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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092905/endocranial-morphology-of-the-extinct-north-american-lion-panthera-atrox
#1
Andrew R Cuff, Christopher Stockey, Anjali Goswami
The extinct North American lion (Panthera atrox) is one of the largest felids (Mammalia, Carnivora) to have ever lived, and it is known from a plethora of incredibly well-preserved remains. Despite this abundance of material, there has been little research into its endocranial anatomy. CT scans of a skull of P. atrox from the Pleistocene La Brea Tar pits were used to generate the first virtual endocranium for this species and to elucidate previously unknown details of its brain size and gross structure, cranial nerves, and inner-ear morphology...
January 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091665/trace-element-protein-interactions-in-endolymph-from-the-inner-ear-of-fish-implications-for-environmental-reconstructions-using-fish-otolith-chemistry
#2
Oliver R B Thomas, Katherine Ganio, Blaine R Roberts, Stephen E Swearer
Otoliths, the biomineralised hearing "ear stones" from the inner ear of fish, grow throughout the lifespan of an individual, with deposition of alternating calciferous and proteinaceous bands occurring daily. Trace element : calcium ratios within daily increments measured by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are often used in fisheries science to reconstruct environmental histories. There is, however, considerable uncertainty as to which elements are interacting with either the proteinaceous or calciferous zones of the otolith, and thus their utility as indicators of environmental change...
January 16, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089734/broadening-the-phenotype-of-dfnb28-mutations-in-triobp-are-associated-with-moderate-stable-hereditary-hearing-impairment
#3
Mieke Wesdorp, Jiddeke M van de Kamp, Erik F Hensen, Margit Schraders, Jaap Oostrik, Helger G Yntema, Ilse Feenstra, Ronald J C Admiraal, Henricus P M Kunst, Mustafa Tekin, Moien Kanaan, Hannie Kremer, Ronald J E Pennings
DFNB28 is characterized by prelingual, severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment (HI). It is associated with mutations in exon 6 and 7 of TRIOBP and has not been reported in the European population. Here, we describe two isolated cases of Dutch origin with congenital, moderate HI and compound heterozygous mutations in TRIOBP. Three of the mutations are novel, one nonsense mutation (c.5014G>T (p.Gly1672*)) and two frameshift mutations (c.2653del (p.Arg885Alafs*120) and c.3460_3461del (p.Leu1154Alafs*29))...
January 12, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087419/cochlear-synaptopathy-in-acquired-sensorineural-hearing-loss-manifestations-and-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
M Charles Liberman, Sharon G Kujawa
Common causes of hearing loss in humans - exposure to loud noise or ototoxic drugs and aging - often damage sensory hair cells, reflected as elevated thresholds on the clinical audiogram. Recent studies in animal models suggest, however, that well before this overt hearing loss can be seen, a more insidious, but likely more common, process is taking place that permanently interrupts synaptic communication between sensory inner hair cells and subsets of cochlear nerve fibers. The silencing of affected neurons alters auditory information processing, whether accompanied by threshold elevations or not, and is a likely contributor to a variety of perceptual abnormalities, including speech-in-noise difficulties, tinnitus and hyperacusis...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087416/the-path-of-a-click-stimulus-from-ear-canal-to-umbo
#5
Mario Milazzo, Elika Fallah, Michael Carapezza, Nina S Kumar, Jason H Lei, Elizabeth S Olson
The tympanic membrane (TM) has a key role in transmitting sounds to the inner ear, but a concise description of how the TM performs this function remains elusive. This paper probes TM operation by applying a free field click stimulus to the gerbil ear and exploring the consequent motions of the TM and umbo. Motions of the TM were measured both on radial tracks starting close to the umbo and on a grid distal and adjacent to the umbo. The experimental results confirmed the high fidelity of sound transmission from the ear canal to the umbo...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087093/audiologic-and-radiologic-findings-in-cochlear-hypoplasia
#6
Betul Cicek Cinar, Merve Ozbal Batuk, Emel Tahir, Gonca Sennaroglu, Levent Sennaroglu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study is to evaluate audiologic and radiologic findings of cochlear hypoplasia which is a subgroup of inner ear malformations. METHODS: This study was a prospective clinical study and based on voluntary participation from cases with cochlear hypoplasia diagnosis. The study was conducted at Hacettepe University, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Audiology. Subjects were selected from an inner ear malformations database...
January 10, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086997/enamel-renal-syndrome-in-2-patients-with-a-mutation-in-fam20-a-and-atypical-hypertrichosis-and-hearing-loss-phenotypes
#7
Sabina Pena B Pêgo, Ricardo D Coletta, Simona Dumitriu, Daniela Iancu, Saleh Albanyan, Robert Kleta, Maria Teresa Auricchio, Luis Antônio Santos, Breno Rocha, Hercílio Martelli-Júnior
Enamel-renal syndrome (OMIM #204690) is an uncommon disorder characterized by amelogenesis imperfecta and nephrocalcinosis and is caused by mutations in FAM20 A. We report 2 patients with enamel-renal syndrome who exhibited the typical features of this syndrome and a homozygous nonsense mutation in the FAM20 A gene (c.406 C>T), genetically confirming the diagnosis. They also exhibited 2 undescribed clinical features, hypertrichosis and hearing loss. Alterations in genes frequently associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss in the Brazilian population, including connexin 26 (GJB2), connexin 30 (GJB6) and mitochondrial 12 S rRNA (m...
February 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079113/congenital-hearing-loss
#8
Anna M H Korver, Richard J H Smith, Guy Van Camp, Mark R Schleiss, Maria A K Bitner-Glindzicz, Lawrence R Lustig, Shin-Ichi Usami, An N Boudewyns
Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss...
January 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074740/what-goes-around-can-come-around-an-unexpected-deleterious-effect-of-using-mouse-running-wheels-for-environmental-enrichment
#9
Renee Y
Environmental enrichment items such as running wheels can promote the wellbeing of laboratory mice. Growing evidencesuggests that wheel running simulates exercise effects in many mouse models of human conditions, but this activityalso might change other aspects of mouse behavior. In this case study, we show that the presence of running wheels leadsto pronounced and permanent circling behavior with route-tracing in a proportion of the male mice of a genetically distinctcohort. The genetic background of this cohort includes a mutation in Arhgap19, but genetic crosses showed that an unknownsecond-site mutation likely caused the induced circling behavior...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054910/examining-effects-of-physical-exertion-on-the-dynamic-visual-acuity-test-in-collegiate-athletes
#10
Jessie N Patterson, Anna M Murphy, Julie A Honaker
BACKGROUND: Acute symptoms of dizziness and/or imbalance commonly experienced in athletes postconcussion are speculated to arise from dysfunction at multiple levels (i.e., inner ear or central vestibular system) to appropriately integrate afferent sensory information. Disruption along any pathway of the balance system can result in symptoms of dizziness, decreased postural control function (vestibulospinal reflex), and reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function. This may also lead to decreased gaze stability with movements of the head and may account for symptoms of blurred vision or diplopia reported in almost half of athletes sustaining a concussion...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051766/distribution-of-neurosensory-progenitor-pools-during-inner-ear-morphogenesis-unveiled-by-cell-lineage-reconstruction
#11
Sylvia Dyballa, Thierry Savy, Philipp Germann, Karol Mikula, Mariana Remesikova, Róbert Špir, Andrea Zecca, Nadine Peyriéras, Cristina Pujades
Reconstructing the lineage of cells is central to understanding how the wide diversity of cell types develops. Here, we provide the neurosensory lineage reconstruction of a complex sensory organ, the inner ear, by imaging zebrafish embryos in vivo over an extended timespan, combining cell tracing and cell fate marker expression over time. We deliver the first dynamic map of early neuronal and sensory progenitor pools in the whole otic vesicle. It highlights the remodeling of the neuronal progenitor domain upon neuroblast delamination, and reveals that the order and place of neuroblasts' delamination from the otic epithelium prefigure their position within the SAG...
January 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047705/th-ef-brb-02-feasibility-of-optimization-for-dynamic-trajectory-radiotherapy
#12
M K Fix, D Frei, W Volken, D Terribilini, D M Aebersold, P Manser
PURPOSE: Over the last years, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been widely introduced into clinical routine using a coplanar delivery technique. However, VMAT might be improved by including dynamic couch and collimator rotations, leading to dynamic trajectory radiotherapy (DTRT). In this work the feasibility and the potential benefit of DTRT was investigated. METHODS: A general framework for the optimization was developed using the Eclipse Scripting Research Application Programming Interface (ESRAPI)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046556/we-ab-209-09-optimization-of-rotational-arc-station-parameter-optimized-radiation-therapy
#13
P Dong, B Ungun, S Boyd, L Xing
PURPOSE: To develop a fast optimization method for station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) and show that SPORT is capable of improving VMAT in both plan quality and delivery efficiency. METHODS: The angular space from 0° to 360° was divided into 180 station points (SPs). A candidate aperture was assigned to each of the SPs based on the calculation results using a column generation algorithm. The weights of the apertures were then obtained by optimizing the objective function using a state-of-the-art GPU based Proximal Operator Graph Solver (POGS) within seconds...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045786/three-dimensional-force-profile-during-cochlear-implantation-depends-on-individual-geometry-and-insertion-trauma
#14
Ersin Avci, Tim Nauwelaers, Volkmar Hamacher, Andrej Kral
OBJECTIVES: To preserve the acoustic hearing, cochlear implantation has to be as atraumatic as possible. Therefore, understanding the impact of the cochlear geometry on insertion forces and intracochlear trauma might help to adapt and improve the electrode insertion and reduce the probability of intracochlear trauma. DESIGN: The study was conducted on 10 fresh-frozen human temporal bones. The inner ear was removed from the temporal bone. The bony capsule covering the scala vestibuli was removed and the dissected inner ear was mounted on the three-dimensional (3D) force measurement system (Agilent technologies, Nano UTM, Santa Clare, CA)...
December 27, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040203/inner-ear-malformations-a-practical-diagnostic-approach
#15
M Mazón, E Pont, A Montoya-Filardi, J Carreres-Polo, F Más-Estellés
Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss is a major cause of disability; although inner ear malformations account for only 20-40% of all cases, recognition and characterization will be vital for the proper management of these patients. In this article relevant anatomy and development of inner ear are surveyed. The role of neuroimaging in pediatric sensorineural hearing loss and cochlear preimplantation study are assessed. The need for a universal system of classification of inner ear malformations with therapeutic and prognostic implications is highlighted...
December 28, 2016: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039372/global-analysis-of-protein-expression-of-inner-ear-hair-cells
#16
Ann E Hickox, Ann C Y Wong, Kwang Pak, Chelsee Strojny, Miguel Ramirez, John R Yates, Allen F Ryan, Jeffrey N Savas
: The mammalian inner ear subserves auditory and vestibular sensations via highly specialized cells and proteins. Sensory receptor hair cells (HCs) are necessary for transducing mechanical inputs and stimulating sensory neurons by employing a host of known and yet unknown protein machinery. To understand the protein composition of these unique post-mitotic cells, in which irreversible protein degradation or damage can lead to impaired hearing and balance, we analyzed inner ear samples by tandem mass spectrometry to generate an unbiased, shotgun-proteomics view of protein identities and abundances...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034618/adenosine-receptors-regulate-susceptibility-to-noise-induced-neural-injury-in-the-mouse-cochlea-and-hearing-loss
#17
Srdjan M Vlajkovic, Kaushi Ambepitiya, Meagan Barclay, Detlev Boison, Gary D Housley, Peter R Thorne
Our previous studies have shown that the stimulation of A1 adenosine receptors in the inner ear can mitigate the loss of sensory hair cells and hearing loss caused by exposure to traumatic noise. Here, we focus on the role of adenosine receptors (AR) in the development of noise-induced neural injury in the cochlea using A1AR and A2AAR null mice (A1AR(-/-) and A2AAR(-/-)). Wildtype (WT) and AR deficient mice were exposed to octave band noise (8-16 kHz, 100 dB SPL) for 2 hours to induce cochlear injury and hearing loss...
December 26, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034617/cochlear-hair-cell-regeneration-after-noise-induced-hearing-loss-does-regeneration-follow-development
#18
REVIEW
Fei Zheng, Jian Zuo
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) affects a large number of military personnel and civilians. Regenerating inner-ear cochlear hair cells (HCs) is a promising strategy to restore hearing after NIHL. In this review, we first summarize recent transcriptome profile analysis of zebrafish lateral lines and chick utricles where spontaneous HC regeneration occurs after HC damage. We then discuss recent studies in other mammalian regenerative systems such as pancreas, heart and central nervous system. Both spontaneous and forced HC regeneration occurs in mammalian cochleae in vivo involving proliferation and direct lineage conversion...
December 26, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034444/improvement-in-imaging-common-temporal-bone-pathologies-at-3-t-mri-small-structures-benefit-from-a-small-field-of-view
#19
M Schulze, K Reimann, A Seeger, U Klose, U Ernemann, T K Hauser
AIM: To compare image quality and evaluate its clinical importance in common temporal bone pathologies of a pTX-SPACE (parallel transmit [pTX] three-dimensional turbo spin-echo with variable flip angle [SPACE]) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence improved for spatial resolution to a standard-SPACE sequence exhibiting the same scan time at 3 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients were examined using a standard-SPACE and resolution improved pTX-SPACE sequence at 3 T MRI...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033296/intratympanic-steroids-injection-is-effective-for-the-treatment-of-drop-attacks-with-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-and-delayed-endolymphatic-hydrops-a-retrospective-study
#20
Bo Liu, Yangming Leng, Renhong Zhou, Jingjing Liu, Dongdong Liu, Su-Lin Zhang, Wei-Jia Kong
Drop attack (DA) associated with Ménière's disease (MD) and delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH) is not common and may cause life-threatening clinical problems. The intratympanic dexamethasone (ITD) is one of primary treatments for MD or DEH. Our study investigated the effect of ITD on the DA associated with endolymphatic hydrops (EH).We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients with MD- and DEH-associated DA between January 2009 and December 2013 in Outpatient Department of Otolaryngology, Union Hospital, Wuhan, China...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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