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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932398/knowledge-and-belief-in-placebo-effect
#1
Daniele Chiffi, Renzo Zanotti
The beliefs involved in the placebo effect are often assumed to be self-fulfilling, that is, the truth of these beliefs would merely require the patient to hold them. Such a view is commonly shared in epistemology. Many epistemologists focused, in fact, on the self-fulfilling nature of these beliefs, which have been investigated because they raise some important counterexamples to Nozick's "tracking theory of knowledge." We challenge the self-fulfilling nature of placebo-based beliefs in multi-agent contexts, analyzing their deep epistemological nature and the role of higher-order beliefs involved in the placebo effect...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928653/domesticating-deathcare-the-women-of-the-u-s-natural-deathcare-movement
#2
Philip R Olson
This article examines the women-led natural deathcare movment in the early 21(st) century U.S., focusing upon the movement's non-coincidental epistemological and gender-political similarities to the natural childbirth movement. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach and drawing upon the author's intensive interviews with pioneers and leaders of the U.S. natural deathcare movement, as well as from the author's own participation in the movement, this article argues that the political similarities between the countercultural natural childbirth and natural deathcare movements reveal a common cultural provocation-one that spans the natal transition and the fatal transition...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925104/epistemology-of-nursing-care-a-reflection-on-its-foundations
#3
Márcia Eller Miranda Salviano, Prince Daiane Felizardo Silva Nascimento, Mariane Andreza de Paula, Carolina Santiago Vieira, Susiane Sucasas Frison, Mariana Almeida Maia, Kleyde Ventura Souza, Eline Lima Borges
Objective: to reflect on nursing care and its epistemology from its historical, theoretical, philosophical, spiritual dimensions and as a social practice. Method: discussions originated in the discipline "Epistemology of caring", from the graduate nursing program of the School of Nursing, Federal University of Minas Gerais, and in critical analysis of nursing literature together with the professional practice of the authors. Results: we identified the necessity of developing a critical conscience on health care provision, research, and teaching, as well as on challenges in maintaining high standards of working interpersonal relationships, which has a profound impact on population health...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925101/politicy-of-care-in-the-criticism-towards-gender-stereotypes
#4
Maria Raquel Gomes Maia Pires, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da Fonseca, Beatriz Padilla
Objectives: analyze gender inequalities among Brazilian women in Portugal and in contemporary nursing based on care politicity in the light of gender; disclose oppression of the female produced by the stereotypes that look upon women as natural caregivers; point out politicity to deconstruct gender stereotypes. Method: theoretical reflection with narrative review of literature to analyze classic references in the feminist epistemology combined with the care politicity thesis...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911169/statistical-and-epistemological-issues-in-the-evaluation-of-treatment-efficacy-of-pharmaceutical-psychological-and-combination-treatments-for-women-s-sexual-desire-difficulties
#5
Meredith Chivers, Rosemary Basson, Lori Brotto, Cynthia Graham, Kyle Richard Stephenson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909947/vaccine-rejecting-parents-engagement-with-expert-systems-that-inform-vaccination-programs
#6
Katie Attwell, Julie Leask, Samantha B Meyer, Philippa Rokkas, Paul Ward
In attempting to provide protection to individuals and communities, childhood immunization has benefits that far outweigh disease risks. However, some parents decide not to immunize their children with some or all vaccines for reasons including lack of trust in governments, health professionals, and vaccine manufacturers. This article employs a theoretical analysis of trust and distrust to explore how twenty-seven parents with a history of vaccine rejection in two Australian cities view the expert systems central to vaccination policy and practice...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894609/what-is-the-problem-with-medically-unexplained-symptoms-for-gps-a-meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-studies
#7
REVIEW
May-Lill Johansen, Mette Bech Risor
OBJECTIVE: To gain a deeper understanding of challenges faced by GPs when managing patients with MUS. METHODS: We used meta-ethnography to synthesize qualitative studies on GPs' perception and management of MUS. RESULTS: The problem with MUS for GPs is the epistemological incongruence between dominant disease models and the reality of meeting patients suffering from persistent illness. GPs have used flexible approaches to manage the situation, yet patients and doctors have had parallel negative experiences of being stuck, untrustworthy and helpless...
November 21, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888381/listening-to-quackery-reading-john-wesley-s-primitive-physic-in-an-age-of-health-care-reform
#8
Daniel Skinner, Adam Schneider
This article uses a reading of John Wesley's Primitive Physic, or An Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases (1747) to resist the common rejection-often as "quackery"-of Wesley's treatments for common maladies. We engage Wesley not because he was right but because his approach offers useful moments of pause in light of contemporary medical epistemology. Wesley's recommendations were primarily oriented towards the categories of personal responsibility and capability, but he also sought to empower individuals-especially the poor-with the knowledge to safely and affordably treat maladies of their own...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874840/an-integrated-narrative-nursing-model-towards-a-new-healthcare-paradigm
#9
Giovanna Artioli, Chiara Foà, Chiara Taffurelli
In the traditional biomedical model of clinical practice, which assumes a medicine focused on disease, diseases are considered as biological or psycho-physiological universal entities. This explanation, although necessary, is not enough. Several authors have recently become interested in the use of narrative practices in the medical care setting, underlining the increasing importance of "a patient-centered approach", a "relationship -centered care" and "narrative medicine". Even in Nursing, the challenge was to combine two models that seemed incompatible: the Evidence-Based Nursing Model and the Narrative-Based Nursing Model...
November 22, 2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873402/cosmologies-of-selection-lessons-from-the-faculty-biscuit-tin
#10
Maggie Bartlett, Flora Bartlett
We conducted an ethnography of the faculty biscuit tin as we were interested in the lived experience of the biscuits contained within it. We used a constructivist epistemology, a social constructionist interpretive framework and a phenomenological methodology that included analysis from the perspectives of deixis and cosmology. The biscuits perceived that they were important to a selecting force and that the characteristics of one particular group had a specific value to the selector. Some enduring benefits may derive from the selection of this group, although its attractions were less immediately obvious than those of others...
December 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873398/from-the-coliseum-to-the-convention-centre-a-reflection-on-the-current-state-of-medical-education-conferences-and-conference-goers
#11
Rebecca D Blanchard, Deborah L Engle, Lisa D Howley, Shari A Whicker, Alisa Nagler
The advancement of knowledge and development of policy in the field of medical education require critical academic discourse among the most intelligent medical educators; and critical academic discourse requires coffee. In this essay, we reflect on the state of professional development conferences in the field of medical education and the rituals that surround their success. Having begun in ancient Greece, symposia were ripe with debauchery. Today, sedated by the light brown walls of hotel conference centres, symposia are more serious endeavours, engaging men and women in the sometimes turbulent waters of epistemological debate...
December 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871339/methodological-considerations-for-research-on-ethnopolitical-violence
#12
Todd D Little
The methodological and epistemological challenges that research on ethnopolitical violence faces are examined. This research area is fundamentally important for political reasons and for understanding, as well as subsequent interventions to ameliorate, youths' responses to ethnopolitical violence. Advances in methods are reviewed that can overcome the obstacles placed by the various challenges. These issues are discussed in the context of the articles that comprise this Special Section.
November 22, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862985/theory-analysis-of-the-dental-hygiene-human-needs-conceptual-model
#13
L MacDonald, D M Bowen
PURPOSE: Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862757/easy-read-and-accessible-information-for-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-is-it-worth-it-a-meta-narrative-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Deborah Chinn, Claire Homeyard
BACKGROUND: The proliferation of "accessible information" for people with intellectual disabilities in UK health care has accelerated in recent years, underpinned by policy guidance alongside the recent introduction of mandatory standards. However, questions have been raised as to the impact of such resources as a means of enhancing involvement in health care and addressing health inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To review and synthesize the evidence from different approaches used to evaluate the impact of accessible information for people with intellectual disabilities using a meta-narrative approach...
November 16, 2016: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862663/the-insight-and-challenge-of-reflexive-practice-in-an-ethnographic-study-of-black-traumatically-injured-patients-in-philadelphia
#15
Sara F Jacoby
The integrity of critical ethnography requires engagement in reflexive practice at all phases of the research process. In this discussion paper, I explore the insights and challenges of reflexive practice in an ethnographic study of the recovery experiences of black trauma patients in a Philadelphia hospital. Observation and interviews were conducted with twelve patients who were admitted to trauma-designated units of the hospital over the course of a year. During fieldwork, I learned the ways that my background as a professional nurse structured my way of being in clinical space and facilitated a particular interpretation of clinical culture...
November 15, 2016: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862249/a-critical-caring-theory-of-protection-for-migrants-and-seasonal-farmworkers
#16
Jennifer E Shearer
Pesticide exposures represent inequities among a vulnerable population of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. A social justice theory synthesized from an environmental health research framework, a middle range theory of critical caring, and literature on pesticide exposure is presented as a situation-specific public health practice theory. Concepts from the physiological, epistemological, vulnerability, and health protection domains are related to concepts of critical caring revealing protective strategies for vulnerable populations exposed to pesticides...
November 14, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862175/epistemology-culture-justice-and-power-non-bioscientific-knowledge-for-medical-training
#17
Ayelet Kuper, Paula Veinot, Jennifer Leavitt, Sarah Levitt, Amanda Li, Jeannette Goguen, Martin Schreiber, Lisa Richardson, Cynthia R Whitehead
CONTEXT: While medical curricula were traditionally almost entirely comprised of bioscientific knowledge, widely accepted competency frameworks now make clear that physicians must be competent in far more than biomedical knowledge and technical skills. For example, of the influential CanMEDS roles, six are conceptually based in the social sciences and humanities (SSH). Educators frequently express uncertainty about what to teach in this area. This study concretely identifies the knowledge beyond bioscience needed to support the training of physicians competent in the six non-Medical Expert CanMEDS roles...
November 15, 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845480/bioethics-and-the-italian-national-bioethics-committee-historical-highlights
#18
A A Conti
Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836557/social-impact-assessment-sia-from-a-multidimensional-paradigmatic-perspective-challenges-and-opportunities
#19
Antonio Aledo-Tur, J Andrés Domínguez-Gómez
The literature specialized in Social Impact Assessment (SIA) concurs that there is still much work to do in the discussion and thorough grounding of its theories and conceptual bases. The authors of this paper consider that the understanding of SIA as a paradigm may prove useful as a foundation on which more robust and better grounded SIA knowledge production may be built. Further, we suggest that the application of the concept of the paradigm in the terms expressed here may offer a comprehensive guide to practice in SIA studies...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831656/why-is-it-so-difficult-to-integrate-ethics-in-health-technology-assessment-hta-the-epistemological-viewpoint
#20
P Refolo, D Sacchini, L Brereton, A Gerhardus, B Hofmann, K B Lysdahl, K Mozygemba, W Oortwijn, M Tummers, G J van der Wilt, P Wahlster, A G Spagnolo
Ethics has been identified as a key element in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) since its conception. However, ethical issues are still not frequently addressed explicitly in HTA. Several valuable reasons have been identified. The basis of the article is the claim that ethics is often not part of HTA for "epistemological reasons". Hence, the main aim of the contribution is to explore in more details and emphasize them by using the fact/value dichotomy. Our conclusion is that current HTA configuration is predominantly based on the comparison among objective and empirically testable "facts", whilst ethics is not empirically testable...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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