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Obesity paradox

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911986/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-adipose-tissue-should-be-considered-in-obesity-research
#1
Y-M Lee, K-S Kim, D R Jacobs, D-H Lee
Although low doses of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), strong lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, have been linked to various endocrine, immune, nervous and reproductive system diseases, few obesity studies have considered adipose tissue as an important POPs exposure source. Because the toxicodynamics of POPs relate directly to the dynamics of adiposity, POPs might explain puzzling findings in obesity research. In two people exposed to the same amounts of environmental POPs, the one having more adipose tissue may be advantaged because POPs storage in adipose tissue can reduce burden on other critical organs...
December 2, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909903/obesity-and-kidney-cancer
#2
Kathryn M Wilson, Eunyoung Cho
Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the major type of kidney cancer with increasing incidence. Obesity is one of the well-established risk factors for RCC. Meta-analyses including multiple cohort and case-control studies have found a consistent positive association between obesity and RCC. The association appeared to be independent of other RCC risk factors including hypertension and has been often stronger in women, although a positive association has also been observed in men. Obesity has been largely measured as body mass index (BMI)...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903157/obesity-and-other-cancers
#3
Lin Yang, Bettina F Drake, Graham A Colditz
Purpose Evidence on overweight, obesity, and an increased risk of cancer continues to accumulate and was updated in the 2016 handbook on weight control from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The underlying primary data, together with dose-response meta-analysis and, finally, pooled analysis of individual participant data, add insight into the relation between obesity and cancer risk and prognosis. We summarize the evidence for mortality from prostate cancer, hematologic malignancies, and kidney cancer...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897405/premorbid-obesity-but-not-nutrition-prevents-critical-illness-induced-muscle-wasting-and-weakness
#4
Chloë Goossens, Mirna Bastos Marques, Sarah Derde, Sarah Vander Perre, Thomas Dufour, Steven E Thiessen, Fabian Güiza, Thomas Janssens, Greet Hermans, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Katrien De Bock, Greet Van den Berghe, Lies Langouche
BACKGROUND: The 'obesity paradox' of critical illness refers to better survival with a higher body mass index. We hypothesized that fat mobilized from excess adipose tissue during critical illness provides energy more efficiently than exogenous macronutrients and could prevent lean tissue wasting. METHODS: In lean and premorbidly obese mice, the effect of 5 days of sepsis-induced critical illness on body weight and composition, muscle wasting, and weakness was assessed, each with fasting and parenteral feeding...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890486/towards-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-understand-and-manage-obesity-and-related-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Stephan C Bischoff, Yves Boirie, Tommy Cederholm, Michael Chourdakis, Cristina Cuerda, Nathalie M Delzenne, Nicolaas E Deutz, Denis Fouque, Laurence Genton, Carmen Gil, Berthold Koletzko, Miguel Leon-Sanz, Raanan Shamir, Joelle Singer, Pierre Singer, Nanette Stroebele-Benschop, Anders Thorell, Arved Weimann, Rocco Barazzoni
Overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle result in overweight or obesity defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, over 50% of both men and women in the WHO European Region were overweight, and approximately 23% of women and 20% of men were obese. Comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches should include nutritional treatment to favor the best metabolic and nutritional outcome, as well as to induce potential disease-specific benefits from selected nutritional regimens...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878212/obesity-paradox-obesity-orthodox-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-approach-to-unity
#6
Jesse Roth, Navneet Sahota, Priya Patel, Syed Faizan Mehdi, Mohammad Masum Wiese, Hafiz B Mahboob, Michelle Bravo, Daniel J Eden, Muhammad A Bashir, Amrat Kumar, Farah Alsaati, Irwin J Kurland, Wunnie Brima, Ann Danoff, Alessandra L Szulc, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey, Huan Yang
Obesity and the accompanying metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with heightened morbidity and mortality in older adults. In our review of more than 20 epidemiologic studies of major infectious diseases, including leaders such as tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, and sepsis, obesity was associated with better outcomes. A cause-and-effect relationship between over-nutrition and survival with infection is suggested by results of two preliminary studies of infections in mice, where high fat feeding for 8-10 weeks provided much better outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876519/the-effect-of-body-mass-index-on-major-outcomes-after-vascular-surgery
#7
REVIEW
George Galyfos, Georgios I Geropapas, Stavros Kerasidis, Argiri Sianou, Fragiska Sigala, Konstantinos Filis
OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, although pooled evidence in patients undergoing vascular surgery are lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on major postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing vascular surgery. METHODS: A systematic literature review conforming to established criteria to identify eligible articles published before May 2016 was conducted...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867523/obesity-paradox-in-heart-failure-a-heavy-matter
#8
REVIEW
Vijaiganesh Nagarajan, Luke Kohan, Eric Holland, Ellen C Keeley, Sula Mazimba
Obesity and heart failure are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The relationship between obesity and cardiovascular diseases is complex and not fully understood. While the risk of developing heart failure has been shown to be higher in patients who are obese, there is a survival advantage for obese and overweight patients compared with normal weight or low weight patients. This phenomenon was first described by Horwich et al. and was subsequently confirmed in other large trials...
December 2016: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864622/how-obesity-impacts-outcomes-of-infectious-diseases
#9
A Atamna, A Elis, E Gilady, L Gitter-Azulay, J Bishara
Obesity is associated with co-morbidities and increased risk of acquiring infections with worse outcomes. Paradoxically, a few studies indicate that obesity may have a decreased mortality in hospitalized patients with pneumonia. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on short-term all-cause mortality and clinical outcomes among hospitalized adults with pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bacteremia. The study cohort included 1437 consecutive patients who were admitted with infectious disease including pneumonia (717), urinary tract infection (506), bacteremia (69), and skin and soft tissue infections (145), and hospitalized in internal medical departments, during 2013-2015...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856635/micrornaa-155-deficiency-leads-to-decreased-atherosclerosis-increased-white-adipose-tissue-obesity-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-novel-mouse-model-of-obesity-paradox
#10
Anthony Virtue, Candice Johnson, Jahaira Lopez-Pastraña, Ying Shao, Hangfei Fu, Xinyuan Li, Ya-Feng Li, Ying Yin, Jietang Mai, Victor Rizzo, Michael Tordoff, Zsolt Bagi, Huimin Shan, Xiaohua Jiang, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
Obesity paradox (OP) describes a widely observed clinical finding of improved cardiovascular fitness and survival in some overweight or obese patients. The molecular mechanisms underlying OP remain enigmatic partly due to a lack of animal models mirroring OP in patients. Using apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice on high-fat (HF) diet as an atherosclerotic obesity model, we demonstrated: 1) microRNA-155 (miRNA-155, miR-155) is significantly upregulated in aortas of ApoE-/- mice; and miR-155 deficiency in ApoE-/- mice inhibits atherosclerosis; 2) ApoE-/-/miR-155-/- (DKO) mice show HF diet-induced obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy and present with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); 3) DKO mice demonstrate HF diet-induced elevations of plasma leptin, resistin, fed-state and fasting insulin, increased expression of adipogenic transcription factors, but lack glucose intolerance and insulin resistance...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849802/159-does-obesity-paradox-exist-in-cardiogenic-shock-a-nationwide-analysis
#11
Kshitij Chatterjee, Abhinav Goyal, Anusha Shanbhag, Bashar Alzghoul, Ayoub Innabi, Nikhil Meena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849788/144-obesity-paradox-in-patients-undergoing-venovenous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support
#12
Kha Dinh, Bindu Akkanti, Rahat Hussain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830194/effect-of-high-fat-diet-on-pulmonary-expression-of-parathyroid-hormone-related-protein-and-its-downstream-targets
#13
Learta Oruqaj, Svenja Forst, Rolf Schreckenberg, Javier Inserte, Marcos Poncelas, Jordi Bañeras, David Garcia-Dorado, Susanne Rohrbach, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter
AIMS: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is involved in lung development and surfactant production. The latter one requires a paracrine interaction between type II alveolar cells and lipofibroblasts in which leptin triggers PTHrP-induced effects. Whether increased plasma leptin levels, as they occur in high fat diet, modify the expression of PTHrP remains unclear. Furthermore, the effect of high fat diet under conditions of forced pulmonary remodelling such as response to post myocardial infarction remains to be defined...
October 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827006/did-napoleon-suffer-from-chronic-rhonchopathy
#14
Claude-Henri Chouard
CONCLUSION: If Napoleon had been treated, Europa would then have doubtless been different, and perhaps would not have known the last two World wars. OBJECTIVES: This study plans to demonstrate that Napoleon very probably suffered from Chronic Rhonchopathy. BACKGROUND: Between 1983-1993, the author led their ENT department of CHU Saint-Antoine to contribute in the knowledge of chronic snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome (OSAS), and to define the treatment of their consequences...
November 9, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823599/relation-of-body-mass-index-to-long-term-survival-after-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#15
E Wilson Grandin, Alison Wand, Payman Zamani, J Eduardo Rame, Ralph J Verdino
Obesity confers a paradoxical survival benefit in patients with heart failure, but this obesity paradox has not been well established in those who have undergone cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D). We sought to determine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on long-term survival in patients with heart failure after CRT-D. We identified 113 patients implanted with CRT-D at our institution from May 2002 to November 2003. Patients were divided into 3 categories by pre-implant BMI (kg/m(2)): normal weight (BMI <25), overweight (BMI 25-29), and obese (BMI ≥30)...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812911/the-obesity-paradox-is-it-really-a-paradox-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Alessandro Lechi
This article is a narrative overview of the role of hypertension on the relationships between obesity, morbidity, and mortality. We used as sources MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, from inception to March 2016. Key words include overweight, obesity, visceral obesity, obesity paradox, and hypertension. In addition, we hand-searched references from the retrieved articles. This work is one of the works of the topical collection "Obesity Paradox". The positive association between overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases is well established, though this relation is typically U shaped with an increased risk in low-weight subjects or even a beneficial effect of overweight and obesity, the so-called "obesity paradox"...
November 4, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804267/reactive-oxygen-species-and-oxidative-stress-in-obesity-recent-findings-and-empirical-approaches
#17
REVIEW
Fiona McMurray, David A Patten, Mary-Ellen Harper
OBJECTIVE: High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are intricately linked to obesity and associated pathologies, notably insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, ROS are also thought to be important in intracellular signaling, which may paradoxically be required for insulin sensitivity. Many theories have been developed to explain this apparent paradox, which have broadened our understanding of these important small molecules. While many sites for intracellular ROS production have been described, mitochondrial generated ROS remain a major contributor in most cell types...
November 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799465/paradoxical-leanness-in-the-imprinting-centre-deletion-mouse-model-for-prader-willi-syndrome
#18
David M Golding, Daniel J Rees, Jennifer R Davies, Dinko Relkovic, Hannah V Furby, Irina A Guschina, Anna L Hopkins, Jeffrey S Davies, James L Resnick, Anthony R Isles, Timothy Wells
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of paternal gene expression from 15q11-q13, is characterised by growth retardation, hyperphagia and obesity. However, as single gene mutation mouse models for this condition display an incomplete spectrum of the PWS phenotype, we have characterised the metabolic impairment in a mouse model for 'full' PWS, in which deletion of the imprinting centre (IC) abolishes paternal gene expression from the entire PWS cluster. We show that PWS-IC(del) mice displayed postnatal growth retardation, with reduced body weight, hyperghrelinaemia and marked abdominal leanness; proportionate retroperitoneal, epididymal/omental and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT) weights being reduced by 82%, 84% and 67%, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778068/association-between-the-body-mass-index-and-the-clinical-findings-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure-evaluation-of-the-obesity-paradox-in-patients-with-severely-decompensated-acute-heart-failure
#19
Masato Matsushita, Akihiro Shirakabe, Noritake Hata, Takuro Shinada, Nobuaki Kobayashi, Kazunori Tomita, Masafumi Tsurumi, Hirotake Okazaki, Yoshiya Yamamoto, Kuniya Asai, Wataru Shimizu
Obesity is known to be associated with the development of heart failure (HF). However, the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and acute HF (AHF) remains to be elucidated. Eight hundred and eight AHF patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to four groups according to their BMI values: severely thin (n = 11, BMI <16), normal/underweight (n = 579, 16 ≤ BMI <25), overweight (n = 178, 25 ≤ BMI <30) and obese (n = 40, BMI ≥30). The patients in the severely thin group were more likely to be female, have systolic blood pressure (SBP) <100 mmHg and have valvular disease than normal/underweight patients...
October 24, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770823/body-mass-index-and-extent-of-mri-detected-inflammation-opposite-effects-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-versus-other-arthritides-and-asymptomatic-persons
#20
Lukas Mangnus, Wouter P Nieuwenhuis, Hanna W van Steenbergen, Tom W J Huizinga, Monique Reijnierse, Annette H M van der Helm-van Mil
BACKGROUND: In the population a high body mass index (BMI) has been associated with slightly increased inflammatory markers. Within rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however, a high BMI has been associated with less radiographic progression; this phenomenon is unexplained. We hypothesized that the phenomenon is caused by an inverse relationship between BMI and inflammation in hand and foot joints with RA. To explore this hypothesis, local inflammation was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early arthritis patients presenting with RA or other arthritides and in asymptomatic volunteers...
October 22, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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