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Matteo Lupi, Gianna Sepede, Eduardo Cinosi, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo di Giannantonio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Journal of ECT
Ariadna Aparicio-Juárez, Mariana Duhne, Esther Lara-González, Fátima Ávila-Cascajares, Vladimir Calderón, Elvira Galarraga, José Bargas
Previously we have shown that chemical excitatory drives such as NMDA are capable of activating the striatal microcircuit exhibiting neuronal ensembles that alternate their activity producing temporal sequences. One aim of this work is to demonstrate whether similar activity could be evoked by delivering cortical stimulation. Dynamic calcium imaging allowed us to follow the activity of dozens of neurons with single cell resolution in mus musculus brain slices. A train of electrical stimuli in the cortex evoked network activity similar to the one induced by bath application of NMDA...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Carlos J Gómez-Ariza, María C Martín, Julia Morales
Behavioral and neuroimaging data support the distinction of two different modes of cognitive control: proactive, which involves the active and sustained maintenance of task-relevant information to bias behavior in accordance with internal goals; and reactive, which entails the detection and resolution of interference at the time it occurs. Both control modes may be flexibly deployed depending on a variety of conditions (i.e., age, brain alterations, motivational factors, prior experience). Critically, and in line with specific predictions derived from the dual mechanisms of control account (Braver, 2012), findings from neuroimaging studies indicate that the same lateral prefrontal regions (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Johannes Tünnerhoff, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Reidenis Torres-Vega, Paolo Belardinelli, Jacqueline Medrano-Montero, Arnoy Peña-Acosta, Nalia Canales-Ochoa, Yaimeé Vázquez-Mojena, Yanetza González-Zaldivar, Georg Auburger, Ulf Ziemann
Clinical signs of corticospinal tract dysfunction are a common feature of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) patients. The objective of this study is to assess dysfunction of the corticospinal tract in SCA2 using corticomuscular coherence. Testing corticomuscular coherence and rating of ataxia severity and non-ataxia symptoms were performed in 19 SCA2 patients and 24 age-matched controls. Central motor conduction times (CMCT) to upper and lower right limbs were obtained for the SCA2 group using Transcraneal magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
April 2017: Cerebellum
Carlotta Lega, Marianne A Stephan, Robert J Zatorre, Virginia Penhune
Interactions between the auditory and the motor systems are critical in music as well as in other domains, such as speech. The premotor cortex, specifically the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), seems to play a key role in auditory-motor integration, and in mapping the association between a sound and the movement used to produce it. In the present studies we tested the causal role of the dPMC in learning and applying auditory-motor associations using 1 Hz repetitive Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). In this paradigm, non-musicians learn a set of auditory-motor associations through melody training in two contexts: first when the sound to key-press mapping was in a conventional sequential order (low to high tones mapped onto keys from left to right), and then when it was in a novel scrambled order...
2016: PloS One
Andrea Galbiati, Jubin Abutalebi, Sandro Iannaccone, Virginia Maria Borsa, Stela Musteata, Marco Zucconi, Enrico Giora, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
Idiopathic Hypersomnia (IH) is a rare sleep disorder characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) that leads to invalidating daytime consequences. Till now the treatment of IH has mirrored that of sleepiness in narcolepsy, and it is mainly focused on symptoms' management. We employed an anodal transcranic Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) treatment in order to induce a shift toward arousal in IH patients' cortex during the day. Every patients underwent a 4 weeks treatment (3 stimulations per week, for a total of 12 stimulations over a period of 28 days) with an assessment at the baseline and after treatment aimed to the evaluation of subjective daytime sleepiness, neurocognitive functions, and attentional domain tested by means of the Attentional Network Task (ANT)...
April 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Akhilesh Kotiya, Manohar Bance, Jeff Leadbetter, Jeremy Brown, Rob Adamson
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of a subcutaneous piezoelectrically actuated hearing aid (SPAHA) with the bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) and assess its effectiveness as a treatment option for conductive loss and single-sided deafness (SSD). BACKGROUND: To validate the use of the SPAHA as a bone conduction implant, its performance was compared with a widely used bone conduction implant, the BAHA. Maximum dynamic range, power consumed to deliver standard speech signals and total harmonic distortion (THD) was assessed...
July 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Hiromu Monai, Masamichi Ohkura, Mika Tanaka, Yuki Oe, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Junichi Nakai, Youichi Iwai, Hajime Hirase
Transcranical direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a treatment known to ameliorate various neurological conditions and enhance memory and cognition in humans. tDCS has gained traction for its potential therapeutic value; however, little is known about its mechanism of action. Using a transgenic mouse expressing G-CaMP7 in astrocytes and a subpopulation of excitatory neurons, we find that tDCS induces large-amplitude astrocytic Ca(2+) surges across the entire cortex with no obvious changes in the local field potential...
2016: Nature Communications
Carlotta Lega, Tomaso Vecchi, Egidio D'Angelo, Zaira Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: Growing neuroimaging and clinical evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays a critical role in perception. In the auditory domain, the cerebellum seems to be important in different aspects of music and sound processing. Here we investigated the possible causal role of the cerebellum in two auditory tasks, a pitch discrimination and a timbre discrimination task. Specifically, participants performed a pitch and a timbre discrimination task prior and after receiving offline low frequency transcranical magnetic stimulation (TMS) over their (right) cerebellum...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Kimberly Weldon, Alexandra Woolgar, Anina Rich, Mark Williams
Neuroimaging evidence indicates that visual information about objects in the periphery is fed back to foveal retinotopic cortex in a new and separate representation. Additionally, delayed disruption of foveal confluence via transcranical magnetic stimulation impairs discrimination of objects in the periphery, suggesting this feedback mechanism is essential for extra-foveal perception. In this study, we developed a behavioural paradigm to further explore the nature of this feedback mechanism and provide a behavioural measure...
2015: Journal of Vision
Carlotta Facini, Elena Pavlidis, Emanuela Claudia Turco, Francesco Pisani
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic Hereditary Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the presence of multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Migraine is described in association with HHT in adulthood, while only few paediatric cases are reported in the literature. AIM: In this paper, we describe an atypical case of HHT in a 7-year-old boy, who presented severe and recurrent episodes of migraine-like headache as the first symptom of the disease...
November 2015: Brain & Development
Christos Krogias, Barbara Bellenberg, Christian Prehn, Ruth Schneider, Saskia H Meves, Ralf Gold, Carsten Lukas, Christiane Schneider-Gold
Myotonic dystrophies (DMs) are clinically similar but distinct multisystemic diseases related to different repeat expansion mutations. CNS involvement is one important aspect of both, myotonic dystrophy type 1 and type 2 (DM1, DM2). Transcran ial sonography (TCS) has become a reliable diagnostic tool in the evaluation of several CNS disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate TCS-findings in DM-patients in correlation with their clinical status. Thirty-one DM-patients (DM1 = 17; DM2 = 14) were examined clinically and sonographically by independent physicians...
February 2015: Journal of Neurology
Helmut Niederhofer
Excessive hyperactivity, impulsiveness and attentional difficulties characterize attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this case report is to signal the possible therapeutic effectiveness of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Low frequency (1Hz, 1200 stim/die for five days) was applied on the impending scalp in the motor additional area of a patient suffering from combined type ADHD who received methylphenidate (MPH). We saw a significant improvement, especially according to criteria associated with hyperactivity...
January 1, 2012: Clinics and Practice
Paolo Riva, Leonor J Romero Lauro, C Nathan DeWall, David S Chester, Brad J Bushman
A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion...
March 2015: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Evaristo Belli, Pasquale Virciglio, Giuseppina Fini, Elidon Mici, Filippo Maria Polli
A 67-year-old patient with a casual diagnosis of a foreign body within the frontal sinus outreaching the frontal cerebral parenchyma was treated. Results of anamnestic examination revealed that the patient underwent rhinoplasty with condrocostal implant of the nasal dorsum fixed to the anterior wall of the frontal sinus using a Kirschner wire 2 years ago. A combined transnasal endoscopic and transcranic approach was performed to remove the foreign body.
March 2014: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Martin Müller, Regina Esser, Katharina Kötter, Jan Voss, Achim Müller, Petra Stellmes
OBJECTIVES: Whether transcranal sonography (TCS) depicted third ventricular enlargement as a sign of brain atrophy is predictive for neuropsychological deficits in mildly affected patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of a cohort of mildly diseased patients with MS. SETTING: Neurological MS outpatient clinic at a large teaching hospital in central Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-four patients with MS (16 men, 38 women, mean age 40±10 years, mean disease duration 6±5 years; mean Expanded Disability Status Scale 2±1...
2013: BMJ Open
Kelly L Williams, Jennifer A Fifita, Steve Vucic, Jennifer C Durnall, Matthew C Kiernan, Ian P Blair, Garth A Nicholson
OBJECTIVE: Expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat in C9ORF72 are a common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a small proportion of sporadic ALS cases. We sought to examine clinical and neurophysiological features of familial and sporadic ALS with C9ORF72 expansions. METHODS: C9ORF72 was screened for expansions in familial and sporadic ALS. Clinical features of expansion positive cases are described. Cortical excitability studies used novel threshold tracking transcranal magnetic stimulation techniques with motor evoked responses recorded over the abductor pollicis brevis...
August 2013: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Luisa Rocha
In spite of the high success rate of many surgical procedures for pharmacoresistant epilepsy, a substantial number of patients do not become seizure-free. Different strategies for electrical modulation of the brain such as Deep Brain Stimulation, Vagal Nerve Stimulation and Transcraneal Magnetic Stimulation have gained considerable interest in the last decade as alternative therapies for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Research into the mechanism of action of the strategies for electrical modulation of the brain suggests a crucial role of different molecules and channels such as glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, adenosine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, calcium channels, sodium channels as well as extracellular potassium...
May 2013: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Nicola De Pisapia, Marco Sandrini, Todd S Braver, Luigi Cattaneo
Integration is a fundamental working memory operation, requiring the insertion of information from one task into the execution of another concurrent task. Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested the involvement of left anterior prefrontal cortex (L-aPFC) in relation to working memory integration demands, increasing during presentation of information to be integrated (loading), throughout its maintenance during a secondary task, up to the integration step, and then decreasing afterward (unloading). Here we used short bursts of 5 Hz repetitive Transcranic Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to modulate L-aPFC activity and to assess its causal role in integration...
2012: PloS One
Takashi Hanakawa
Here we propose multidimensional non-invasive imaging to understand the functional anatomy of neural circuits of the human brain. The multidimensional network imaging technique currently employs anatomical, functional and evoked connectivity imaging in various combinations. The anatomical and functional connectivity imaging can be achieved by the analysis of diffusion-weighted and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), respectively. New analysis techniques such as probabilistic diffusion tractography and tract-based statistics have refined the anatomical connectivity imaging, especially in combination with fMRI for setting up regions-of-interest...
November 2010: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
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