actually see the patient's wounds instead of being told about the wounds, and the role of clinical ethicists in facilitating this request. We argue that clinical ethicists have an important role to play in the work of converting information into knowledge and that this can serve as a valuable way forward in the midst of seemingly intractable conflicts in the medical setting...
2016: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000986/cortical-color-and-the-cognitive-sciences
#18
Berit Brogaard, Dimitria Electra Gatzia
Back when researchers thought about the various forms that color vision could take, the focus was primarily on the retinal mechanisms. Since that time, research on human color vision has shifted from an interest in retinal mechanisms to cortical color processing. This has allowed color research to provide insight into questions that are not limited to early vision but extend to cognition. Direct cortical connections from higher-level areas to lower-level areas have been found throughout the brain. One of the classic questions in cognitive science is whether perception is influenced, and if so to what extent, by cognition and whether a clear distinction can be drawn between perception and cognition...
December 21, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996931/discovering-a-pluralistic-medicine-while-overcoming-art-and-science-analyses-solomon-s-social-epistemology-reveals-the-contemporary-untidy-making-of-medical-knowledge-1
#19
Luciana Sarmento Garbayo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992050/the-simulators-truth-and-power-in-the-psychiatry-of-jos%C3%A3-ingenieros
#20
Sandra Caponi
Using Michel Foucault's lectures on "Psychiatric power" as its starting point, this article analyzes the book Simulación de la locura (The simulation of madness), published in 1903 by the Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros. Foucault argues that the problem of simulation permeates the entire history of modern psychiatry. After initial analysis of José Ingenieros's references to the question of simulation in the struggle for existence, the issue of simulation in pathological states in general is examined, and lastly the simulation of madness and the problem of degeneration...
October 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
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