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Obesity paradox

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033626/the-presence-of-obesity-paradox-in-greek-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#1
Efstratios Vlaras, Konstantinos Giakoumidakis, Nikolaos V Fotos, Anastasia A Chatziefstratiou, Hero Brokalaki
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) values on 1- and 2-year mortality rates in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 112 patients with confirmed HF who visited the HF outpatient unit of a tertiary hospital of Athens, Greece, during a 5-month period (December 2012 - April 2013). These patients were assigned to four groups based on their BMI category. Data collection was carried out through a review of the medical patient records and the filling in of a structured questionnaire, including information on the demographic and clinical patient variables...
2017: Pragmatic and Observational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029870/an-obesity-paradox-with-myocardial-infarction-in-the-elderly
#2
EDITORIAL
Carl J Lavie, Salvatore Carbone, Manyoo A Agarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029077/association-of-obesity-diabetes-and-risk-of-tuberculosis-two-population-based-cohorts
#3
Hsien-Ho Lin, Chieh-Yin Wu, Chih-Hui Wang, Han Fu, Knut Lonnroth, Yi-Cheng Chang, Yen-Tsung Huang
Background: Mounting data has revealed that body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with risk of active tuberculosis. The inverse association presents a "paradox" with regard to diabetes, since obesity is a major determinant of diabetes, and diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis. Methods: We conducted two population-based cohort studies involving 167,392 participants. The main exposure was BMI and diabetes ascertained at baseline. Occurrence of incident tuberculosis was ascertained from the national Tuberculosis Registry...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026215/journals-should-no-longer-accept-obesity-paradox-articles
#4
A Peeters
International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 13 October 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.259.
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025560/obesity-and-atrial-fibrillation-prevalence-pathogenesis-and-prognosis-effects-of-weight-loss-and-exercise
#5
REVIEW
Carl J Lavie, Ambarish Pandey, Dennis H Lau, Martin A Alpert, Prashanthan Sanders
Both obesity and atrial fibrillation (AF) are increasing in epidemic proportions, and both increase the prevalence of cardiovascular disease events. Obesity has adverse effects on cardiovascular hemodynamics and cardiac structure and function, and increases the prevalence of AF, partly related to electroanatomic remodeling in obese patients. However, numerous studies, including in AF, have demonstrated an obesity paradox, where overweight and obese patients with these disorders have a better prognosis than do leaner patients with the same degree of severity of cardiovascular disease/AF...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993708/body-mass-index-is-associated-with-cortical-thinning-with-different-patterns-in-mid-and-late-life
#6
M E Shaw, P S Sachdev, W Abhayaratna, K J Anstey, N Cherbuin
OBJECTIVE: High BMI at midlife is associated with increased risk of dementia as well as faster decline in cognitive function. In late-life, however, high BMI has been found to be associated with both increased and decreased dementia risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of this age-related change in BMI risk. METHODS: We measured longitudinal cortical thinning over the whole brain, based on MRI scans for 910 individuals aged 44 to 66 years at baseline...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978544/intramuscular-triglyceride-synthesis-importance-in-partitioning-muscle-lipids-in-humans
#7
Bryan C Bergman, Leigh Perreault, Allison Strauss, Samantha D Bacon, Anna A Kerege, Kathleen Harrison, Joseph T Brozinick, Devon M Hunerdosse, Mary C Playdon, William Holmes, Hai Hoang Bui, Phil Sanders, Parker Siddall, Tao Wei, Melissa K Thomas, Ming Shang Kuo, Robert H Eckel
Intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) concentration is elevated in insulin resistant individuals, and was once thought to promote insulin resistance. However, endurance trained athletes have equivalent concentration of IMTG compared to individuals with type 2 diabetes, and have very low risk of diabetes, termed the "athlete's paradox". We now know that IMTG synthesis is positively related to insulin sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms for this are unclear. To understand the relationship between IMTG synthesis and insulin sensitivity, we measured IMTG synthesis in obese control subjects, endurance trained athletes, and individuals with type 2 diabetes during rest, exercise, and recovery...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976619/comparison-of-long-term-mortality-according-to-obesity-in-patients-with-successful-percutaneous-chronic-total-occlusion-interventions-using-drug-eluting-stents
#8
Ki-Bum Won, Hyuck-Jun Yoon, Sang-Gon Lee, Yun-Kyeong Cho, Chang-Wook Nam, Seung-Ho Hur, Seung-Whan Lee, Pil-Hyung Lee, Jung-Min Ahn, Duk-Woo Park, Soo-Jin Kang, Young-Hak Kim, Cheol-Whan Lee, Seong-Wook Park, Seung-Jung Park
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term mortality according to obesity in patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Despite the potential impact of coronary revascularization and lesion severity on the obesity paradox, the long-term survival according to obesity in CTO patients after successful PCI has been unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between January 2003 and September 2014, we examined 1,172 consecutive Korean patients with 1,190 CTO lesions who underwent successful drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in two tertiary academic medical centers...
May 8, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972081/unique-interactome-network-signatures-for-ppar-gamma-nbsp-modulation-by-functional-selective-ligands
#9
Vinh Lam, Jie Zheng, Patrick Robert Griffin
The nuclear receptor PPARg regulates adipogenesis and plays a central role in lipid and glucose homeostasis, and is the molecular target of the glitazones (TZDs), therapeutics used to treat insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes (T2D).  While the TZDs, which are PPARg agonists, demonstrated robust clinical efficacy in T2D, their use has been hampered by an array of untoward side effects.  Paradoxically, partial agonists (e.g., MRL24), antagonists (e.g., SR1664), and inverse agonists (e.g., SR10171 and SR2595), possess similar insulin-sensitizing efficacy as the TZDs in obese diabetic mice...
September 29, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966808/aging-metabolism-and-cancer-development-from-peto-s-paradox-to-the-warburg-effect
#10
REVIEW
Tia R Tidwell, Kjetil Søreide, Hanne R Hagland
Medical advances made over the last century have increased our lifespan, but age-related diseases are a fundamental health burden worldwide. Aging is therefore a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases, all increasing in prevalence. However, huge inter-individual variations in aging and disease risk exist, which cannot be explained by chronological age, but rather physiological age decline initiated even at young age due to lifestyle. At the heart of this lies the metabolic system and how this is regulated in each individual...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965561/obesity-and-cardiovasculardiseases
#11
Parham Parto, Carl J Lavie
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions both in the United States and worldwide. There are numerous adverse effects on cardiac structure, hemodynamics, and cellular abnormalities, as well as increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and depression. Despite these overwhelming findings, large amounts of evidence support the presence of an "obesity paradox," where obese patients with CVD have a better prognosis than do lean or normal weight in patients with CVD...
November 2017: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962502/the-obesity-paradox-does-exist-in-patients-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-for-aortic-stenosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Wenyu Lv, Shuangjiang Li, Yanbiao Liao, Zhengang Zhao, Guowei Che, Mao Chen, Yuan Feng
Most recent studies have proposed the paradoxical benefits of obesity in surgical populations. For patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for aortic stenosis, the prognostic roles of obesity and high body mass index remain controversial. Therefore, the objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether the 'obesity paradox' exists in patients undergoing TAVI. We searched in PubMed and EMBASE to identify the eligible articles. Odds ratios and hazard ratios with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adopted for synthesizing short-term and long-term survival outcomes, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955384/exploring-the-crosstalk-between-adipose-tissue-and-the-cardiovascular-system
#13
REVIEW
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Nadia Akawi, Charalambos Antoniades
Obesity is a clinical entity critically involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is characterised by variable expansion of adipose tissue (AT) mass across the body as well as by phenotypic alterations in AT. AT is able to secrete a diverse spectrum of biologically active substances called adipocytokines, which reach the cardiovascular system via both endocrine and paracrine routes, potentially regulating a variety of physiological and pathophysiological responses in the vasculature and heart...
September 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951154/controversies-and-evidence-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-diverse-hispanic-population
#14
REVIEW
Palma M Shaw, Venita Chandra, Guillermo A Escobar, Nicholas Robbins, Vincent Rowe, Robyn Macsata
OBJECTIVE: Hispanics account for approximately 17% of the U.S. POPULATION: They are one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups, second only to Asians. This heterogeneous population has diverse socioeconomic conditions, making the prevention, diagnosis, and management of vascular disease difficult. This paper discusses the cultural, racial, and social aspects of the Hispanic community in the United States and assesses how they affect vascular disease within this population...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942717/composite-neonatal-and-maternal-morbidities-with-small-versus-appropriate-for-gestational-age-among-uncomplicated-obese-women-undergoing-repeat-cesarean-delivery
#15
Ziad A Haidar, Oscar A Viteri, Susan Hosseini Nasab, Hind N Moussa, Baha M Sibai, Janice E Whitty
PURPOSE: Our goal was to compare composite neonatal and maternal morbidities (composite neonatal morbidity (CNM), composite maternal morbidity (CMM)) among deliveries with small for age (SGA) versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA; birthweight 10-89%) among obese versus non-obese women undergoing repeat cesarean delivery (CD). STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study. Women who had elective CD ≥37 weeks were studied...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933734/growth-hormone-s-effect-on-adipose-tissue-quality-versus-quantity
#16
REVIEW
Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List
Obesity is an excessive accumulation or expansion of adipose tissue (AT) due to an increase in either the size and/or number of its characteristic cell type, the adipocyte. As one of the most significant public health problems of our time, obesity and its associated metabolic complications have demanded that attention be given to finding effective therapeutic options aimed at reducing adiposity or the metabolic dysfunction associated with its accumulation. Growth hormone (GH) has therapeutic potential due to its potent lipolytic effect and resultant ability to reduce AT mass while preserving lean body mass...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#17
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915506/maternal-diethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-affects-adiposity-and-insulin-tolerance-in-offspring-in-a-pcna-dependent-manner
#18
Brian G Hunt, Yuan-Liang Wang, Min-Shan Chen, Shao-Chun Wang, Susan E Waltz
The ubiquitous plasticizer, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is a known endocrine disruptor. However, DEHP exposure effects are not well understood. Changes in industrial and agricultural practices have resulted in increased prevalence of DEHP exposure and has coincided with the heightened occurrence of metabolic syndrome and obesity. DEHP and its metabolites are detected in the umbilical cord blood of newborns; however, the prenatal and perinatal effects of DEHP exposure have not been intensively studied. Previously, we discovered that phosphorylation (p) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at tyrosine 114 (Y114) is required for adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity in mice...
November 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912752/disparities-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-risk-factors-in-blacks-and-whites-dissecting-racial-paradox-of-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Kwame Osei, Trudy Gaillard
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911148/age-related-anabolic-resistance-of-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-is-exacerbated-in-obese-inactive-individuals
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Benoit Smeuninx, James Mckendry, Daisy Wilson, Una Martin, Leigh Breen
Context: A diminished muscle anabolic response to protein nutrition may underpin age-associated muscle loss. Objective: To determine how chronological and biological aging influence myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS). Design: Cross-sectional comparison. Setting: Clinical research facility. Participants: Ten older lean [OL: 71.7 ± 6 years; body mass index (BMI) ≤25 kg ⋅ m-2], 7 older obese (OO: 69...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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