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Christian P Strassburg
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents an increasing health burden worldwide and a challenging disease both in terms of diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: The literature available on PubMed for the period of 1990-2016 was reviewed with reference to liver allocation, HCC, liver transplantation (LT), and prediction, and the allocation rules of the German Transplant Act were reviewed. RESULTS: Due to etiological and geographical diversity, HCC is not a homogeneous disease...
August 2016: Visc Med
Tong Li, Ke Jin, Dan-Yan Zhu, Lu Li, Zheng Rong Mao, Bo Wen Wu, Yi Fan Wang, Zong Fu Pan, Lan Juan Li, Chun Sheng Xiang, Kun Kai Su, Yi Jia Lou
The in vitro predictive evaluation of chemical carcinogenicity based on hepatic premalignance has so far not been established. Here, we report a novel approach to investigate the premalignant events triggered by human carcinogen aristolochic acid I (AAI) in the liver-like tissue derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. By AAI exposure, the liver-like tissue exhibited the paracrine interleukin-6 phenotypic characteristics. Hepatocytes expressed STAT3/p-STAT3, c-Myc and Lin28B in parallel. Some of them displayed the dedifferentiation characteristics, such as full of α-fetoprotein granules, increase in size, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttle of Oct4...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Yung-Ju Chen, Angela D Myracle, Matthew A Wallig, Elizabeth H Jeffery
Western-style high fat, high sugar diets are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased liver cancer risk. Sulforaphane from broccoli may protect against these. Previously we initiated broccoli feeding to mice prior to exposure to the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and saw protection against NAFLD and liver cancer. Here we administered DEN to unweaned mice, initiating broccoli feeding two weeks later, to determine if broccoli protects against cancer progression. Specifically, male 15-day-old C57BL/6J mice were given DEN and placed on a Western or Western+10%Broccoli diet from the age of 4 weeks through 7 months...
June 2016: Journal of Functional Foods
Perng-Kuang Chang, Leslie L Scharfenstein, Kenneth C Ehrlich, José Diana Di Mavungu
Aspergillus flavus is able to synthesize a variety of polyketide-derived secondary metabolites including the hepatocarcinogen, aflatoxin B1. The fungus reproduces and disseminates predominantly by production of conidia. It also produces hardened mycelial aggregates called sclerotia that are used to cope with unfavourable growth environments. In the present study, we examined the role of A. flavus fluP, the backbone polyketide synthase gene of secondary metabolite gene cluster 41, on fungal development. The A...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
Anthony W H Chan, Grace L H Wong, Hoi-Yun Chan, Joanna H M Tong, Yau-Hei Yu, Paul C L Choi, Henry L Y Chan, Ka-Fai To, Vincent W S Wong
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Concurrent fatty liver in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients without significant alcohol intake is a frequent and increasingly alarming problem due to the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pandemic. Concomitant obesity and diabetes increase the risk of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Direct evidence of the hepatocarcinogenic effect of fatty liver in chronic HBV remains elusive. We aimed to evaluate the risk of concurrent histologically-proven fatty liver in HBV hepatocarcinogenesis...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Shibin Yuan, Bangyuan Wu, Zhengqiang Yu, Jing Fang, Na Liang, Mingqiang Zhou, Cheng Huang, Xi Peng
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a toxic metabolite produced by some fungi, exerts well-known hepatocarcinogenic and immunosuppressive effects, the latter can increase the apoptotic immune cells in vitro. However, it is largely unknown that which signaling pathways contribute to excessive apoptosis of immune cells which induced by AFB1. In this study, we investigated the roles of the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and death receptor activated apoptotic pathways in the bursal of Fabricius (BF) cells in the broilers exposed to AFB1 diet...
August 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Hongyan Liu, Hong Xu, Chenghong Zhang, Meng Gao, Xiaoguang Gao, Chuchu Ma, Li Lv, Dongyan Gao, Sa Deng, Changyuan Wang, Yan Tian
PURPOSE: Heparin sodium (HS)-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLGA-TPGS) nanoparticles (HPTNs) were prepared as a sustained and targeting delivery carrier and combined with emodin (EMO)-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles (EPTNs), which were investigated previously to form a combination therapy system for the treatment of liver cancer. METHODS: To assess cellular uptake and evaluate the liver-targeting capacity by analyzing the drug concentrations and frozen slices, HS/eosin-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles, HS/fluorescein- loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and EMO/C6-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles, which contained eosin, fluorescein and C6 as fluorescent probes, respectively, were also prepared...
November 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Masayuki Kimura, Sayaka Mizukami, Yousuke Watanabe, Nobuhiko Onda, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
The present study aimed to determine the onset time of hepatocarcinogen/hepatocarcinogenic tumor promoter-specific cell proliferation, apoptosis and aberrant cell cycle regulation after post-initiation treatment. Six-week-old rats were treated with the genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, carbadox (CRB), the marginally hepatocarcinogenic leucomalachite green (LMG), the tumor promoter, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) or the non-carcinogenic hepatotoxicant, acetaminophen, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks during the post-initiation phase using a medium-term liver bioassay...
August 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Volodymyr Tryndyak, Aline de Conti, Daniel R Doerge, Greg R Olson, Frederick A Beland, Igor P Pogribny
Furan is a significant food contaminant and a potent hepatotoxicant and rodent liver carcinogen. The carcinogenic effect of furan has been attributed to genotoxic and non-genotoxic, including epigenetic, changes in the liver; however, the mechanisms of the furan-induced liver tumorigenicity are still unclear. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of transcriptomic and epigenetic events in the development of hepatic lesions in Fischer (F344) rats induced by furan treatment in a classic 2-year rodent tumorigenicity bioassay...
July 7, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Eman G Khedr, Hoda A El-Bahrawy, Eslam E Abd El-Fattah
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The current work was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenic effect of pomegranate hull extract (PHE) in livers of rats exposed to the hepatocarcinogen diethyl nitrosamine (DENA) with emphasis on oxidative stress, proliferation, and apoptosis. Male albino rats were divided into three groups: normal control, DENA group, and PHE group. PHE was given to rats orally 3 times weekly for 10 wk, 4 wk before and 6 wk after DENA (200 mg/kg, single i...
August 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Alex Boye, Yan Yang, James Asenso, Wei Wei
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use...
June 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Cheng-Hsun Ho, Huai-Chia Chuang, I-Chin Wu, Hung-Wen Tsai, Yih-Jyh Lin, Hung-Yu Sun, Kung-Chia Young, Yen-Cheng Chiu, Pin-Nan Cheng, Wen-Chun Liu, Tse-Hua Tan, Ting-Tsung Chang
Germinal center kinase-like kinase (GLK) is a key controller of autoimmunity. In this study, we assessed the clinical relevance and tumorigenic effects of GLK in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that the GLK proportion score increased in both cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissue from patients with HCC recurrence. A Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with a wide distribution of GLK in non-cancerous liver tissue had a higher rate of HCC recurrence than those with very low or no GLK expression...
June 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Josephine V Wojdylo, Wolfgang Vogelbein, Lisa J Bain, Charles D Rice
Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish...
August 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Yung-Ju Chen, Matthew A Wallig, Elizabeth H Jeffery
Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a chemical broadly used in animal models as a hepatocarcinogen, reported to also cause pulmonary neoplasms in mice. The original objective was to evaluate the impact of a Western diet with or without 10% broccoli on DEN-induced on liver cancer. We administered DEN (45 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to young adult male B6C3F1 mice by 6 weekly injections and evaluated liver cancer 6 months after the DEN treatments. Here, we report unexpected primary tumorigenesis in nasal epithelium, independent of dietary treatment...
August 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Fumiyo Saito, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Yumi Akahori, Masahiro Takeyoshi
Carcinogenicity of chemicals in our environment is one of the most important health hazards to humans. Recently, a microarray-based short-term prediction system for the hepatocarcinogenicity of chemicals, named CARCINOscreen(®), was developed. Although the system is a promising tool reported to have an ability to predict hepatocarcinogenicity in rats with 92.9% accuracy, it requires specialized equipment and skilled bioinformatics approaches for data analysis. Therefore, we attempted to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based system as an alternative to microarray-based CARCINOscreen(®)...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Won-Ki Min, Kang-In Na, Jung-Hyun Yoon, Yoon-Jee Heo, Daesang Lee, Sung-Gun Kim, Jin-Ho Seo
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced in Aspergillus flavus is a major hepatocarcinogen found in foods and feed. For effective immunological detection of AFB1 at low concentrations, the development of high affinity antibody for AFB1 is required. Previously, an affinity-maturated single-chain variable fragment containing 6 mutations (scFv-M37) was isolated from an artificial mutagenic library, which showed a 9-fold higher affinity than its wild type scFv. In this study, the effect of the 6 mutated residues on the affinity improvement was characterized using surface plasmon resonance analysis, which identified a deleterious mutation (VH-A110T) located on a framework region of the scFv-M37...
October 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Octavio P Luzardo, María Del Mar Bernal-Suárez, María Camacho, Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández, Luis D Boada, Cristian Rial-Berriel, Maira Almeida-González, Manuel Zumbado, Ricardo Díaz-Díaz
"Gofio" is a type of flour made from toasted grain, which is part of the staple food in the Canary Islands, Spain, in which the occurrence of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) Ochratoxin A (OTA), Deoxynivalenol (DNV) and Zearalenone (ZEA) was evaluated. 83% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 69.2% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxins (range 2 to 8). All the concentrations were well below the established limits (maximum values of AFs=0...
July 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Gehan El-Akabawy, Neveen M El-Sherif
Furan is produced in a wide variety of heat-treated foods via thermal degradation. Furan contamination is found to be relatively high in processed baby foods, cereal products, fruits juices, and canned vegetables. Several studies have demonstrated that furan is a potent hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen in rodents. However, few studies have investigated the toxic effects of furan in the testis. In addition, the exact mechanism(s) by which furan exerts toxicity in the testis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential of furan exposure from weaning through adulthood to induce oxidative stress in adult rat testis, as well as the potential of garlic oil (GO) to ameliorate the induced toxicity...
June 2016: Acta Histochemica
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Eman G Khedr, Hoda A El-Bahrawy, Eslam E Abd El-Fattah
Although sorafenib was approved as antiangiogenic agent in case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the pathways mediating its antitumorigenic effects were not fully examined in vivo. This study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antineoplastic effect of sorafenib in livers of rats exposed to the hepatocarcinogen diethyl nitrosamine (DENA) regarding oxidative stress, proliferation, and apoptotic pathways. Male albino rats were divided into three groups: normal control, DENA group, and sorafenib group...
April 16, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Haila Abassi, Imen Ayed-Boussema, Sarah Shirley, Salwa Abid, Hassen Bacha, Olivier Micheau
Zearalenone (ZEN) and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are fungal secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium and Aspergillus genera, respectively. These mycotoxins are found world-wide as corn and wheat contaminants. AFB1 is probably the most toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. It has been demonstrated to be mutagenic, genotoxic, and hepatocarcinogenic. ZEN is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin that displays hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Its mutagenic and carcinogenic properties have so far remained controversial and questionable...
July 8, 2016: Toxicology Letters
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