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Hair cell

Mei Jin, Ming Cao, Mingxing Chu, Jing'ai Piao, Xu Guo, Fengqin Zhao, Jun Piao
Liaoning cashmere goats are the most precious genetic resources in China. The function of LAMTOR3 [late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and mammalian target of rapamycin activator 3/MAPK scaffold protein 1] gene is expressed in the skin of Liaoning cashmere goats. In situ hybridization (ISH) found that LAMTOR3 is expressed in the inner root sheath (IRS) of hair follicles. During the anagen or catagen phase, the expression of LAMTOR3 is higher in secondary hair follicles than in primary hair follicles...
March 22, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
M I Muradov, K B Mukhamedkerim, А А Baiguzeva, K E Kazantaev, D Zh Koshkarbaev
The problem of treating tissue defects of the scalp to date remains one of the actual problems of modern medicine. Low elasticity, stiffness, and the presence of hair follicles and skin deficit dictate the need for new treatments, cosmetic relevant requirements of this zone. The use of expander dermotension in recent years has found its wide distribution in the treatment of defects and deformities of covering tissue anywhere on the body. On the example of a patient K.32 years old hospitalized with diagnosis-basal cell epithelioma of the scalp-the defect of soft tissues, we demonstrated the use of expander plastic in the treatment of defect covering tissues of the scalp...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Julian Dindas, Sönke Scherzer, M Rob G Roelfsema, Katharina von Meyer, Heike M Müller, K A S Al-Rasheid, Klaus Palme, Petra Dietrich, Dirk Becker, Malcolm J Bennett, Rainer Hedrich
Auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development, but the causal relationship between hormone transport and root responses remains unresolved. Here we describe auxin uptake, together with early steps in signaling, in Arabidopsis root hairs. Using intracellular microelectrodes we show membrane depolarization, in response to IAA in a concentration- and pH-dependent manner. This depolarization is strongly impaired in aux1 mutants, indicating that AUX1 is the major transporter for auxin uptake in root hairs...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Jianhui Zhang, Hong Sun, Richard Salvi, Dalian Ding
Paraquat (PQ), one of the most widely used herbicides, is extremely dangerous because it generates the highly toxic superoxide radical. When paraquat was applied to cochlear organotypic cultures, it not only damaged the outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs), but also caused dislocation of the hair cell rows. We hypothesized that the dislocation arose from damage to the support cells (SCs) that anchors hair cells within the epithelium. To test this hypothesis, rat postnatal cochlear cultures were treated with PQ...
March 13, 2018: Hearing Research
Veronica Mendoza-Reinoso, Annemiek Beverdam
The skin constantly self-renews throughout adult life. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a key role in promoting keratinocyte proliferation in the hair follicles and in the interfollicular epidermis. A recent report demonstrated that epidermal YAP activity drives β-catenin activation to promote keratinocyte proliferation in the murine skin. However, it remains unclear whether this is caused by paracrine activation of canonical Wnt signaling or through other YAP/β-catenin regulatory interactions. In the present study, we found that XAV939-inhibition of canonical WNT signaling in skin of YAP2-5SA-ΔC mice resulted in diminished β-catenin activation, reduced keratinocyte proliferation, and a mitigation of the hyperplastic abnormalities in the interfollicular epidermis, signifying a canonical WNT ligand-dependent mechanism...
March 10, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Kuhu Sharma, Dilip Sharma, Monika Sharma, Nishant Sharma, Pankaj Bidve, Namrata Prajapati, Kiran Kalia, Vinod Tiwari
Despite considerable advances in understanding mechanisms involved in chronic pain, effective treatment remains limited. Astaxanthin, a marine natural drug, having potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities is known to possess neuroprotective effects. However, effects of astaxanthin against nerve injury induce chronic pain remains unknown. Overactivity of glutamatergic NMDARs results in excitotoxicity which may participate in astrocytic and microglial activation during pathology which further contribute to the development of neuropathic pain...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Monica Sharma, Isabel Castro-Piedras, Glenn E Simmons, Kevin Pruitt
The Dishevelled gene was first identified in Drosophila mutants with disoriented hair and bristle polarity [1-3]. The Dsh gene (Dsh/Dvl, in Drosophila and vertebrates respectively) gained popularity when it was discovered that it plays a key role in segment polarity during early embryonic development in Drosophila [4]. Subsequently, the vertebrate homolog of Dishevelled genes were identified in Xenopus (Xdsh), mice (Dvl1, Dvl2, Dvl3), and in humans (DVL1, DVL2, DVL3) [5-10]. Dishevelled functions as a principal component of Wnt signaling pathway and governs several cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, migration, differentiation, polarity and stem cell renewal...
March 17, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Frank Hochholdinger, Caroline Marcon, Jutta A Baldauf, Peng Yu, Felix P Frey
Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peng Wei, Katja K Dove, Claire Bensard, John C Schell, Jared Rutter
Compared to their differentiated progeny, stem cells are often characterized by distinct metabolic landscapes that emphasize anaerobic glycolysis and a lower fraction of mitochondrial carbohydrate oxidation. Until recently, the metabolic program of stem cells had been thought to be a byproduct of the environment, rather than an intrinsic feature determined by the cell itself. However, new studies highlight the impact of metabolic behavior on the maintenance and function of intestinal stem cells and hair follicle stem cells...
March 16, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Shayan Fakhraei Lahiji, Seol Hwa Seo, Suyong Kim, Manita Dangol, Jiyong Shim, Cheng Guo Li, Yonghao Ma, Chisong Lee, Geonwoo Kang, Huisuk Yang, Kang-Yell Choi, Hyungil Jung
The interest in alternative material systems and delivery methods for treatment of androgenetic alopecia has been increasing in the recent decades. Topical application of valproic acid (VPA), an FDA-approved anticonvulsant drug, has been shown to effectively stimulate hair follicle (HF) regrowth by upregulating Wnt/β-catenin, a key pathway involved in initiation of HF development. Moreover, a majority of studies have suggested that cutaneous wound re-epithelialization is capable of inducing HF through Wnt/β-catenin pathway...
March 13, 2018: Biomaterials
Hieronymus P Stevens, Simone Donners, Julia de Bruijn
Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by miniaturization of the hair follicles gradually causing conversion of terminal hairs into vellus hairs, leading to progressive reduction of the density of hair on the scalp. Approved therapeutic options are limited and show side effects. Objectives: To evaluate injections of stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which is rich in adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the upper scalp as a new autologous treatment option for AGA...
March 15, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Je Yeon Byeon, Hwan Jun Choi, Ji Hye Lee
Dermoid cysts are benign developmental anomalies that occurred as a result of the sequestration of the skin along the lines of embryonic closure. Those occurring in the cervicofacial region are uncommon, accounting for about 7% of all dermoids and its presence in postauricular region is further exceptionally rare. A healthy 19-year-old Asian boy presented with a unilateral postauricular cyst that had been present since childhood without any symptom. The computed tomography scan revealed an encapsulated tumor with no intracranial extension...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Christopher K Giardina, Tatyana E Khan, Stephen H Pulver, Oliver F Adunka, Craig A Buchman, Kevin D Brown, Harold C Pillsbury, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
OBJECTIVES: Electrocochleography is increasingly being utilized as an intraoperative monitor of cochlear function during cochlear implantation (CI). Intracochlear recordings from the advancing electrode can be obtained through the device by on-board capabilities. However, such recordings may not be ideal as a monitor because the recording electrode moves in relation to the neural and hair cell generators producing the responses. The purposes of this study were to compare two extracochlear recording locations in terms of signal strength and feasibility as intraoperative monitoring sites and to characterize changes in cochlear physiology during CI insertion...
March 16, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Geoffrey A Manley, Andrea Wartini, Gabriele Schwabedissen, Elke Siegl
SOAE from the last major lizard family not yet systematically investigated, the teiids, were collected from the genera Callopistes, Tupinambis and Cnemidophorus. Although their papillae show characteristics of the family Teiidae, the papillae differ both in their size and in the arrangement of uni- and bi-directional hair-cell areas. Among these three genera, Callopistes showed few (2 or 3) SOAE peaks, whereas the other two genera showed more (up to 6 per ear). In the absence of knowledge of the tonotopic maps, however, it was not possible to clearly relate the spectral patterns to the differences in papillar anatomy, suggesting that the determinants of these patterns may be more subtle than anticipated...
March 12, 2018: Hearing Research
A Premanand, B Reena Rajkumari
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a dermatological disorder of scalp hair loss characterized by a progressive miniaturization of hair follicles with shortened anagen phase leading to a decreased number of hairs on the scalp. It is a complex polygenic trait prevailing around two-thirds of the male population. Elevated expressions of 5α-dihydrotestosterone and androgen receptor are the causal factors for AGA. This review describes recent studies on the role of androgens and androgen receptor (AR) transactivation activity in modulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the dermal papilla cells of the balding scalp in androgenetic alopecia...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Patricia Lacourt, Julio Soto, Hana Rumié, Roger Gejman, Juan Carlos Pattillo, Cristián García, Hernán García
INTRODUCTION: Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) are very rare, especially in infants under the age of one. The most frequent presentation is with signs of precocious puberty. OBJECTIVE: Present an in fant with peripheral precocious puberty, diagnosis of JGCT and follow up. CLINICAL CASE: 10-month-old female infant with thelarche, pubic hair and palpable abdominal mass accompanied with eleva ted levels of estradiol, very low gonadotrophins and images that show a very large ovarian mass...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
SeungHwan Lee, Xiang Qun Shi, Anni Fan, Brian West, Ji Zhang
Introduction Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition. The importance of neuroimmune interactions in neuropathic pain has been evidenced by the involvement of different immune cells in peripheral and central sensitization of pathological pain. Macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells activated in injured nerves and spinal cord, respectively. Several lines of evidence showed that macrophage/microglia survival, activation, proliferation, and differentiation require the involvement of macrophage-colony stimulating factor...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Michael D Oberst, Catherine Auge, Chad Morris, Stacy Kentner, Kathy Mulgrew, Kelly McGlinchey, James Hair, Shino Hanabuchi, Qun Du, Melissa Damschroder, Hui Feng, Steven Eck, Nicholas Buss, Lolke de Haan, Andrew J Pierce, Haesun Park, Andrew Sylwester, Michael K Axthelm, Louis Picker, Nicholas P Morris, Andrew Weinberg, Scott A Hammond
Ligation of OX40 (CD134, TNFRSF4) on activated T cells by its natural ligand (OX40L, CD252, TNFSF4) enhances cellular survival, proliferation, and effector functions such as cytokine release and cellular cytotoxicity. We engineered a recombinant human OX40L IgG4P Fc fusion protein termed MEDI6383 that assembles into a hexameric structure and exerts potent agonist activity following engagement of OX40. MEDI6383 displayed solution phase agonist activity that was enhanced when the fusion protein was clustered by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) on the surface of adjacent cells...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Bin Du, You-Quan Ding, Xia Xiao, Hong-Yi Ren, Bing-Yin Su, Jian-Guo Qi
BACKGROUND: Antigen-specific and MHCII-restricted CD4+ αβ T cells have been shown or suggested to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic mechanical allodynia after peripheral nerve injuries. However, it is still largely unknown where these T cells infiltrate along the somatosensory pathways transmitting mechanical allodynia to initiate the development of chronic mechanical allodynia after nerve injuries. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the definite neuroimmune interface for these T cells to initiate the development of chronic mechanical allodynia after peripheral nerve injuries...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Nimantana He, Zhenguo Dong, Dapeng Tai, Hao Liang, Xudong Guo, Ming Cang, Dongjun Liu
In our previous work, we isolated Arbas Cashmere goat hair follicle stem cells (gHFSCs) and explored the pluripotency. In this study, we investigated the expression and putative role of Sox9 in the gHFSCs. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Sox9 is predominantly expressed in the bulge region of the Arbas Cashmere goat hair follicle, and also positively expressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm of the gHFSCs. When the cells were transfected using Sox9-shRNA, cell growth slowed down and the expression of related genes decreased significantly, cell cycle was abnormal, while the expression of terminal differentiation marker loricrin was markedly increased; cells lost the typical morphology of HFSCs; the mRNA and protein expression of gHFSCs markers and stem cell pluripotency associated factors were all significantly decreased; the expression of Wnt signaling pathway genes LEF1, TCF1,c-Myc were significantly changed...
March 14, 2018: Cytotechnology
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