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Nadine Ijaz, Heather Boon, Linda Muzzin, Sandy Welsh
Several United Nations bodies have advised countries to actively preserve Traditional Medicine (TM) knowledge and prevent its misappropriation in regulatory structures. To help advance decision-making around this complex regulatory issue, we examine the relationship between risk discourse, epistemology and policy. This study presents a critical, postcolonial analysis of divergent risk discourses elaborated in two contrasting Ontario (Canada) government reports preceding that jurisdiction's regulation of acupuncture, the world's most widely practised TM therapy...
August 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Matthew S Adams
The work of Herbert Spencer was a crucial influence on the development of Peter Kropotkin's historical sociology. However, scholars have underestimated this relationship; either overlooking it entirely, or minimizing Kropotkin's attachment to Spencer with the aim of maintaining the utility of his political thought in the present. This article contests these interpretations by analyzing Kropotkin's reading of Spencer's epistemological, biological, and political ideas. It argues that Kropotkin was engaged in a critical dialogue with Spencer, incorporating many Spencerian principles in his own system, but also using this reading to articulate a distinctive anarchist politics...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Peter T Struck
Ancient Greeks drew advice from oracles, dreams, entrails, the movements of birds, sneezes, and myriad other sources for divination. Classicists typically study such phenomena as examples of occult religion, or for their use as a social mechanism for managing dissent and forging consensus. Ancient philosophical accounts by contrast go a longer way toward considering them seriously, on their own terms. They take them as an invitation into developing speculative accounts of non-standard epistemological schemes...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Brett McCarty
In The Anticipatory Corpse, Jeffrey Bishop claims that modern medicine has lost formal and final causality as the dead body has become epistemologically normative, and that a singular focus on efficient and material causality has thoroughly distorted modern medical practice. Bishop implies that the renewal of medicine will require its housing in alternate social spaces. This essay critiques both Bishop's diagnosis and therapy by arguing, first, that alternate social imaginaries, though perhaps marginalized, are already present within the practice of medicine...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Truls I Juritzen, Helene L Soberg, Cecilie Røe, Martin Saebu, Grace Engen, Trond Bliksvaer, Eivind Engebretsen
This article aims to identify and critically assess qualitative intervention studies of rehabilitation processes that target young adults. By applying a meta-epistemological approach inspired by the works of Michel Foucault and Julia Kristeva, we examine how the included studies present qualitative knowledge and whether they adhere to their own stated principles of qualitative knowledge. Through their stated aims and theoretical framing, the articles draw attention to individual processes of meaning making...
October 16, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Lorna Awo Renner, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Developing countries such as Ghana have very poor childhood cancer survival rates. There is a need to determine reasons for late presentation and treatment abandonment which are major causes of poor survival. Understanding these issues could inform effective strategies for childhood cancer control in resource-constrained settings. AIM: To explore factors influencing parental decision-making for children with cancer in Ghana with regard to health seeking and retention in treatment, in order to provide information that will guide Public Health interventions for childhood cancer control...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Katherine Fierlbeck
Regardless of their policy outcomes, strategies of regionalization are prevalent because they are politically useful. They permit governments to be seen addressing serious systemic problems in the healthcare system without fundamentally upsetting the face-to-face relationship between physicians and patients. They shift the responsibility for unpopular policies, including the consolidation of services, away from provincial governments. They can be part of a larger process of decentralizing power that is undertaken for larger, non-health-related reasons...
2016: HealthcarePapers
Henrik Eriksson, Martin Salzmann-Erikson
The aim of this study was to present the functionality and design of nursing care robots as depicted in pictures posted on social media. A netnographic study was conducted using social media postings over a period of 3 years. One hundred and Seventy-two images were analyzed using netnographic methodology. The findings show that nursing care robots exist in various designs and functionalities, all with a common denominator of supporting the care of one's own and others' health and/or well-being as a main function...
October 11, 2016: Nursing Inquiry
David Reubi
This article tells a different but equally important story about neoliberalism and global health than the narrative on structural adjustment policies usually found in the literature. Rather than focus on macroeconomic structural adjustment policies, this story draws our attention to microeconomic taxation policies on tobacco, alcohol and sugar now widely recognised as the best strategy to control the global non-communicable disease epidemic. Structural adjustment policies are the product of the shift from statist to market-based development models, which was brought about by neoliberal thinkers like Peter Blau and Deepak Lal...
October 19, 2016: Critical Public Health
Johan S Abildgaard, Per Ø Saksvik, Karina Nielsen
Organizational interventions aiming at improving employee health and wellbeing have proven to be challenging to evaluate. To analyze intervention processes two methodological approaches have widely been used: quantitative (often questionnaire data), or qualitative (often interviews). Both methods are established tools, but their distinct epistemological properties enable them to illuminate different aspects of organizational interventions. In this paper, we use the quantitative and qualitative process data from an organizational intervention conducted in a national postal service, where the Intervention Process Measure questionnaire (N = 285) as well as an extensive interview study (N = 50) were used...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
John S Torday, William B Miller
A well-developed theory of evolutionary biology requires understanding of the origins of life on Earth. However, the initial conditions (ontology) and causal (epistemology) bases on which physiology proceeded have more recently been called into question, given the teleologic nature of Darwinian evolutionary thinking. When evolutionary development is focused on cellular communication, a distinctly different perspective unfolds. The cellular communicative-molecular approach affords a logical progression for the evolutionary narrative based on the basic physiologic properties of the cell...
October 2016: International Journal of Astrobiology
Bruna Pedroso Canever, Marta Lenise do Prado, Diana Coelho Gomes, Bruna Helena de Jesus
Objective: To understand how epistemological world awareness is expressed in the educational practices of healthcare professors. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory, and analytical study. Data were collected through open-end interviews and non-participant observation from May to December 2013, with 10 professors from a public university in southern Brazil. The adopted theoretical framework was the composition of Paulo Freire and Lee Shulman. Data were analysed according to the operative proposal of Minayo...
September 29, 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Irayda Jakušovaitė, Žydrunė Luneckaitė, Eimantas Peičius, Živilė Bagdonaitė, Olga Riklikienė, Edgaras Stankevičius
The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death...
2016: Medicina
Sophie van Baalen, Annamaria Carusi, Ian Sabroe, David G Kiely
In recent years there has been growing attention to the epistemology of clinical decision-making, but most studies have taken the individual physicians as the central object of analysis. In this paper we argue that knowing in current medical practice has an inherently social character and that imaging plays a mediating role in these practices. We have analyzed clinical decision-making within a medical expert team involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare disease requiring multidisciplinary team involvement in diagnosis and management...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Lorenzo Baravalle, Davide Vecchi
In this paper we aim to amend the traditional analogy at the heart of evolutionary epistemologies. We shall first argue, contrary to what has been frequently done, that both hypothesis generation and the processes of generation of genetic and phenotypic change are often directed as well as environmentally conditioned. Secondly, we shall argue that environmental influence does not affect trial generation directly but that environmental information is processed by the epistemic agent and by the biological organism respectively...
September 29, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
To better understand training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle pH regulation, this study measured protein and mRNA kinetics of proton (H(+) ) transporters for 72 h following a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), conducted after 4 weeks of similar training. We also assayed muscle buffer capacity (βm) by titration technique (βmin vitro ) over the same period. Sixteen active men cycled for 7 × 2 min at ∼80% of peak aerobic power, interspersed with 1 min rest. Compared to the first 9 h post-exercise, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1 protein content was ∼1...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Physiology
S Loland, Mike McNamee
The European College of Sport Science (ECSS) was established in part to promote the integrated study of sports and related phenomena from multi- and interdisciplinary perspectives. There are significant and enduring philosophical, epistemological and professional challenges and opportunities that arise from this integrationist perspective. In this article, we reflect upon the challenges that have arisen in the development of sport sciences in the attempt to realize the ECSS mission. We identify three paradigmatic approaches to sports science: (1) the mechanistic; (2) the hermeneutic and (3) the critical...
August 16, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Alain Leplege, Catherine Barral, Katherine Mc Pherson
In order to rethink rehabilitation - it is vital that we think about current rehabilitation - what it looks like and why. The dominant models that have emerged to guide development and practice, the frameworks that underpin compensation policies, funding for services, and indeed research, all have historical and political roots. If we better understand these models, their basis or foundation, their strengths and also their weaknesses, then perhaps we can better understand how to contribute to progress in the future...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Helen Butlin, Elizabeth Anne Kinsella, Carla Garcia, Glenn Bauman
OBJECTIVE: The concept of "wisdom" is beginning to emerge in the oncology literature, raising questions concerning: (1) how the concept of wisdom is used in oncology literature; (2) the ways in which wisdom has been a focus of inquiry within oncology care; and (3) how wisdom is characterized when the term is used. METHOD: A scoping review, using Arksey and O'Malley's five-step framework, was undertaken to address these questions. In consultation with oncology reference librarians, "wisdom"- and "oncology"-related search terms were identified, and four electronic databases were searched: CINAHL, SocINDEX, PubMed, and PsychINFO...
September 26, 2016: Palliative & Supportive Care
Konrad Werner
I shall propose metaphilosophy of mind as the philosophy of mind investigating mind. That is to say, I pose the question of how knowledge of mind provided by cognitive science, broadly construed, is constrained by the epistemic position of the knower, i.e. by the very fact that it is undertaken by a mind. Here I would like to propose a minimal framework, based on two distinctions: (i) the standard one between empirical and conceptual analysis; (ii) a new one, between the internal questions of mind and the boundary questions of mind...
September 24, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
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