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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738020/resident-memory-t-cells-in-the-skin-mediate-durable-immunity-to-melanoma
#1
Brian T Malik, Katelyn T Byrne, Jennifer L Vella, Peisheng Zhang, Tamer B Shabaneh, Shannon M Steinberg, Aleksey K Molodtsov, Jacob S Bowers, Christina V Angeles, Chrystal M Paulos, Yina H Huang, Mary Jo Turk
Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been widely characterized in infectious disease settings; however, their role in mediating immunity to cancer remains unknown. We report that skin-resident memory T cell responses to melanoma are generated naturally as a result of autoimmune vitiligo. Melanoma antigen-specific TRM cells resided predominantly in melanocyte-depleted hair follicles and were maintained without recirculation or replenishment from the lymphoid compartment. These cells expressed CD103, CD69, and CLA (cutaneous lymphocyte antigen), but lacked PD-1 (programmed cell death protein-1) or LAG-3 (lymphocyte activation gene-3), and were capable of making IFN-γ (interferon-γ)...
April 14, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735299/identification-of-the-first-dominant-mutation-of-lama5-gene-causing-a-complex-multisystem-syndrome-due-to-dysfunction-of-the-extracellular-matrix
#2
Simone Sampaolo, Filomena Napolitano, Alfonsina Tirozzi, Mafalda Giovanna Reccia, Luca Lombardi, Olimpia Farina, Adriano Barra, Ferdinando Cirillo, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Fernando Gianfrancesco, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Teresa Esposito
BACKGROUND: The laminin alpha 5 gene (LAMA5) plays a master role in the maintenance and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in mammalian tissues, which is critical in developmental patterning, stem cell niches, cancer and genetic diseases. Its mutations have never been reported in human disease so far. The aim of this study was to associate the first mutation in LAMA5 gene to a novel multisystem syndrome. METHODS: A detailed characterisation of a three-generation family, including clinical, biochemical, instrumental and morphological analysis, together with genetics and expression (WES and RNAseq) studies, was performed...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735085/minocycline-attenuates-streptomycin-induced-cochlear-hair-cell-death-by-inhibiting-protein-nitration-and-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-activation
#3
Ping Wang, Haonan Li, Shuyuan Yu, Peng Jin, Abdurahman Hassan, Bo Du
This study aimed to elucidate the protective effect of minocycline against streptomycin-induced damage of cochlear hair cells and its mechanism. Cochlear membranes were isolated from newborn Wistar rats and randomly divided into control, 500μmol/L streptomycin, 100μmol/L minocycline, and streptomycin and minocycline treatment groups. Hair cell survival was analyzed by detecting the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in cochlear hair cells by immunofluorescence and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of 3-NT and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 activation were evaluated by western blotting...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732240/constitutive-transgene-expression-of-stem-cell-antigen-1-in-the-hair-follicle-alters-the-sensitivity-to-tumor-formation-and-progression
#4
Rikke Christensen, David M Owens, Annette C Füchtbauer, Anders Gunnarsson, Mette Ramsing, Ernst-Martin Füchtbauer, Uffe Birk Jensen
The cell surface protein Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Sca-1) marks stem or progenitor cells in several murine tissues and is normally upregulated during cancer development. Although the specific function of Sca-1 remains unknown, Sca-1 seems to play a role in proliferation, differentiation and cell migration in a number of tissues. In the skin epithelium, Sca-1 is highly expressed in the interfollicular epidermis but is absent in most compartments of the hair follicle; however, the function of Sca-1 in the skin has not been investigated...
July 8, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730424/possible-immunomodulating-effect-of-retinol-on-cytokines-secretion-in-patients-with-recurrent-furunculosis
#5
Danuta Nowicka, Ewelina Grywalska, Anna Hymos, Michał Mielnik, Jacek Roliński
Recurrent furunculosis is an infection of hair follicles which results in formation of abscesses. Previous studies showed that the pathogenesis of the disease may include an immune-mediated component as the proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to staphylococcal antigen is depressed. The aim of our study was to evaluate cytokines concentration in the plasma of patients with recurrent furunculosis and to determine whether retinol affects the secretion of those cytokines in patients with recurrent furunculosis and healthy subjects...
July 20, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729444/an-atoh1-s193a-phospho-mutant-allele-causes-hearing-deficits-and-motor-impairment
#6
Wei Rose Xie, Hsin-I Jen, Michelle L Seymour, Szu-Ying Yeh, Fred A Pereira, Andrew K Groves, Tiemo J Klisch, Huda Y Zoghbi
Atoh1 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is essential for the genesis, survival, and maturation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations, including those involved in proprioception, interoception, balance, respiration, and hearing. Such diverse functions require fine regulation at the transcriptional and protein levels. Here we show that serine 193 (S193) is phosphorylated in Atoh1's bHLH domain in vivo Knock-in mice of both sexes bearing a GFP-tagged phospho-dead S193A allele on a null background (Atoh1(S193A/lacZ) ) exhibit mild cerebellar foliation defects, motor impairments, and also partial pontine nucleus migration defects, cochlear hair cell degeneration, and profound hearing loss...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729426/glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-2-is-essential-for-normal-spermatogenesis
#7
Maria Belen Garcia-Fabiani, Mauro A Montanaro, Pablo Stringa, Ezequiel Lacunza, Elizabeth R Cattaneo, Marianela Santana, Magali Pellon-Maison, Maria R Gonzalez-Baro
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) catalyze the first and rate-limiting step in the de novo glycerolipid synthesis. The GPAT2 isoform differs from the other isoforms because its expression is restricted to male germ cells and cancer cells. It has been recently reported that GPAT2 expression in mouse testis fluctuates during sexual maturation and that it is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms in combination with vitamin A derivatives. Despite progress made in this field, information about GPAT2 role in the developing male germ cells remains unclear...
July 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727410/exosomes-mediate-epithelium-mesenchyme-crosstalk-in-organ-development
#8
Nan Jiang, Lusai Xiang, Ling He, Guodong Yang, Jinxuan Zheng, Chenglin Wang, Yimei Zhang, Sainan Wang, Yue Zhou, Tzong-Jen Sheu, Jiaqian Wu, Kenian Chen, Paulo G Coelho, Nicky M Tovar, Shin Hye Kim, Mo Chen, Yan-Heng Zhou, Jeremy J Mao
Organ development requires complex signaling by cells in different tissues. Epithelium and mesenchyme interactions are crucial for the development of the skin, hair follicles, kidney, lungs, prostate, major glands and the teeth. Despite myriad literature on cell-cell interactions and ligand-receptor binding, the roles extracellular vesicles in epithelium-mesenchyme interactions during organogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we discovered that ~100 nm exosomes were secreted by the epithelium and mesenchyme of a developing tooth organ, and diffused through the basement membrane...
July 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726311/gaba-histamine-and-fmrfamide-immunoreactivity-in-the-visual-vestibular-and-central-nervous-systems-of-hermissenda-crassicornis
#9
Marissa P Webber, James W S Thomson, Johnny Buckland-Nicks, Roger P Croll, Russell C Wyeth
Hermissenda crassicornis is a model for studying the molecular and cellular basis for classical conditioning, based on its ability to associate light with vestibular stimulation. We used confocal microscopy to map histamine, FMRF-amide, and GABA immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS), eyes, optic ganglia and statocysts of the nudibranchs. For histamine immunoreactivity, we documented both consistently and variably labelled CNS structures across individuals. We also noted minor differences in GABA immunoreactivity in the CNS compared to previous work on Hermissenda...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725654/stem-cells-from-human-hair-follicles-first-mechanical-isolation-for-immediate-autologous-clinical-use-in-androgenetic-alopecia-and-hair-loss
#10
Pietro Gentile, Maria G Scioli, Alessandra Bielli, Augusto Orlandi, Valerio Cervelli
BACKGROUND: Hair follicles are known to contain a well-characterized niche for adult stem cells: the bulge, which contains epithelial and melanocytic stem cells. Stem cells in the hair bulge, a clearly demarcated structure within the lower permanent portion of hair follicles, can generate the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicle structures, and sebaceous glands. The bulge epithelial stem cells can also reconstitute in an artificial in vivo system to a new hair follicle. METHODS: In this study, we have developed a new method to isolate human adult stem cells by mechanical centrifugation of punch biopsy from human hair follicles without culture condition...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725177/characterization-of-lgr5-progenitor-cell-transcriptomes-after-neomycin-injury-in-the-neonatal-mouse-cochlea
#11
Shasha Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Pengfei Yu, Yao Hu, Han Zhou, Lingna Guo, Xiaochen Xu, Xiaocheng Zhu, Muhammad Waqas, Jieyu Qi, Xiaoli Zhang, Yan Liu, Fangyi Chen, Mingliang Tang, Xiaoyun Qian, Haibo Shi, Xia Gao, Renjie Chai
Lgr5+ supporting cells (SCs) are enriched hair cell (HC) progenitors in the cochlea. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that HC injury can spontaneously activate Lgr5+ progenitors to regenerate HCs in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Promoting HC regeneration requires the understanding of the mechanism of HC regeneration, and this requires knowledge of the key genes involved in HC injury-induced self-repair responses that promote the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5+ progenitors. Here, as expected, we found that neomycin-treated Lgr5+ progenitors (NLPs) had significantly greater HC regeneration ability, and greater but not significant proliferation ability compared to untreated Lgr5+ progenitors (ULPs) in response to neomycin exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723343/%C3%AE-catenin-is-involved-in-oleanolic-acid-dependent-promotion-of-proliferation-in-human-hair-matrix-cells-in-an-in-vitro-organ-culture-model
#12
Ben Liu, Xianyan Chen, Huan Yi, Le Han, Bin Ji, Haiyan Chen, Wenjia Deng, Miaojian Wan
Oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound which can be found in >1600 plants, has been shown to promote hair growth. To study the mechanisms of OA on hair growth, we investigated hair follicle (HF) growth on four different concentration OA using human hair follicle organ culture model. We found that HFs treated with 1 or 10μg/mL OA showed statistically enhanced elongation of the hair shaft and anagen-like stage. Moreover, higher positive rate of Ki-67, a matrix cellular marker of proliferation, was detected in the same groups treated with 1 or 10μg/mL than those treated with vehicle...
July 16, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720840/positioning-of-the-scrambled-receptor-requires-udp-glc-sterol-glucosyltransferase-80b1-in-arabidopsis-roots
#13
Victoria G Pook, Meera Nair, KookHui Ryu, James C Arpin, John Schiefelbein, Kathrin Schrick, Seth DeBolt
The biological function of sterol glucosides (SGs), the most abundant sterol derivatives in higher plants, remains uncertain. In an effort to improve our understanding of these membrane lipids we examined phenotypes exhibited by the roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines carrying insertions in the UDP-Glc:sterol glucosyltransferase genes, UGT80A2 and UGT80B1. We show that although ugt80A2 mutants exhibit significantly lower levels of total SGs they are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717940/alopecia-areata-a-comprehensive-review-of-pathogenesis-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Ralph M Trüeb, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni Dias
Alopecia areata is a common hair loss condition that is characterized by acute onset of non-scarring hair loss in usually sharply defined areas ranging from small patches to extensive or less frequently diffuse involvement. Depending on its acuity and extent, hair loss is an important cause of anxiety and disability. The current understanding is that the condition represents an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the hair follicle with a genetic background. Genome-wide association studies provide evidence for the involvement of both innate and acquired immunity in the pathogenesis, and mechanistic studies in mouse models of alopecia areata have specifically implicated an IFN-γ-driven immune response, including IFNγ, IFNγ-induced chemokines and cytotoxic CD8 T cells as the main drivers of disease pathogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717876/structural-and-ultrastructural-changes-to-type-i-spiral-ganglion-neurons-and-schwann-cells-in-the-deafened-guinea-pig-cochlea
#15
Andrew K Wise, Remy Pujol, Thomas G Landry, James B Fallon, Robert K Shepherd
Sensorineural hearing loss is commonly caused by damage to cochlear sensory hair cells. Coinciding with hair cell degeneration, the peripheral fibres of type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that normally form synaptic connections with the inner hair cell gradually degenerate. We examined the time course of these degenerative changes in type I SGNs and their satellite Schwann cells at the ultrastructural level in guinea pigs at 2, 6, and 12 weeks following aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Degeneration of the peripheral fibres occurred prior to the degeneration of the type I SGN soma and was characterised by shrinkage of the fibre followed by retraction of the axoplasm, often leaving a normal myelin lumen devoid of axoplasmic content...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717875/mast-like-protein-kinase-ireh1-from-arabidopsis-thaliana-co-localizes-with-the-centrosome-when-expressed-in-animal-cells
#16
Elena M Chudinova, Pavel A Karpov, Artem I Fokin, Alla I Yemets, Dmytro I Lytvyn, Elena S Nadezhdina, Yaroslav B Blume
The similarity of IREH1 (Incomplete Root Hair Elongation 1) and animal MAST kinases was confirmed; IREH1cDNA was cloned while expressing in cultured animal cells co-localized with the centrosome. In mammals and fruit flies, microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinases (MAST) are strongly involved in the regulation of the microtubule system. Higher plants also possess protein kinases homologous to MASTs, but their function and interaction with the cytoskeleton remain unclear. Here, we confirmed the sequence and structural similarity of MAST-related putative protein kinase IREH1 (At3g17850) and known animal MAST kinases...
July 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717861/patient-perspectives-on-gene-transfer-therapy-for-sickle-cell-disease
#17
Heather Strong, Monica J Mitchell, Alana Goldstein-Leever, Lisa Shook, Punam Malik, Lori E Crosby
INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic genetic disease with high morbidity and early mortality; it affects nearly 100,000 individuals in the USA. Bone marrow transplantation, the only curative treatment, is available to less than 20% of patients because of a number of access barriers. Gene transfer therapy (GTT) has been shown to be curative in animal models and is approved for use in humans for early-phase studies at a few centers. GTT would offer a more accessible treatment option available to all patients...
July 17, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717319/changes-in-histopathology-and-cytokeratin-ae1-ae3-expression-in-skin-graft-with-different-time-on-indonesian-local-cats
#18
Erwin, Etriwati, Gunanti, Ekowati Handharyani, Deni Noviana
AIM: A good skin graft histopathology is followed by formation of hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, blood vessel, lightly dense connective tissue, epidermis, and dermis layer. This research aimed to observe histopathology feature and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression on cat skin post skin grafting within a different period of time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old weighing 3-4 kg were separated into three groups. First surgery created defect wound of 2 cm × 2 cm in size to whole groups...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716727/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-links-autism-and-toxic-metals-and-highlights-the-impact-of-country-development-status-higher-blood-and-erythrocyte-levels-for-mercury-and-lead-and-higher-hair-antimony-cadmium-lead-and-mercury
#19
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals...
July 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716435/reference-values-for-skin-microanatomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-ex%C3%A2-vivo-studies
#20
Haoming Xu, Maira Fonseca, Zachary Wolner, Esther Chung, Xinyuan Wu, Shamir Geller, Stephen W Dusza, Antonio P DeRosa, Ashfaq A Marghoob, Klaus J Busam, Allan C Halpern, Michael A Marchetti
BACKGROUND: Few studies have characterized reference values of normal human skin microanatomy parameters. OBJECTIVE: To quantify histologic measurements of epidermal thickness, melanocyte density, hair follicle density, and eccrine gland density as a function of age and anatomic site. METHOD: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases for articles published through May 25, 2017. Two reviewers independently screened 2016 articles; 327 relevant articles and 151 additional articles found via forward or reference citations underwent full-text review by 1 of 4 reviewers for relevance, data extraction, and critical appraisal...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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