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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333389/the-cochlea-of-the-enigmatic-pygmy-right-whale-caperea-marginata-informs-mysticete-phylogeny
#1
Travis Park, Felix G Marx, Erich M G Fitzgerald, Alistair R Evans
The pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, is the least understood extant baleen whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti). Knowledge on its basic anatomy, ecology, and fossil record is limited, even though its singular position outside both balaenids (right whales) and balaenopteroids (rorquals + grey whales) gives Caperea a pivotal role in mysticete evolution. Recent investigations of the cetacean cochlea have provided new insights into sensory capabilities and phylogeny. Here, we extend this advance to Caperea by describing, for the first time, the inner ear of this enigmatic species...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332898/herpes-simplex-virus-1-and-cytomegalovirus-dnas-detection-in-the-inner-ear-of-implanted-patients-with-non-congenital-infection
#2
Walter Di Nardo, Roberta Anzivino, Paola Cattani, Rosaria Santangelo, Eugenio De Corso, Gaetano Paludetti
CONCLUSIONS: The detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) genome in perilymph of patients with negative serology or clinical history for congenital infections supports the hypothesis that Herpesviridae, even after acquired postnatal infections, could remain in latent phase in the spiral ganglion and damage the cochlea by a possible subsequent reactivation. Further studies are needed to identify the markers of such reactivation. OBJECTIVE: To identify the presence of certain viral species in the endolabyrinthic fluid of deaf patients with non-congenital infection...
March 23, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#3
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318810/incomplete-partition-type-iii-a-rare-and-difficult-cochlear-implant-surgical-indication
#4
Levent Sennaroğlu, Münir Demir Bajin
OBJECTIVE: Presenting the clinical features and treatment options for incomplete partition type-III. METHODS: Nine primary and 1 revision incomplete partition type-III cochlear implant cases treated between 2004 and 2015 in Hacettepe University Department of Otolaryngology were included in the study. Treatment options and particularly cochlear implantation tecnique were described. RESULTS: Nine primary and 1 revison cases were all succesfully implanted...
March 16, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315651/what-goes-around-can-come-around-an-unexpected-deleterious-effect-of-using-mouse-running-wheels-for-environmental-enrichment
#5
Renee Y M Leduc, Gail Rauw, Glen B Baker, Heather E McDermid
Environmental enrichment items such as running wheels can promote the wellbeing of laboratory mice. Growing evidence suggests that wheel running simulates exercise effects in many mouse models of human conditions, but this activity also might change other aspects of mouse behavior. In this case study, we show that the presence of running wheels leads to pronounced and permanent circling behavior with route-tracing in a proportion of the male mice of a genetically distinct cohort. The genetic background of this cohort includes a mutation in Arhgap19, but genetic crosses showed that an unknown second-site mutation likely caused the induced circling behavior...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306710/are-intratympanic-corticosteroids-effective-for-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re%C3%A2-s-disease
#6
Ángela Chuang-Chuang, María A Baeza
Ménière’s disease affects the inner ear and its main symptoms are vertigo, hearing loss and fluctuating aural symptoms. Nowadays, there are many therapeutic alternatives, being the use of intratympanic corticosteroids one that has become popular. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified four systematic reviews including 15 studies overall, of which seven were randomized trials. We extracted data and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach...
March 13, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306649/secondary-endolymphatic-hydrops
#7
Ashley P O'Connell Ferster, Sebahattin Cureoglu, Nevra Keskin, Michael M Paparella, Huseyin Isildak
HYPOTHESIS: A review of the most recent literature will provide clinicians with an update of secondary endolymphatic hydrops, aiding in diagnosis and treatment of affected patients. BACKGROUND: Secondary endolymphatic hydrops is a pathologic finding of the inner ear resulting in episodic vertigo and intermittent hearing loss. It is a finding for which extensive research is being performed. METHODS: A review of the most recent literature on secondary endolymphatic hydrops was performed using PubMed literature search...
March 16, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304075/steroid-intracochlear-distribution-differs-by-administration-method-systemic-versus-intratympanic-injection
#8
Jong Joo Lee, Jeong Hun Jang, Oak-Sung Choo, Hye Jin Lim, Yun-Hoon Choung
OBJECTIVE: Steroids have been widely used to treat inner-ear diseases such as sudden sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and Meniere's disease. They can be given via either systemic or intratympanic (IT) injection. The purpose of the present study was to explore differences in intracochlear steroid distribution by the administration method employed (systemic vs. IT injection). STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. METHODS: Twenty-three Sprague-Dawley rats were given fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dexamethasone (FITC-DEX) three times (on successive days) via intraperitoneal (IP) or IT injection...
March 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303055/inner-ear-disturbances-related-to-middle-ear-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Michihiko Sone
The inner and middle ear are connected mainly through round and oval windows, and inflammation in the middle ear cavity can spread into the inner ear, which might induce a disturbance. In cases with intractable otitis media, attention should also be paid to symptoms related to the inner ear. In this paper, middle ear inflammation and related inner ear disturbances are reviewed with a focus on representative middle ear diseases (such as acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, otitis media with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic otitis media, cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula, and reflux-related otitis media)...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295855/recovery-of-shape-and-size-in-a-developing-organ-pair
#10
Amelia A Green, Kishore R Mosaliganti, Ian A Swinburne, Nikolaus D Obholzer, Sean G Megason
BACKGROUND Paired organs in animals are largely bilaterally symmetric despite inherent noise in most biological processes. How is precise organ shape and size achieved during development despite this noise? Examining paired organ development is a challenge because it requires repeated quantification of two structures in parallel within living embryos. Here we combine bilateral quantification of morphology through time with asymmetric perturbations to study regulation of organ shape, size and symmetry in developing organ pairs...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295370/the-human-endolymphatic-sac-expresses-natriuretic-peptides
#11
Martin Nue Møller, Svend Kirkeby, Jonas Vikeså, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Per Cayé-Thomasen
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The function of the human endolymphatic sac (ES) has been enigmatic for decades. Hypotheses include controlling endolymphatic fluid homeostasis and inner ear immunological defense. Additionally, several studies indicate a possible endocrine capacity and a yet undefined role in intracranial pressure homeostasis. However, no direct evidence of such capacity exists. This study aims to explore and identify the hypothesized endocrine capacity of the human ES. STUDY DESIGN: DNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used for analyses of fresh human ES tissue samples...
March 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292428/cell-cell-contact-area-affects-notch-signaling-and-notch-dependent-patterning
#12
Oren Shaya, Udi Binshtok, Micha Hersch, Dmitri Rivkin, Sheila Weinreb, Liat Amir-Zilberstein, Bassma Khamaisi, Olya Oppenheim, Ravi A Desai, Richard J Goodyear, Guy P Richardson, Christopher S Chen, David Sprinzak
During development, cells undergo dramatic changes in their morphology. By affecting contact geometry, these morphological changes could influence cellular communication. However, it has remained unclear whether and how signaling depends on contact geometry. This question is particularly relevant for Notch signaling, which coordinates neighboring cell fates through direct cell-cell signaling. Using micropatterning with a receptor trans-endocytosis assay, we show that signaling between pairs of cells correlates with their contact area...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290231/the-association-between-vestibular-physical-examination-vertigo-questionnaires-and-the-electronystagmography-in-patients-with-vestibular-symptoms
#13
Shany G Gofrit, Yulia Mayler, Ron Eliashar, Tali Bdolah-Abram, Ophir Ilan, Menachem Gross
OBJECTS: Dizziness makes up a diagnostic and treatment challenge. The diagnostic accuracy of the medical history and vestibular physical examination in cases of vestibular symptoms is not clear. The aim of this study is to determine the association between vestibular physical examination, vestibular questionnaires, and electronystagmography (ENG) test in patients with vestibular symptoms. METHODS: This is a prospective study of 135 adults with vestibular symptoms...
April 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285826/the-clinical-manifestations-of-vestibular-migraine-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Ashley P O'Connell Ferster, Adrian J Priesol, Huseyin Isildak
OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of vestibular migraines presentation, pathology, and diagnosis, as well as an update on current diagnostic criteria. METHODS: A review of the most recent literature on vestibular migraines was performed. RESULTS: Vestibular migraine is a process with significant impact on the quality of life for those afflicted with the disease, with attacks of spontaneous or positional vertigo and migraine symptoms lasting several minutes to 72h...
March 9, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282709/analysis-of-saccular-function-with-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potential-test-in-meniere-s-disease
#15
Sasan Dabiri, Nasrin Yazdani, Mahdis Esfahani, Niloufar Tari, Susan Adil, Zahra Mahvi, Nima Rezazadeh
Meniere's disease is the disorder of inner ear characterized by vertigo, tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss. The vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test could be useful in the analysis of saccular function, and diagnosis of Meniere's disease. In this study, we've analyzed the saccular function, using VEMP test in different groups of Meniere's disease. Patients were categorized as possible, probable or definite Meniere's disease groups according to the guideline of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery...
February 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282143/proteome-analysis-of-human-perilymph-using-an-intraoperative-sampling-method
#16
Heike Andrea Schmitt, Andreas Pich, Anke Schröder, Verena Scheper, Giorgio Lilli, Günter Reuter, Thomas Lenarz
The knowledge about the etiology and pathophysiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is still very limited. The project aims at the improvement of understanding different types of SNHL by proteome analysis of human perilymph. Sampling of perilymph has been established during inner ear surgeries (cochlear implant and vestibular schwannoma surgeries) and safety of the sampling method was determined by pure tone audiometry. An in-depth shot-gun proteomics approach was performed to identify cochlear proteins and individual proteome in perilymph of patients...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280753/mouse-auditory-brainstem-response-testing
#17
Omar Akil, A E Oursler, Kevin Fan, Lawrence R Lustig
The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test provides information about the inner ear (cochlea) and the central pathways for hearing. The ABR reflects the electrical responses of both the cochlear ganglion neurons and the nuclei of the central auditory pathway to sound stimulation (Zhou et al., 2006; Burkard et al., 2007). The ABR contains 5 identifiable wave forms, labeled as I-V. Wave I represents the summated response from the spiral ganglion and auditory nerve while waves II-V represent responses from the ascending auditory pathway...
March 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273957/morphological-variations-of-middle-ear-ossicles-and-its-clinical-implications
#18
Ritaban Saha, Phalguni Srimani, Ardhendu Mazumdar, Sibani Mazumdar
INTRODUCTION: The middle ear ossicles form a semi rigid chain in the middle of the ear for conduction and amplification of sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. Although, our knowledge of the ear ossicles dates back to the 15(th) century, and various studies have been carried out on their morphometry, morphology, anomalies, embryology, function and structure throughout the world, information about the morphology of middle ear ossicles is meagre in Indian subjects. AIM: To find out the morphological variations of middle ear ossicles of right and left sides...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271491/role-of-skeletal-muscle-in-ear-development
#19
REVIEW
Irena Rot, Mark Baguma-Nibasheka, Willard J Costain, Paul Hong, Robert Tafra, Snjezana Mardesic-Brakus, Natasa Mrduljas-Djujic, Mirna Saraga-Babic, Boris Kablar
The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration...
March 8, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270231/mobile-tablet-audiometry-in-fluctuating-autoimmune-ear-disease
#20
Scott Kohlert, Matthew Bromwich
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) is a rare condition characterized by bilateral fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The labile nature of this hearing loss makes it difficult to accurately quantify with conventional methods, and therefore it is challenging to rehabilitate. METHODS: Over a 9-month period one pediatric patient with severe AIED was monitored and conducted home audiograms using a previously validated testing system (Shoebox Audiometry)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
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