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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239922/diverging-approaches-of-pharmacovigilance-and-pharmacoepidemiology-to-assessing-drug-safety-epistemological-and-ethical-implications
#1
Joël Coste
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239195/who-is-the-scientist-subject-a-critique-of-the-neo-kantian-scientist-subject-in-lorraine-daston-and-peter-galison-s-objectivity
#2
REVIEW
Esha Shah
The main focus of this essay is to closely engage with the role of scientist-subjectivity in the making of objectivity in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison's book Objectivity, and Daston's later and earlier works On Scientific Observation and The Moral Economy of Science. I have posited four challenges to the neo-Kantian and Foucauldian constructions of the co-implication of psychology and epistemology presented in these texts. Firstly, following Jacques Lacan's work, I have argued that the subject of science constituted by the mode of modern science suffers from paranoia...
2017: Minerva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238977/deaf-hearing-research-partnerships
#3
Ju-Lee A Wolsey, Kim Misener Dunn, Scott W Gentzke, Hannah A Joharchi, M Diane Clark
Deaf individuals typically are seen through the lens of the dominant hearing society's perception, i.e., that being deaf is an impairment. Today, a small but growing number of Deaf and hearing researchers are challenging this perception. The authors examined perceptions of what components are necessary for a successful Deaf/hearing research partnership, and propose that it is essential for Deaf and hearing researchers to embrace a Deaf epistemology. The authors found that a core category of equity is the key to effective teams...
2017: American Annals of the Deaf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225699/what-is-the-relevance-of-procedural-fairness-to-making-determinations-about-medical-evidence
#4
Govind Persad
Approaches relying on fair procedures rather than substantive principles have been proposed for answering dilemmas in medical ethics and health policy. These dilemmas generally involve two questions: the epistemological (factual) question of which benefits an intervention will have, and the ethical (value) question of how to distribute those benefits. This article focuses on the potential of fair procedures to help address epistemological and factual questions in medicine, using the debate over antidepressant efficacy as a test case...
February 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219269/the-potentiality-of-a-healthy-self-evaluating-progressively-empowered-internalisation-and-diagnosis-through-the-lens-of-existential-epistemology
#5
Anna Westin
In this article I will examine how the language of diagnosis can engage with existential epistemology to develop a concept of Progressively Empowered Internalisation (PEI). This, I will argue, challenges conceptualisations of diagnosis as articulating and maintaining a static self-concept. It enables the individual to synthesise the language of a particular mental experience within the wider engagement of their own active process of self-becoming. I will suggest that this construction of PEI addresses the limitations of stigmatisation and static self-concepts...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205090/-from-controversy-to-scientific-discussion-the-dispute-over-the-vacuum-and-its-pascalian-metamorphosis
#6
Martine Pécharman
Pascal's Expériences nouvelles touchant le vide (1647) outlines a physical demonstration that aims to put to an end controversies between plenists and vacuists. The traditional form of the dispute with which Pascal wanted to break, however, finds itself reactivated by Étienne Noël, who takes up again the plenist objections which the Expériences nouvelles only consider as possible the better to refute them. Pascal's letters Au très révérend père Noël and À Monsieur Le Pailleur on the contrary permit one to define a field of disputation different from the one which Noël perpetuates...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205084/-the-republic-of-humours-scholarly-quarrels-in-bayle-s-dictionary
#7
Isabelle Moreau
Quarrelling is a 'routine' activity of the Republic of Letters. This article demonstrates that quarrels played a key role in the field of historical criticism. The contention of this article is twofold. First, it explores the epistemological issues raised by Bayle while reporting the quarrels of the Republic of Letters, and demonstrates their creative potential, thus applying to historiography conclusions drawn by recent research on scientific controversies. It offers a new understanding of scholarly quarrels, here understood as a socially and intellectually structuring activity...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198580/can-nursing-epistemology-embrace-p-values
#8
Christine H K Ou, Wendy A Hall, Sally E Thorne
The use of correlational probability values (p-values) as a means of evaluating evidence in nursing and health care has largely been accepted uncritically. There are reasons to be concerned about an uncritical adherence to the use of significance testing, which has been located in the natural science paradigm. p-values have served in hypothesis and statistical testing, such as in randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses to support what has been portrayed as the highest levels of evidence in the framework of evidence-based practice...
February 15, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196563/a-foundational-analysis-of-dorothea-orem-s-self-care-theory-and-evaluation-of-its-significance-for-nursing-practice-and-research
#9
Ahtisham Younas
In-depth understanding of the ontological and epistemological assumptions of nursing theories can be achieved through theory analysis. Several theory analysis criteria have been proposed for examining ontological and epistemological assumptions, but there are limited examples of actual analysis of these assumptions. This article presents an analysis of the ontological and epistemological assumptions of Dorothea Orem's selfcare theory and evaluates its significance for nursing practice and research.
February 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194883/understanding-process-and-context-in-breastfeeding-support-interventions-the-potential-of-qualitative-research
#10
Dawn Leeming, Joyce Marshall, Abigail Locke
Considerable effort has been made in recent years to gain a better understanding of the effectiveness of different interventions for supporting breastfeeding. However, research has tended to focus primarily on measuring outcomes and has paid comparatively little attention to the relational, organizational, and wider contextual processes that may impact delivery of an intervention. Supporting a woman with breastfeeding is an interpersonal encounter that may play out differently in different contexts, despite the apparently consistent aims and structure of an intervention...
February 14, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186633/introduction-applying-clinical-psychological-science-to-practice
#11
Christine B Cha, Katherine A DiVasto
Mental illness is a prevalent and extraordinarily complex phenomenon. Psychologists have developed distinct approaches toward understanding and treating mental illness, rooted in divergent epistemology. This introduction to the Special Issue on Clinical Psychological Science and Practice provides a brief overview of the scientist-practitioner gap, and explores one step (of many) toward bridging this divide. Seven compelling case illustrations featured in this Special Issue apply empirical findings to case formulation, treatment selection, and assessment across complex and varied clinical presentations...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186510/-the-significance-and-effect-of-guidelines-2-observations-concerning-validation-and-recommendations-with-respect-to-guidelines
#12
J Craandijk
The proper functioning of guidelines depends in part on correct validation. Validation requires an established norm. The professional and proto-pro-fessional paradigm uses different standards for validation based on different epistemological assumptions. Several different fundamental principles are also applied among healthcare professionals themselves. This leads to an insurmountable methodological difference whereby validation is not possible or meaningful at the moment. An important role seems reserved for the epistemology of the humanities to explain and interpret the guidelines...
February 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165286/the-erudite-humility-of-the-historian-the-critical-epistemology-of-georges-lant%C3%A3-ri-laura
#13
Elisabetta Basso Lorini
This paper analyses the historical and epistemological work of the French psychiatrist Georges Lantéri-Laura (1930-2004) within the context of the French 'tradition' of history and philosophy of sciences, with special reference to Georges Canguilhem and Michel Foucault. After an introduction devoted to a critical survey of the most recent works on the history and historiography of psychiatry in French, the paper outlines Lantéri-Laura's approach by focusing especially on the role played by the methodological concept of 'semiology' as regards the relation between medicine and psychiatry...
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163654/epistemic-cultures-in-complementary-medicine-knowledge-making-in-university-departments-of-osteopathy-and-chinese-medicine
#14
Caragh Brosnan
There is increasing pressure on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to follow the evidence-based approach promoted in allied health and medicine, in which the randomised control trial represents the evidence gold standard. However, many CAM advocates see these methods as undermining the holism of CAM practice. This paper explores how such tensions are managed in CAM university departments - settings in which particular forms of knowledge and evidence are given 'official' imprimatur by CAM educators and researchers...
May 3, 2016: Health Sociology Review: the Journal of the Health Section of the Australian Sociological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156613/what-does-palliative-care-mean-diverse-definitions-from-cancer-care-providers
#15
Rebecca A Ferrer, Michelle Mollica, Grace Huang, Angela Falisi, Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou
: 40 Background: Existing literature on the epistemology of palliative care has mostly centered on patient/family perspectives. Understanding how multi-disciplinary healthcare providers themselves define palliative care is a critical step towards addressing barriers and harnessing facilitators that affect optimal delivery. METHODS: Semi-structured key informant interviews (N = 19) were conducted with members of healthcare provider teams as part of a qualitative study on goals of care for cancer patients enrolled in clinical trials...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145782/shouldering-the-past-photography-archaeology-and-collective-effort-at-the-tomb-of-tutankhamun
#16
Christina Riggs
Photographing archaeological labor was routine on Egyptian and other Middle Eastern sites during the colonial period and interwar years. Yet why and how such photographs were taken is rarely discussed in literature concerned with the history of archaeology, which tends to take photography as given if it considers it at all. This paper uses photographs from the first two seasons of work at the tomb of Tutankhamun (1922-4) to show that photography contributed to discursive strategies that positioned archaeology as a scientific practice - both in the public presentation of well-known sites and in the self-presentation of archaeologists to themselves and each other...
December 1, 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139174/essentialism-and-islamic-theology-of-homosexuality-a-critical-reflection-on-an-essentialist-epistemology-toward-same-sex-desires-and-acts-in-islam
#17
M Alipour
Although most traditional Muslim scholars condemn same-sex desires and acts, revisionist Muslim scholars have offered a more tolerant approach on this issue over the last two decades. Building on an essentialist approach to same-sex desires and acts, these scholars argue that Islam accepts difference and diversity, including sexual diversity, as part of God's creation. Homosexuality, which in their view is an innate disposition to the same sex, is an alternative sexuality and, thus, accepted by Qur'an/Islam...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138927/towards-topological-mechanisms-underlying-experience-acquisition-and-transmission-in-the-human-brain
#18
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Experience is a process of awareness and mastery of facts or events, gained through actual observation or second-hand knowledge. Recent findings reinforce the idea that a naturalized epistemological approach is needed to further advance our understanding of the nervous mechanisms underlying experience. This essay is an effort to build a coherent topological-based framework able to elucidate particular aspects of experience, e.g., how it is acquired by a single individual, transmitted to others and collectively stored in form of general ideas...
January 30, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134410/-does-clinical-methodology-yet-exist
#19
Mario Timio, Anteo Di Napoli, Francesca Timio, Giuseppe Quintaliani
Up to 1968, clinical methodology was considered a central step in construction of Medical procedure. Later, after specialization or high specialization introduction, it totally disappeared. The results is the absence of any epistemological knowledge in the construction of diagnosis, based on two main theory: inductivism and hypothetico-deductivism. Both start from the point that diagnostic theory can be developed in close touch with experiment and observation. The inductive theory builds up the diagnosis on the multiple observations, while the deductive theory formulates the diagnosis from the bright idea which inspires the doctor who then has to check his theory by observation...
November 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125384/china-s-health-reform-update
#20
Gordon G Liu, Samantha A Vortherms, Xuezhi Hong
China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Health care financing reform led to universal basic medical insurance, whereas the public hospital reform required more complex measures ranging from changes in regulatory, operational, and service delivery settings to personnel management...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
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