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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934045/the-ethics-of-big-data-and-nursing-science
#1
Constance L Milton
Big data is a scientific, social, and technological trend referring to the process and size of datasets available for analysis. Ethical implications arise as healthcare disciplines, including nursing, struggle over questions of informed consent, privacy, ownership of data, and its possible use in epistemology. The author offers straight-thinking possibilities for the use of big data in nursing science.
October 2017: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926777/experience-as-knowledge-disability-distillation-and-reprogenetic-decision-making
#2
Felicity K Boardman
'Experiential knowledge' is increasingly recognised as an important influence on reproductive decision-making. 'Experiential knowledge of disability' in particular is a significant resource within prenatal testing/screening contexts, enabling prospective parents to imagine and appraise future lives affected by disability. However, the concept of 'experiential knowledge' has been widely critiqued for its idiosyncrasy, its impermanence and consequently its perceived inferiority to (medical) knowledge. This paper explores some of these key critiques of experiential knowledge through an analysis of its constitution and uses in the context of reproductive decision-making...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912826/can-yesterday-s-smoking-research-inform-today-s-shiftwork-research-epistemological-consequences-for-exposures-and-doses-due-to-circadian-disruption-at-and-off-work
#3
Thomas C Erren, Philip Lewis
In 1950, landmark epidemiology studies by Wynder & Graham and Doll & Hill contributed to identifying smoking as a potent carcinogen. In 2007, IARC classified shiftwork involving circadian disruption (CD) as probably carcinogenic; however, epidemiological evidence in regards to the carcinogenicity of shiftwork that involves nightwork is conflicting. We hypothesize that shiftwork research is lacking chronobiological and methodological rigor and that lessons can be learned from comparison with smoking research...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900879/darwinism-in-metaethics-what-if-the-universal-acid-cannot-be-contained
#4
Eleonora Severini, Fabio Sterpetti
The aim of this article is to explore the impact of Darwinism in metaethics and dispel some of the confusion surrounding it. While the prospects for a Darwinian metaethics appear to be improving, some underlying epistemological issues remain unclear. We will focus on the so-called Evolutionary Debunking Arguments (EDAs) which, when applied in metaethics, are defined as arguments that appeal to the evolutionary origins of moral beliefs so as to undermine their epistemic justification. The point is that an epistemic disanalogy can be identified in the debate on EDAs between moral beliefs and other kinds of beliefs, insofar as only the former are regarded as vulnerable to EDAs...
September 12, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891342/towards-a-critical-health-equity-research-stance-why-epistemology-and-methodology-matter-more-than-qualitative-methods
#5
Lisa Bowleg
Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with this premise, I address four themes in this commentary. First, I criticize the ubiquitous and uncritical use of the term health disparities in U.S. public health. Next, I advocate for the increased use of qualitative methodologies-namely, photovoice and critical ethnography-that, pursuant to critical approaches, prioritize dismantling social-structural inequities as a prerequisite to health equity...
September 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882719/lessons-from-culturally-contrasted-alternative-methods-of-inquiry-and-styles-of-comprehension-for-the-new-foundations-in-the-study-of-life
#6
REVIEW
Jordi Vallverdú, Marcin J Schroeder
Contemporary scientific approaches to Biology are the result of some cultural ideas considered as universal by Western reductionist traditions. The study of the cultural, symbolic and historical approaches to reality and Life provides us important lessons about the necessity of integrating Eastern holistic views into the study of Life. This is both an epistemological and ontological enhancement which provides more powerful and insightful ways to deal with Life and its understanding.
September 5, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866804/medical-epistemology
#7
Henk Ten Have, Bert Gordijn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860672/temporal-vulnerability-and-the-post-disaster-window-of-opportunity-to-woo-a-case-study-of-an-african-american-floodplain-neighborhood-after-hurricane-floyd-in-north-carolina
#8
Daniel H de Vries
After major flooding associated with Hurricane Floyd (1999) in North Carolina, mitigation managers seized upon the "window of opportunity" to woo residents to accept residential buyout offers despite sizable community resistance. I present a theoretical explanation of how post-crisis periods turn into "opportunities" based on a temporal referential theory that complements alternative explanations based on temporal coincidence, panarchy, and shock-doctrine theories. Results from fieldwork conducted from 2002 to 2004 illustrate how several temporal influences compromised collective calibration of "normalcy" in local cultural models, leading to an especially heightened vulnerability to collective surprise...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859345/basic-sciences-fertilizing-clinical-microbiology-and-infection-management
#9
Fernando Baquero
Basic sciences constitute the most abundant sources of creativity and innovation, as they are based on the passion of knowing. Basic knowledge, in close and fertile contact with medical and public health needs, produces distinct advancements in applied sciences. Basic sciences play the role of stem cells, providing material and semantics to construct differentiated tissues and organisms and enabling specialized functions and applications. However, eventually processes of "practice deconstruction" might reveal basic questions, as in de-differentiation of tissue cells...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855845/to-model-or-not-to-model-that-is-no-longer-the-question-for-ecologists
#10
Rupert Seidl
Here, I argue that we should abandon the division between "field ecologists" and "modelers," and embrace modeling and empirical research as two powerful and often complementary approaches in the toolbox of 21st century ecologists, to be deployed alone or in combination depending on the task at hand. As empirical research has the longer tradition in ecology, and modeling is the more recent addition to the methodological arsenal, I provide both practical and theoretical reasons for integrating modeling more deeply into ecosystem research...
March 2017: Ecosystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845827/non-conventional-practice-versus-evidence-based-medicine-a-scientific-and-ethical-analysis-of-the-italian-regulation
#11
Sara Patuzzo, Rosagemma Ciliberti
BACKGROUND: The current lack of scientific validation of non-conventional treatments in medicine, whose epistemological foundations lie in scientific evidence and experimentation, raises significant questions regarding the costs and benefits of alternative-treatment forms. Nonetheless, in the last few decades non-conventional treatments have been increasingly recognised by the Italian medical profession, with one regional healthcare administration adopting some non-conventional practices as part of its conventional healthcare services...
August 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841813/-you-need-to-do-your-research-vaccines-contestable-science-and-maternal-epistemology
#12
Melissa L Carrion
Individuals who refuse vaccines are often painted as anti-science or ill-informed. However, drawing from interviews with 50 mothers who refused one or more vaccines ( n = 50), results from this study suggest that such depictions lack nuance and may detract from the ability of communication efforts to effectively address concerns. In particular, participants' explanations for vaccine refusal relied on paradoxical arguments about science and expertise. On one hand, participants defended the ideal of science but criticized existing research for failing to meet requisite standards...
August 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841052/a-qualitative-study-of-challenges-and-opportunities-in-mobilizing-research-knowledge-on-violence-against-women
#13
Shannon L Sibbald, Jennifer C D MacGregor, Harriet L MacMillan, Nadine Wathen
Background Effective delivery of interventions by health and social services requires research-based knowledge which identifies the causes and consequences of violence against women. Methods to effectively share new knowledge with violence against women decision-makers remain under studied. Purpose This paper examines how new research-based knowledge-namely, the lack of efficacy of health-care screening for exposure to intimate partner violence against women-is received by stakeholders in the violence against women field...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832823/-less-well-established-forms-of-knowledge-new-positionings-in-the-field-of-collective-mental-health
#14
Angel Martínez-Hernáez, Martín Correa-Urquiza
Collective health is a paradigm with a long history in Latin America. Similarly, collective mental health has had an interesting development in certain Latin American countries, even acting to stimulate psychiatric reform. However, both paradigms appear to be encapsulated in specific times and places, among other reasons because of a hegemonic global-scale epistemology that, by imposing a naturalized model of truth, denies other forms of knowledge the opportunity to question not only already-established disease categories, treatment protocols and health policies, but the established order itself...
April 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827458/penfield-s-ceiling-seeing-brain-injury-through-galen-s-eyes
#15
Zoe M Adams, Joseph J Fins
The cathedral ceiling located in the entrance hall of the Montreal Neurological Institute, planned by its founder Wilder Penfield, has intrigued visitors since it was erected in 1934. Central to its charm is a cryptic comment by the ancient physician Galen of Pergamum, which refutes a dire Hippocratic aphorism about prognosis in brain injury. Galen's optimism, shared by Penfield, is curious from a fellow ancient. In this article, we use primary sources in Ancient Greek as well as secondary sources to not only examine the origins of Galen's epistemology but also, using a methodology in classics scholarship known as reception studies, illustrate how an awareness of this ancient debate can illuminate contemporary clinical contexts...
August 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826513/slicing-the-cortex-to-study-mental-illness-alois-alzheimer-s-pictures-of-equivalence
#16
Lara Keuck
Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915) was a German physician who specialized in psychiatry, and who is today known for the first description of a-in his own words-peculiar ailment (eigenartige Erkrankung), which was named after him. In his time, however, he was foremost recognized for his work in refining histopathological techniques and thereby contributing to the methodological arsenal for differential diagnosis in clinical psychiatry. In his laboratory that was based at the renowned Munich Psychiatric University Clinic led by Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), Alzheimer, his assistants, and students conserved, prepared, and studied slices of deceased patients' brains under the microscope...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815703/the-epistemology-behind-the-curtain-thoughts-on-the-science-of-psychoanalysis
#17
Brett H Clarke
This essay is concerned with the epistemological complications of the interface between psychoanalysis and "scientific" disciplines and methodologies-in particular, with respect to theories of knowledge and conceptualizations of subjectivity appropriate to psychoanalysis. The author suggests that there is in such interface the potential for an untheorized scientism in empiricist prescriptions for the reform and rescue of psychoanalysis, and revisits the notion that subjectivity as conceived psychoanalytically, grounded in lived experience, is irreducible in ways that are unique and existentially abiding...
July 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812827/-seeing-the-difference-the-importance-of-visibility-and-action-as-a-mark-of-authenticity-in-co-production-comment-on-collaboration-and-co-production-of-knowledge-in-healthcare-opportunities-and-challenges
#18
Jo Cooke, Joe Langley, Dan Wolstenholme, Susan Hampshaw
The Rycroft-Malone paper states that co-production relies on 'authentic' collaboration as a context for action. Our commentary supports and extends this assertion. We suggest that 'authentic' co-production involves processes where participants can 'see' the difference that they have made within the project and beyond. We provide examples including: the use of design in health projects which seek to address power issues and make contributions visible through iteration and prototyping; and the development of 'actionable outputs' from research that are the physical embodiment of co-production...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810472/the-rapid-expansion-of-mainstream-health-psychology-in-france-historical-foundations
#19
Marie Santiago-Delefosse, Maria Del Rio Carral
This article traces the historical evolution of ongoing theoretical debates in psychology in France from the 1940s until today. Its aim is to show how the conjunction of certain conditions was determinant for a rapid expansion of American-derived mainstream health psychology during the 1980s. The authors describe the French context in the post-World War II period that made possible the introduction of psychology courses at the university, which included the tensions between two epistemological orientations: experimental psychology and clinical psychology, the latter partly inspired by Politzer's concrete psychology...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810461/a-journey-to-hiv-prevention-research-from-social-psychology-to-social-health-via-multidisciplinarity
#20
Susan Kippax
This article is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention and how and why I navigated my way from social psychology to 'social health' via multidisciplinarity. My work in HIV prevention - from 1984 to the present day - developed my understandings of epistemology, building on and expanding the ways in which I undertook research. This article describes those whose writings and research influenced me and the input of colleagues and students. It also demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
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