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Immunotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545238/epigenetic-strategies-to-boost-cancer-immunotherapies
#1
REVIEW
Maria J Barrero
Recently, immunotherapeutic approaches have shown impressive responses in a subset of cancer patients. However, the rate of success is low and a large percentage of treated patients do not experience clinical benefits. Therefore, additional strategies are needed to improve responses and select responsive patients. Emerging data suggest that epigenetic drugs can improve the responses to immunotherapy. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy and the epigenetic events that take place during immune evasion is critical to providing a rational combined use of immunotherapies and epigenetic drugs...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544821/predictive-model-for-high-frequency-microsatellite-instability-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-over-50%C3%A2-years-of-age
#2
Kenji Fujiyoshi, Tatsuro Yamaguchi, Miho Kakuta, Akemi Takahashi, Yoshiko Arai, Mina Yamada, Gou Yamamoto, Sachiko Ohde, Misato Takao, Shin-Ichiro Horiguchi, Soichiro Natsume, Shinsuke Kazama, Yusuke Nishizawa, Yoji Nishimura, Yoshito Akagi, Hirohiko Sakamoto, Kiwamu Akagi
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an important biomarker for screening for Lynch syndrome, and also of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The aim of this study is to create a predictive model to determine which elderly patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) should undergo MSI and/or immunohistochemistry testing on the basis of clinicopathological data. We analyzed a test cohort of CRC patients aged ≥50 years (n = 2219) by multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of high-frequency MSI (MSI-H)...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544818/ubiquitination-in-melanoma-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Jinyuan Ma, Weinan Guo, Chunying Li
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers with fiercely increasing incidence and mortality. Since the progressive understanding of the mutational landscape and immunologic pathogenic factors in melanoma, the targeted therapy and immunotherapy have been recently established and gained unprecedented improvements for melanoma treatment. However, the prognosis of melanoma patients remains unoptimistic mainly due to the resistance and nonresponse to current available drugs. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification which plays crucial roles in diverse cellular biological activities and participates in the pathogenesis of various cancers, including melanoma...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544814/optimization-of-liposomal-topotecan-for-use-in-treating-neuroblastoma
#4
Lina Chernov, Rebecca J Deyell, Malathi Anantha, Nancy Dos Santos, Roger Gilabert-Oriol, Marcel B Bally
The purpose of this work was to develop an optimized liposomal formulation of topotecan for use in the treatment of patients with neuroblastoma. Drug exposure time studies were used to determine that topotecan (Hycamtin) exhibited great cytotoxic activity against SK-N-SH, IMR-32 and LAN-1 neuroblastoma human cell lines. Sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (Chol) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)/Chol liposomes were prepared using extrusion methods and then loaded with topotecan by pH gradient and copper-drug complexation...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544801/nanotherapeutic-systems-for-local-treatment-of-brain-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Rami Walid Chakroun, Pengcheng Zhang, Ran Lin, Paula Schiapparelli, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Honggang Cui
Malignant brain tumor, including the most common type glioblastoma, are histologically heterogeneous and invasive tumors known as the most devastating neoplasms with high morbidity and mortality. Despite multimodal treatment including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy, the disease inevitably recurs and is fatal. This lack of curative options has motivated researchers to explore new treatment strategies and to develop new drug delivery systems (DDSs); however, the unique anatomical, physiological, and pathological features of brain tumors greatly limit the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544785/inhibition-of-cxcl12-cxcr4-axis-as-a-potential-targeted-therapy-of-advanced-gastric-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Li-Jun Xue, Xiao-Bei Mao, Li-Li Ren, Xiao-Yuan Chu
The whole outcome for patients with gastric carcinoma (GC) is very poor because most of them remain metastatic disease during survival even at diagnosis or after surgery. Despite many improvements in multiple strategies of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, exploration of novel alternative therapeutic targets is still warranted. Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) have been identified with significantly elevated levels in various malignancies including GC, which correlates with the survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544595/severe-cytokine-release-syndrome-in-a-patient-receiving-pd-1-directed-therapy
#7
Seth J Rotz, Daniel Leino, Sara Szabo, Jennifer L Mangino, Brian K Turpin, Joseph G Pressey
Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a phenomenon of immune hyperactivation described in the setting of cellular and bispecific T-cell engaging immunotherapy. Checkpoint blockade using anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1) inhibitors is an approach to antitumor immune system stimulation. A 29-year-old female with alveolar soft part sarcoma developed severe CRS after treatment with anti-PD-1 therapy. CRS was characterized by high fevers, encephalopathy, hypotension, hypoxia, hepatic dysfunction, and evidence of coagulopathy, and resolved after infusion of the interleukin-6 inhibitor tocilizumab and corticosteroids...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544545/cytoprotective-encapsulation-of-individual-jurkat-t-cells-within-durable-tio2-shells-for-t-cell-therapy
#8
Wongu Youn, Eun Hyea Ko, Mi-Hee Kim, Matthew Park, Daewha Hong, Gulaim A Seisenbaeva, Vadim G Kessler, Insung S Choi
Lymphocytes, such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, have therapeutic promises in adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy, where the cells are activated and expanded in vitro, and then infused into a patient. However, the in vitro preservation of labile lymphocytes during transfer, manipulation, and storage has been one of the bottlenecks in the development and commercialization of therapeutic lymphocytes. Herein, we suggest a "cell-in-shell" (a.k.a. artificial spore) strategy to enhance the cell viability in the practical settings, while maintaining biological activities for therapeutic efficacy...
May 25, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544523/the-effect-of-allergen-immunotherapy-in-the-onset-of-new-sensitizations-a-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Gabriele Di Lorenzo, Maria Stefania Leto-Barone, Simona La Piana, Antonella Plaia, Danilo Di Bona
BACKGROUND: Although the preventive efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in the onset of new allergen sensitizations has been asserted by many reviews, position papers, and consensus conferences, the evidence available is from only 3 studies. The objective of this work was a systematic review to evaluate the preventive efficacy of AIT in the onset of new allergen sensitizations. The end-point was the risk difference (RD) in the onset of new allergen sensitizations between patients treated with AIT and pharmacotherapy...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544366/enumeration-of-wt1-specific-cd8-t-cells-for-clinical-application-using-an-mhc-streptamer-based-no-wash-single-platform-flow-cytometric-assay
#10
Sarah Matko, Madeleine Teichert, Antje Tunger, Marc Schmitz, Martin Bornhauser, Torsten Tonn, Marcus Odendahl
The advent of novel strategies to generate leukemia-associated-antigen (LAA)-specific T cells for adoptive immunotherapies creates a demand for standardized good laboratory practice (GLP)-compliant enumeration assays to provide a secure clinical environment-whether it is to identify potential donors, define therapeutic doses for transplantation, or monitor clinical success. Here, we introduce a no-wash assay based on single-platform cell enumeration and Streptamer staining to determine the Wilms' tumor antigen 1 (WT1)-specific T cell immunity in clinical samples...
May 25, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543700/interaction-of-molecular-alterations-with-immune-response-in-melanoma
#11
REVIEW
Robert A Szczepaniak Sloane, Vancheswaran Gopalakrishnan, Sangeetha M Reddy, Xue Zhang, Alexandre Reuben, Jennifer A Wargo
Major advances have been made in melanoma treatment with the use of molecularly targeted therapies and immunotherapies, and numerous regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for patients with stage IV disease. However, therapeutic resistance remains an issue to both classes of agents, and reliable biomarkers of therapeutic response and resistance are lacking. Mechanistic insights are being gained through preclinical studies and translational research, offering potential strategies to enhance responses and survival in treated patients...
June 1, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543699/immune-and-molecular-correlates-in-melanoma-treated-with-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth H Byrne, David E Fisher
Immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma has a decades-long history, and the relatively recent use of checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized treatment. Durable and sometimes complete remission of metastatic melanoma is now achievable in some patients who receive checkpoint-blocking therapy. However, it is unclear why some patients fare better than others. This review highlights several molecular indicators of response to checkpoint inhibition in metastatic melanoma, focusing on tumor programmed death ligand 1 expression, major histocompatibility complex class I expression, mutational load in the tumor, and T-cell infiltration into the tumor...
June 1, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543176/regional-immunotherapy-for-liver-and-peritoneal-metastases
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey Reha, Steven C Katz
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a biologically aggressive disease, with liver and peritoneal metastases being a frequent cause of death. We examine how the pancreatic carcinoma microenvironment and immunosuppressive landscape favor tumor progression. Immunotherapy has shown promise in select solid tumors, yet challenges remain in applying these gains to stage IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We discuss how regional therapy strategies may be leveraged to open new avenues for treating pancreatic carcinoma metastases with immunotherapy...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543086/allergen-immunotherapy-for-allergic-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Sangeeta Dhami, Artemisia Kakourou, Felix Asamoah, Ioana Agache, Susanne Lau, Jutel Marek, Antonella Muraro, Graham Roberts, Cezmi A Akdis, Matteo Bonini, Ozlem Cavkaytar, Breda Flood, Pawel Gajdanowicz, Kenji Izuhara, Ömer Kalayci, Ralph Mosges, Oscar Palomares, Oliver Pfaar, Sylwia Smolinska, Milena Sokolowska, Miqdad Asaria, Gopal Netuveli, Hader Zaman, Ather Akhlaq, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: To inform the development of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunonology's (EAACI) Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for allergic asthma, we assessed the evidence on the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT. METHODS: We performed a systematic review, which involved searching nine databases. Studies were screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses...
May 19, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542911/changes-in-patient-quality-of-life-during-oral-immunotherapy-for-food-allergy
#15
Na'ama Epstein Rigbi, Michael R Goldberg, Michael B Levy, Liat Nachshon, Keren Golobov, Arnon Elizur
BACKGROUND: Quality of life is (QOL) impaired in patients with food allergy and improves following oral immunotherapy (OIT). However, the treatment itself is prolonged and demanding. We examined changes in patient QOL during OIT for food allergy. METHODS: The FAQLQ-PF was administered to children aged 4-12 years undergoing OIT for milk, peanut or egg allergy, at the beginning and after 4 months of treatment. Patients were categorized as improved, unchanged, or diminished FAQLQ-PF (>0...
May 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541375/does-chemoselection-open-the-door-for-immunotherapy
#16
M T Jacobs, A L Ruiz, E E Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541108/using-qr-codes-to-enable-quick-access-to-information-in-acute-cancer-care
#17
Joanne Upton, Anna Olsson-Brown, Ernie Marshall, Joseph Sacco
Quick access to toxicity management information ensures timely access to steroids/immunosuppressive treatment for cancer patients experiencing immune-related adverse events, thus reducing length of hospital stays or avoiding hospital admission entirely. This article discusses a project to add a QR (quick response) code to a patient-held immunotherapy alert card. As QR code generation is free and the immunotherapy clinical management algorithms were already publicly available through the trust's clinical network website, the costs of integrating a QR code into the alert card, after printing, were low, while the potential benefits are numerous...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541096/combining-radiotherapy-with-immunotherapy-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#18
Evert J Van Limbergen, Dirk K De Ruysscher, Veronica Olivo Pimentel, Damiënne Marcus, Maaike Berbee, Ann Hoeben, Nicolle Rekers, Jan Theys, Ala Yaromina, Ludwig J Dubois, Philippe Lambin
The advent of immunotherapy is currently revolutionizing the field of oncology, where different drugs are used to stimulate different steps in a failing cancer immune response chain. This review gives a basic overview of the immune response against cancer, as well as the historical and current evidence on the interaction of radiotherapy with the immune system and the different forms of immunotherapy. Furthermore the review elaborates on the many open questions on how to exploit this interaction to the full extent in clinical practice...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540859/case-report-serological-testing-interference-of-daratumumab-anti-cd38-therapy-in-multiple-myeloma
#19
Élodie Rabut, Annabelle Castro-Fernandez, Virginie Le Gall, Nihad Meknache
We report the case of a 54 years old patient monitored for a monoclonal IgG kappa light chain refractory relapsed multiple myeloma and receiving daratumumab immunotherapy. Daratumumab (DARA), a monoclonal anti-CD38 antibody, belongs to the new generation of immunotherapy in refractory relapse multiple myeloma which the medical pathologist should be aware of to avoid misinterpretation of biological tests performed for patients followed for this disease. By its IgG1K humanized monoclonal antibody backbone, DARA interferes in both serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation by the presence of an alternate IgGK monoclonal peak, leading to a possible difficulty to assess treatment's response in monoclonal IgG kappa light chain myeloma...
June 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540598/parp-inhibitors-in-prostate-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Praveen Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Matthew J Schiewer, Karen E Knudsen, Wm Kevin Kelly
The genomic landscape of metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) reveals that up to 90% of patients harbor actionable mutations and >20% have somatic DNA repair gene defects (DRD). This provides the therapeutic rationale of PARP inhibition (PARPi) to achieve "synthetic lethality" in treating this fatal disease. Clinical trials with PARP inhibitors have shown significant response rates up to 88% for PCa patients having DRD like BRCA1/2 or ATM mutations. The FDA has awarded "breakthrough designation" to develop the PARPi olaparib in treating this subset of metastatic PCa patients...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
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