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Marcella Kelly, Maura Dowling, Michelle Millar
BACKGROUND: Kuhn's ( 1962 ) acknowledgement of a paradigm as a way that scientists make sense of their world and its reality gave recognition to the idea of 'paradigm shift'. This shift exposes the transience of paradigm development shaped by societal and scientific evolution. This ongoing evolutionary development provides the researcher with many paradigms to consider regarding how research is undertaken and the search for understanding achieved. AIM: An understanding of paradigm development is necessary when planning a study and can shape the search for understanding...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Shane Sharp
Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God...
March 15, 2018: Death Studies
Joshua Shepherd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Sandra Monteiro, Geoff Norman, Jonathan Sherbino
There is general consensus that clinical reasoning involves 2 stages: a rapid stage where 1 or more diagnostic hypotheses are advanced and a slower stage where these hypotheses are tested or confirmed. The rapid hypothesis generation stage is considered inaccessible for analysis or observation. Consequently, recent research on clinical reasoning has focused specifically on improving the accuracy of the slower, hypothesis confirmation stage. Three perspectives have developed in this line of research, and each proposes different error reduction strategies for clinical reasoning...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Lisa Beccaria, Megan Y C A Kek, Henk Huijser
OBJECTIVES: In this paper, a review of nursing education literature is employed to ascertain the extent to which nursing educators apply theory to their research, as well as the types of theory they employ. In addition, the use of research methodologies in the nursing education literature is explored. DESIGN: An integrative review. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, CINAHL, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition databases from 2001 to 2016, of which 140 were reviewed...
March 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Bruna Pedroso Canever, Marta Lenise do Prado, Diana Coelho Gomes, Vânia Marli Schubert Backes, Bruna Helena de Jesus
BACKGROUND: Specific pedagogical training for teaching in the area of health emerges with the goal of creating critical and reflective professionals and as a necessary challenge to university teaching, where there is reflection on self-awareness, consciousness, and the incompleteness of being. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to understand how Freire's critical consciousness is expressed in the pedagogical practice of health teachers. DESIGN: This study is a qualitative study that is descriptive, exploratory, and analytical...
March 3, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Narges Alianmoghaddam, Suzanne Phibbs, Cheryl Benn
PURPOSE: Scant published qualitative literature exists focusing on why exclusive breastfeeding rates decline between three and six months. This study aims to develop an understanding of why exclusive breastfeeding tails off so dramatically between three and six months after birth in New Zealand. DESIGN AND METHODS: A generic qualitative methodology was employed in this study and social constructionism selected as the main epistemological framework underpinning the research...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Carlos E León
We present an important advance in psychiatry regarding the phenomenon of recovery. Comparative studies between Open Dialogue (OD) and current treatments of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses point to an important difference in short and long-term results in favor of this approach developed in Western Lapland. This suggests that OD treatment enhances durable recovery. The prognosis of recovery would depend mainly on the treatment received, and would not be necessarily partial or dependent on a mysterious personal quality...
September 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Colin Klein, Peter Clutton, Vince Polito
Conspiracy theories play a troubling role in political discourse. Online forums provide a valuable window into everyday conspiracy theorizing, and can give a clue to the motivations and interests of those who post in such forums. Yet this online activity can be difficult to quantify and study. We describe a unique approach to studying online conspiracy theorists which used non-negative matrix factorization to create a topic model of authors' contributions to the main conspiracy forum on This subreddit provides a large corpus of comments which spans many years and numerous authors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Olivier Walusinski
Victor Burq (1822-1884) is closely associated with a therapy named "burquism" by Jean-Martin Charcot, which was used in treating hysteria, especially hysteric anesthesia and paralysis, by applying metals, mainly copper, to affected zones. In 1876, Charcot, Luys, and Dumontpallier, commissioned by the Société de Biologie, issued 2 opinions validating the results obtained by Burq during the 25 years he dedicated to his research. From that point forward, the careers of these 3 famous physicians were lastingly reoriented toward the practice of hypnosis...
March 7, 2018: European Neurology
Hans Magnus Solli, António Barbosa da Silva
BACKGROUND: The article defines a comprehensive concept of cognitive objectivity (CCCO) applied to embodied subjects in health care. The aims of this study were: (1) to specify some necessary conditions for the definition of a CCCO that will allow objective descriptions and assessments in health care, (2) to formulate criteria for application of such a CCCO, and (3) to investigate the usefulness of the criteria in work disability assessments in medical certificates from health care provided for social security purposes...
March 2, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Pierre-Marie Allard, Jonathan Bisson, Antonio Azzollini, Guido F Pauli, Geoffrey A Cordell, Jean-Luc Wolfender
Humans have co-evolved alongside numerous other organisms, some having a profound effect on health and nutrition. As the earliest pharmaceutical subject, pharmacognosy has evolved into a meta-discipline devoted to natural biomedical agents and their functional properties. While the acquisition of expanding data volumes is ongoing, contextualization is lagging. Thus, we assert that the establishment of an integrated and open databases ecosystem will nurture the discipline. After proposing an epistemological framework of knowledge acquisition in pharmacognosy, this study focuses on recent computational and analytical approaches...
February 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Simon Mays
This paper analyses some of the epistemological frameworks that underpin diagnosis in palaeopathology. Currently, the dominant approach is comparative: relationships between skeletal lesions and disease in a reference group in which there is independent evidence of the diseases present in individuals are used to identify disease in unknown archaeological skeletons on the basis of the lesions present. This is essentially a reference sample - target sample approach, analogous to that used to develop methodology in other areas of biological anthropology (e...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Jana Uher
Models and constructs of individual differences are numerous and diverse. But detecting commonalities, differences and interrelations is hindered by the common abstract terms (e.g. 'personality', 'temperament', 'traits') that do not reveal the particular phenomena denoted. This article applies a transdisciplinary paradigm for research on individuals that builds on complexity theory and epistemological complementarity. Its philosophical, metatheoretical and methodological frameworks provide concepts to differentiate various kinds of phenomena (e...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Muayyad M Ahmad, Ruba Musallam, Abla Habeeb Allah, Laila Al-Daken, Hana Abu-Snieneh, Ghadeer Al-Dweik
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the maturity level of stigma as a concept in nursing and its relationship to care provided for patients with cancer. Methods: The four principles of Morse and his colleagues were used to evaluate the maturity level of the stigma concept: epistemological, logical, pragmaticl, and linguistic. Analysis was conducted with the literature published between 2006 and 2016. Results: The findings of this study suggest that the concept of stigma in nursing is immature, defined inconsistently, and measured with different instruments...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Rebecca Hodes, Robert Morrell
Research about HIV constitutes a global domain of academic knowledge. The patterns that structure this domain reflect inequalities in the production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as broader inequalities in geopolitics. Conventional metrics for assessing the value and impact of academic research reveal that "Northern" research remains dominant, while "Southern" research remains peripheral. Southern theory provides a framework for greater critical engagement with knowledge produced by researchers within the global South...
February 22, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Terry L Smith
Beginning in the 1950s, B. F. Skinner made increasing reference to an analogy between operant conditioning and natural selection. This analogy is the basis of an argument that, in contrast to Skinner's other critiques of cognitive science, is neither epistemological nor pragmatic. Instead, it is based on the claim that ontogenetic adaptation is due to a special mode of causation he called "selection by consequences." He argued that this mode of causation conflicts with explanations that attribute action to an autonomous agent with reasons for acting...
February 17, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Anette Einan Enoksen, Paul Dickerson
Previous research has examined how the talk of mediums attends to the epistemological status of their readings. Such work has identified that mediums frequently use question-framed propositions that are typically confirmed by the sitter, thereby conferring epistemological status on the medium. This study seeks to investigate what happens when the sitter disconfirms the propositions of the medium. The study focuses on the ways in which such disconfirmation can be responded to such that it is reconstrued as evidence of the psychic nature of the medium's reading...
February 20, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Susan M Squier
Parasites!, a 2010 comic sponsored by the Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, demonstrates that a graphic narrative can play a role in energizing public debate. Part of the genre known as graphic medicine-comics about illness, treatment, disability, and caregiving-Parasites! is intended to educate readers of all ages about illnesses less known in the developed world. Two visual strategies in particular enable the comic to offer an alternative and aesthetic response to questions about developing drugs to treat tropical diseases for profit...
February 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Megan Yu
Although graphic pathographies have recently been recognized as playing an important role in medical care, they have not been formally incorporated in many medical school curricula. In this paper, I discuss current applications of graphic pathographies in medicine as well as some potential ethical and epistemological challenges that can arise when using these narratives. Health professionals and medical educators should understand when, why, and how to use graphic pathographies with the goal of enhancing medical education and patient care...
February 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
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