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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815703/the-epistemology-behind-the-curtain-thoughts-on-the-science-of-psychoanalysis
#1
Brett H Clarke
This essay is concerned with the epistemological complications of the interface between psychoanalysis and "scientific" disciplines and methodologies-in particular, with respect to theories of knowledge and conceptualizations of subjectivity appropriate to psychoanalysis. The author suggests that there is in such interface the potential for an untheorized scientism in empiricist prescriptions for the reform and rescue of psychoanalysis, and revisits the notion that subjectivity as conceived psychoanalytically, grounded in lived experience, is irreducible in ways that are unique and existentially abiding...
July 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812827/-seeing-the-difference-the-importance-of-visibility-and-action-as-a-mark-of-authenticity-in-co-production-comment-on-collaboration-and-co-production-of-knowledge-in-healthcare-opportunities-and-challenges
#2
Jo Cooke, Joe Langley, Dan Wolstenholme, Susan Hampshaw
The Rycroft-Malone paper states that co-production relies on 'authentic' collaboration as a context for action. Our commentary supports and extends this assertion. We suggest that 'authentic' co-production involves processes where participants can 'see' the difference that they have made within the project and beyond. We provide examples including: the use of design in health projects which seek to address power issues and make contributions visible through iteration and prototyping; and the development of 'actionable outputs' from research that are the physical embodiment of co-production...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810472/the-rapid-expansion-of-mainstream-health-psychology-in-france-historical-foundations
#3
Marie Santiago-Delefosse, Maria Del Rio Carral
This article traces the historical evolution of ongoing theoretical debates in psychology in France from the 1940s until today. Its aim is to show how the conjunction of certain conditions was determinant for a rapid expansion of American-derived mainstream health psychology during the 1980s. The authors describe the French context in the post-World War II period that made possible the introduction of psychology courses at the university, which included the tensions between two epistemological orientations: experimental psychology and clinical psychology, the latter partly inspired by Politzer's concrete psychology...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810461/a-journey-to-hiv-prevention-research-from-social-psychology-to-social-health-via-multidisciplinarity
#4
Susan Kippax
This article is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention and how and why I navigated my way from social psychology to 'social health' via multidisciplinarity. My work in HIV prevention - from 1984 to the present day - developed my understandings of epistemology, building on and expanding the ways in which I undertook research. This article describes those whose writings and research influenced me and the input of colleagues and students. It also demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809179/qualitative-research-for-patient-safety-using-icts-methodological-considerations-in-the-technological-age
#5
Kwang Chien Yee, Ming Chao Wong, Paul Turner
Considerable effort and resources have been dedicated to improving the quality and safety of patient care through health information systems, but there is still significant scope for improvement. One contributing factor to the lack of progress in patient safety improvement especially where technology has been deployed relates to an over-reliance on purely objective, quantitative, positivist research paradigms as the basis for generating and validating evidence of improvement. This paper argues the need for greater recognition and accommodation of evidence of improvement generated through more subjective, qualitative and pragmatic research paradigms to aid patient safety especially where technology is deployed...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809178/how-can-health-information-technologies-contribute-to-improve-health-care-services-for-high-need-patients
#6
Christian Nøhr, Lars Botin, Xinxin Zhu
This paper discusses how health information technologies like tele-care, tele-health and tele-medicine can improve the condition for high-need patients, specifically in relation to access. The paper addresses specifically the values of timeliness and equity and how tele technological solutions can support and enhance these values. The paper introduces to the concept of scaffolding, which constitutes the framework for dynamic, appropriate, caring and embracing approaches for engaging and involving high-need patients that are vulnerable and exposed...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808898/wilhelm-his-and-mechanistic-approaches-to-development-at-the-time-of-entwicklungsmechanik
#7
Jean-Claude Dupont
At the end of the nineteenth century, approaches from experimental physiology made inroads into embryological research. A new generation of embryologists felt urged to study the mechanisms of organ formation. This new program, most prominently defended by Wilhelm Roux (1850-1924), was called Entwicklungsmechanik. Named variously as "causal embryology", "physiological embryology" or "developmental mechanics", it catalyzed the movement of embryology from a descriptive science to one exploring causal mechanisms...
August 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804510/the-nonverbal-communication-of-positive-emotions-an-emotion-family-approach
#8
Disa A Sauter
This review provides an overview of the research on nonverbal expressions of positive emotions, organised into emotion families, that is, clusters sharing common characteristics. Epistemological positive emotions (amusement, relief, awe, and interest) are found to have distinct, recognisable displays via vocal or facial cues, while the agency-approach positive emotions (elation and pride) appear to be associated with recognisable visual, but not auditory, cues. Evidence is less strong for the prosocial emotions (love, compassion, gratitude, and admiration) in any modality other than touch, and there is little support for distinct recognisable signals of the savouring positive emotions (contentment, sensory pleasure, and desire)...
July 2017: Emotion Review: Journal of the International Society for Research on Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799478/researching-health-care-as-a-meaningful-practice-toward-a-nondualistic-view-on-evidence-for-qualitative-research
#9
Els van Wijngaarden, Hanneke van der Meide, Karin Dahlberg
Being able to describe how research findings become evidence is crucial in providing a justification for all kinds of research findings. However, qualitative researchers in health care, including those who conduct phenomenological research, are usually fairly modest when it comes qualifying their research findings as such. We advocate a view of evidence for phenomenological research, an approach that is rooted in philosophy of science, including perspectives of ontology, epistemology, and methodology. We suggest that phenomenology can become an exemplar for how qualitative research can make convincing arguments and thus can be better appreciated...
September 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796449/committing-sociology-methodological-and-epistemological-reflections-introduction
#10
Andrea Doucet, Janet Siltanen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776867/pain-and-dualism-which-dualism
#11
Elisa Arnaudo
In the literature, the allegation to pursue approaches grounded on Cartesian dualism in medicine is widespread. In this paper, I argue that dualism informing biomedicine has not only to do with a Cartesian view of mind and body, but that multiple dualisms are at play in biomedical approach to disease, especially regarding complex pain conditions. A form of epistemological dualism entailing the primacy of the physician's model of knowledge on the patient's direct experience of suffering is pointed out as the source of the inadequate medical attitude towards pain, particularly in relation to its complex forms such as fibromyalgic syndrome...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765438/dental-faculty-members-pedagogic-beliefs-and-curriculum-aims-in-problem-based-learning-an-exploratory-study
#12
HsingChi von Bergmann, Judith Walker, Kirsten R Dalrymple, Charles F Shuler
The aims of this exploratory study were to explore dental faculty members' views and beliefs regarding knowledge, the dental profession, and teaching and learning and to determine how these views related to their problem-based learning (PBL) instructional practices. Prior to a PBL in dental education conference held in 2011, all attendees were invited to complete a survey focused on their pedagogical beliefs and practices in PBL. Out of a possible 55 participants, 28 responded. Additionally, during the conference, a forum was held in which preliminary survey findings were shared and participants contributed to focus group data collection...
August 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761017/social-behavioural-epistemology-and-the-scientific-community
#13
Milind Watve
The progress of science is influenced substantially by social behaviour of and social interactions within the scientific community. Similar to innovations in primate groups, the social acceptance of an innovation depends not only upon the relevance of the innovation but also on the social dominance and connectedness of the innovator. There are a number of parallels between many well-known phenomena in behavioural evolution and various behavioural traits observed in the scientific community. It would be useful, therefore, to use principles of behavioural evolution as hypotheses to study the social behaviour of the scientific community...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757497/on-anecdote-and-antidotes-poison-trials-in-sixteenth-century-europe
#14
Alisha Rankin
This article describes the use of poison trials, in which an animal or a condemned criminal was poisoned, to test antidotes in sixteenth-century Europe. In contrast to most drug testing in medieval and early modern Europe, which was gathered in the normal course of therapeutic experience, the poison trial was a contrived, deliberate event. I argue that poison trials had an important function in both medical testing and medical writing in the period between 1524-1580. While poison trials dated back to antiquity, they tended to be described in medieval texts as theoretical possibilities rather than empirical tests that had already occurred...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757490/the-philosophical-genealogy-of-taylor-s-social-imaginaries-a-complex-history-of-ideas-and-predecessors
#15
Guido M Vanheeswijck
The deepest sources of Charles Taylor's use of the concept "social imaginaries" are often related to political philosophy or social anthropology (Anderson, Castoriadis). The purpose of this article is to show that they also form part of Taylor's struggle to overcome the epistemological construal in modern philosophy and culture. Taylor locates the concept "social imaginaries" in the Kantian tradition, identifying their role to that of transcendental schemes. However, there remains a central difference between Kant's transcendental schemes and Taylor's social imaginaries...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757486/the-picture-multiple-figuring-thinking-and-knowing-in-descartes-s-i-essais-i-1637
#16
Melissa Lo
Throughout his Essais (1637), Descartes appropriated the visual language of practical mathematics in order to forge a new natural philosophy. This article argues that by grafting geometric line onto descriptive figure, the philosopher and his illustrator, Frans van Schooten Jr., underscored doubts about a natural philosophy based on qualities, all the while situating his new epistemology in the 17th-century present and exercising a deep attention to the differences between nature seen, nature pictured, and nature understood...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756164/age-differences-in-optimism-bias-are-mediated-by-reliance-on-intuition-and-religiosity
#17
Paul A Klaczynski
The relationships among age, optimism bias, religiosity, creationist beliefs, and reliance on intuition were examined in a sample of 211 high school students (Mage=16.54years). Optimism bias was defined as the difference between predictions for positive and negative live events (e.g., divorce) for the self and age peers. Results indicated that older adolescents displayed less optimism bias, were less religious, believed less in creationism, and relied on intuition less than younger adolescents. Furthermore, the association between age and optimism bias was mediated by religiosity and reliance on intuition but not by creationist beliefs...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754014/through-the-patients-eyes-the-experience-of-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-concerning-the-provided-nursing-care
#18
Areti Stavropoulou, Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Michail Rovithis, Konstantina Kyriakidi, Andriani Pylarinou, Anastasia G Markaki
Chronic kidney disease is a condition that affects both the physical and mental abilities of patients. Nursing care is of pivotal importance, in particular when end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are concerned, since the quality of the provided care may severely influence the patient's quality of life. This is why it is important to explore patient experiences concerning the rendered care. However, limited up-to-date studies have addressed this issue. The aim of the present study was to stress the experiences of ESRD patients concerning the provided nursing care in the hemodialysis unit at the University Hospital in Heraklion, Crete...
July 21, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753629/how-to-make-complexity-look-simple-conveying-ecosystems-restoration-complexity-for-socio-economic-research-and-public-engagement
#19
Julia Martin-Ortega, Klaus Glenk, Anja Byg
Ecosystems degradation represents one of the major global challenges at the present time, threating people's livelihoods and well-being worldwide. Ecosystem restoration therefore seems no longer an option, but an imperative. Restoration challenges are such that a dialogue has begun on the need to re-shape restoration as a science. A critical aspect of that reshaping process is the acceptance that restoration science and practice needs to be coupled with socio-economic research and public engagement. This inescapably means conveying complex ecosystem's information in a way that is accessible to the wider public...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752439/psychometrics-in-action-science-as-practice
#20
Jacob Pearce
Practitioners in health sciences education and assessment regularly use a range of psychometric techniques to analyse data, evaluate models, and make crucial progression decisions regarding student learning. However, a recent editorial entitled "Is Psychometrics Science" highlighted some core epistemological and practical problems in psychometrics, and brought its legitimacy into question. This paper attempts to address these issues by applying some key ideas from history and philosophy of science (HPS) discourse...
July 27, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
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