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Homocitrullination or carbamylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772765/protein-carbamylation-a-marker-reflecting-increased-age-related-cell-oxidation
#1
Julia Carracedo, Rafael Ramírez-Carracedo, Irene Martínez de Toda, Carmen Vida, Matilde Alique, Mónica De la Fuente, Rafael Ramírez-Chamond
Carbamylation is a post-translational modification of proteins that may partake in the oxidative stress-associated cell damage, and its increment has been recently proposed as a "hallmark of aging". The molecular mechanisms associated with aging are related to an increased release of free radicals. We have studied whether carbamylated proteins from the peripheral blood of healthy subjects are related to oxidative damage and aging, taking into account the gender and the immune profile of the subjects...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772557/high-density-lipoprotein-carbamylation-and-dysfunction-in-vascular-disease
#2
Jeans Miguel Santana, Clinton Douglas Brown
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is cardioprotective because of its anti-atherogenic properties. Nevertheless, our goal to optimize HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have had little effects on the atherothrombotic burden and suggests a closer look be taken at HDL function and dysfunction. HDL is a group of complex macromolecules composed of a lipid- and proteome that work in synergy to execute its anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-thrombotic effects. However, throughout its life-span in circulation, HDL undergoes significant modification...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738984/physiological-aspects-of-nitro-drug-resistance-in-giardia-lamblia
#3
Joachim Müller, Andrew Hemphill, Norbert Müller
For over 50 years, metronidazole and other nitro compounds such as nitazoxanide have been used as a therapy of choice against giardiasis and more and more frequently, resistance formation has been observed. Model systems allowing studies on biochemical aspects of resistance formation to nitro drugs are, however, scarce since resistant strains are often unstable in culture. In order to fill this gap, we have generated a stable metronidazole- and nitazoxanide-resistant Giardia lamblia WBC6 clone, the strain C4...
April 28, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716796/protein-carbamylation-exacerbates-vascular-calcification
#4
Daisuke Mori, Isao Matsui, Akihiro Shimomura, Nobuhiro Hashimoto, Ayumi Matsumoto, Karin Shimada, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Tatsufumi Oka, Keiichi Kubota, Sayoko Yonemoto, Yusuke Sakaguchi, Atsushi Takahashi, Yasunori Shintani, Seiji Takashima, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Takayuki Hamano, Yoshitaka Isaka
Protein carbamylation is a posttranslational modification that can occur non-enzymatically in the presence of high concentrations of urea. Although carbamylation is recognized as a prognostic biomarker, the contribution of protein carbamylation to organ dysfunction remains uncertain. Because vascular calcification is common under carbamylation-prone situations, we investigated the effects of carbamylation on this pathologic condition. Protein carbamylation exacerbated the calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) by suppressing the expression of ectonucleotide pyrophosphate/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), a key enzyme in the generation of pyrophosphate, which is a potent inhibitor of ectopic calcification...
April 28, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563277/protein-carbamylation-in-peritoneal-dialysis-and-the-effect-of-low-glucose-plus-amino-acid-solutions
#5
Caitlin Trottier, Jeffrey Perl, Megan Freeman, Ravi Thadhani, Anders Berg, Sahir Kalim
Protein carbamylation is a post-translational urea-driven protein modification associated with mortality. Free amino acids (AAs) competitively inhibit protein carbamylation and parenteral AA therapy reduces carbamylation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) yields differences in urea clearance and AA balance compared with HD, but the influence of PD and intraperitoneal AA solutions on carbamylation is unclear. Thus, we first measured carbamylated albumin (C-Alb; a marker of carbamylation load) in 100 diabetic HD patients frequency-matched by age, sex, and race to 98 diabetic PD subjects from the IMPENDIA trial, which originally compared the metabolic effects of low-glucose PD solutions (incorporating icodextrin and AAs) to a control group (dextrose-only solutions)...
March 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542227/role-of-carbamylated-biomolecules-in-human-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Asim Badar, Zarina Arif, Khursheed Alam
Carbamylation (or carbamoylation) is a non-enzymatic modification of biomolecules mediated by cyanate, a dissociation product of urea. Proteins are more sensitive to carbamylation. Two major sites of carbamylation reaction are: Nα -amino moiety of a protein N-terminus and the Nɛ -amino moiety of proteins' lysine residues. In kidney diseases, urea accumulates and the burden of carbamylation increases. This may lead to alteration in the structure and function of many important proteins relevant in maintenance of homeostasis...
March 15, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496995/myeloperoxidase-catalyzed-oxidation-of-cyanide-to-cyanate-a-potential-carbamylation-route-involved-in-the-formation-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#7
Cédric Delporte, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Paul G Furtmüller, Richard A Maki, Marc Dieu, Caroline Noyon, Monika Soudi, Damien Dufour, Catherine Coremans, Vincent Nuyens, Florence Reye, Alexandre Rousseau, Martine Raes, Nicole Moguilevsky, Michel Vanhaeverbeek, Jean Ducobu, Jean Nève, Bernard Robaye, Luc Vanhamme, Wanda F Reynolds, Christian Obinger, Pierre Van Antwerpen
Protein carbamylation by cyanate is a post-translational modification associated with several (patho)physiological conditions, including cardiovascular disorders. However, the biochemical pathways leading to protein carbamylation are incompletely characterized. This work demonstrates that the heme protein myeloperoxidase (MPO), which is secreted at high concentrations at inflammatory sites from stimulated neutrophils and monocytes, is able to catalyze the two-electron oxidation of cyanide to cyanate and promote the carbamylation of taurine, lysine, and low-density lipoproteins...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482627/baseline-autoantibody-profile-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-associated-with-early-treatment-response-but-not-long-term-outcomes
#8
Emma C de Moel, Veerle F A M Derksen, Gerrie Stoeken, Leendert A Trouw, Holger Bang, Robbert J Goekoop, Irene Speyer, Tom W J Huizinga, Cornelia F Allaart, René E M Toes, Diane van der Woude
BACKGROUND: The autoantibody profile of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is very diverse and consists of various isotypes and antibodies to multiple post-translational modifications. It is yet unknown whether this varying breadth of the autoantibody profile is associated with treatment outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether the composition of the autoantibody profile in RA, as a marker of the underlying immunopathology, influences initial and long-term treatment outcomes. METHODS: In serum from 399 seropositive patients with RA in the IMPROVED study, drawn at baseline and at the moment of drug tapering, we measured IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-2 and anti-carbamylated protein antibodies, IgM and IgA rheumatoid factor, and reactivity against four citrullinated and two acetylated peptides (anti-modified protein antibodies (AMPAs))...
February 26, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478512/protein-carbamylation-chemistry-pathophysiological-involvement-and-biomarkers
#9
Stéphane Jaisson, Christine Pietrement, Philippe Gillery
Protein carbamylation refers to a nonenzymatic modification, which consists in the binding of isocyanic acid on protein functional groups. This reaction is responsible for the alteration in structural and functional properties of proteins, which participate in their molecular aging. Protein molecular aging is now considered a molecular substratum for the development of chronic and inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, or rheumatoid arthritis. As a consequence, carbamylation-derived products have been proposed as interesting biomarkers in various pathological contexts and appropriate analytical methods have been developed for their quantification in biological fluids...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475987/a-novel-biological-role-for-peptidyl-arginine-deiminases-citrullination-of-cathelicidin-ll-37-controls-the-immunostimulatory-potential-of-cell-free-dna
#10
Alicia Wong, Danuta Bryzek, Ewelina Dobosz, Carsten Scavenius, Pavel Svoboda, Maria Rapala-Kozik, Adam Lesner, Ivo Frydrych, Jan Enghild, Piotr Mydel, Jan Pohl, Paul R Thompson, Jan Potempa, Joanna Koziel
LL-37, the only human cathelicidin that is released during inflammation, is a potent regulator of immune responses by facilitating delivery of oligonucleotides to intracellular TLR-9, thereby enhancing the response of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to extracellular DNA. Although important for pathogen recognition, this mechanism may facilitate development of autoimmune diseases. In this article, we show that citrullination of LL-37 by peptidyl-arginine deiminases (PADs) hindered peptide-dependent DNA uptake and sensing by pDCs...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438164/the-autoimmune-ecology-an-update
#11
Juan-Manuel Anaya, Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Carolina Ramírez-Santana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The autoimmune ecology refers to the interactions between individuals and their environment leading to a breakdown in immune tolerance and, therefore, to the development of one or more autoimmune diseases in such an individual. Herein, an update is offered on four specific factors associated with autoimmune diseases, namely, vitamin D, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption from the perspective of exposome and metabolomics. RECENT FINDINGS: Smoking is associated with an increased risk for most of the autoimmune diseases...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394286/circulating-levels-of-carbamylated-protein-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-associated-with-periodontitis-severity-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-pilot-case-control-study
#12
Chihiro Kaneko, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Satoshi Ito, Noriko Sugita, Akira Murasawa, Kiyoshi Nakazono, Hiromasa Yoshie
OBJECTIVES: An interrelationship between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis has been suggested due to their common pathogenic mechanisms. Protein carbamylation and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation have been shown to be related to autoimmune conditions, including RA, but their association with periodontitis has not been elucidated. Therefore, we assessed whether or not circulating levels of carbamylated protein (CarP) and NETs are associated with periodontitis severity and influenced by periodontal treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384199/development-of-an-electrophoretic-method-based-on-nanostructured-materials-for-hba1c-determination
#13
Mariana Hamer, Narella Bassi, Denise Agata Grela
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) detection is performed routinely in hospitals as it is the most widespread confirmatory diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Here we present a novel CE method for measuring HbA1c by introducing silica nanoparticles (NPs) modified with a boronic acid derivative (sugar loadings of 51 ± 2 μg/mg) as pseudo-stationary phase. Before the sample injection, SiO2 NP─B(OH)2 were introduced via pressure. Electrophoretic separation was explored through variation of the buffer pH and separation voltage, being the best separation, resolution and shorter separation time achieved with a 25 mM phosphate buffer pH 6...
April 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242008/immune-responses-to-peptides-containing-homocitrulline-or-citrulline-in-the-dr4-transgenic-mouse-model-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Patrick Lac, Sheri Saunders, Elena Tutunea-Fatan, Lillian Barra, David A Bell, Ewa Cairns
Antibodies to proteins/peptides containing citrulline are hallmarks of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). These antibodies are strongly associated with the expression of the Shared Epitope (SE). RA patients also generate antibodies to homocitrulline-containing proteins/peptides (also referred to as anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (Anti-CarP)). This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between homocitrulline and citrulline immune responses using an established mouse model of RA: DR4-transgenic (DR4tg) mice that express the human SE...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221866/a-capillary-zone-electrophoresis-method-for-detection-of-apolipoprotein-c-iii-glycoforms-and-other-related-artifactually-modified-species
#15
Coralie Ruel, Marco Morani, Arnaud Bruneel, Christophe Junot, Myriam Taverna, François Fenaille, Nguyet Thuy Tran
ApolipoproteinC-III (ApoC-III) is a human plasma glycoprotein whose O-glycosylation can be altered as a result of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). ApoC-III exhibits three major glycoforms whose relative quantification is of utmost importance for the diagnosis of CDG patients. Considering the very close structures of these glycoforms and their tendency to adsorb on the capillary, a thorough optimization of capillary electrophoresis (CE) parameters including preconditioning and in-between rinsing procedures was required to efficiently separate all the ApoC-III glycoforms...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209135/first-case-of-cross-auxiliary-double-domino-donor-liver-transplantation
#16
Zhi-Jun Zhu, Lin Wei, Wei Qu, Li-Ying Sun, Ying Liu, Zhi-Gui Zeng, Liang Zhang, En-Hui He, Hai-Ming Zhang, Ji-Dong Jia, Zhong-Tao Zhang
We report a case of double domino liver transplantation in a 32-year-old woman who was diagnosed with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) and liver dysfunction. A two-stage surgical plan was designed, and one domino graft was implanted during each stage. During the first stage, an auxiliary domino liver transplantation was conducted using a domino graft from a 4-year-old female child with Wilson's disease. After removing the right lobe of the FAP patient's liver, the graft was rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise and placed along the right side of the inferior vena cava (IVC)...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204673/the-role-of-autoantibodies-in-bone-metabolism-and-bone-loss
#17
REVIEW
Barbara Hauser, Ulrike Harre
Many autoimmune diseases are associated with deranged bone metabolism. The resulting localized or systemic bone loss can compromise the quality of life of patients by causing local bone deformities or fragility fractures. There is emerging evidence that antibodies have a direct impact on key players of bone homeostasis, in particular osteoclasts. Clinical and pre-clinical studies provide insight into the function of autoantibodies related to Rheumatoid Arthritis (rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, and anti-carbamylated protein antibodies) and their inflammation-independent interaction with bone cells...
December 4, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204430/carbamylation-citrullination-of-igg-fc-in-bronchiectasis-established-ra-with-bronchiectasis-and-ra-smokers-a-potential-risk-factor-for-disease
#18
David Hutchinson, Alexander Clarke, Kate Heesom, Daniel Murphy, Paul Eggleton
Bronchiectasis (BR) and smoking are risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development. The mechanisms by which smoking and BR trigger RA are unknown, but are associated with concurrent rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) positivity. Anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP) have also been observed in BR patients and can be induced by smoking. Given that RF only has one antigen, immunoglobulin G (IgG) we have suggested that post-translational modifications to the Fc region of the heavy chain of IgG (IgGH) are a potential explanation for the clustering of the RA-associated autoantibodies in RA...
July 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203664/structural-insights-into-how-gtp-dependent-conformational-changes-in-a-metallochaperone-ureg-facilitate-urease-maturation
#19
Man Hon Yuen, Yu Hang Fong, Yap Shing Nim, Pak Ho Lau, Kam-Bo Wong
The ability of metallochaperones to allosterically regulate the binding/release of metal ions and to switch protein-binding partners along the metal delivery pathway is essential to the metallation of the metalloenzymes. Urease, catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, contains two nickel ions bound by a carbamylated lysine in its active site. Delivery of nickel ions for urease maturation is dependent on GTP hydrolysis and is assisted by four urease accessory proteins UreE, UreF, UreG, and UreH(UreD)...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203292/pitfalls-in-the-detection-of-citrullination-and-carbamylation
#20
REVIEW
M K Verheul, P A van Veelen, M A M van Delft, A de Ru, G M C Janssen, T Rispens, R E M Toes, L A Trouw
Carbamylation and citrullination are both post-translational modifications against which (auto)antibodies can be detected in sera of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Carbamylation is the chemical modification of a lysine into a homocitrulline, whereas citrullination is an enzymatic conversion of an arginine into a citrulline. It is difficult to distinguish between the two resulting amino acids due to similarities in structure. However, differentiation between citrulline and homocitrulline is important to understand the antigens that induce antibody production and to determine which modified antigens are present in target tissues...
February 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
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