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Obesity paradox

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100880/significant-association-of-serum-adiponectin-and-creatine-kinase-mb-levels-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#1
Tomoaki Natsukawa, Norikazu Maeda, Shiro Fukuda, Masaya Yamaoka, Yuya Fujishima, Hirofumi Nagao, Fumi Sato, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Hirotaka Sawano, Yasuyuki Hayashi, Tohru Funahashi, Tatsuro Kai, Iichiro Shimomura
AIMS: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, abundantly exists in the blood stream while its concentration paradoxically decreases in obesity. Hypoadiponectinemia is one of risks of cardiovascular diseases. However, impact of serum adiponectin concentration on acute ischemic myocardial damages has not been fully clarified. The present study investigated the association of serum adiponectin and creatine kinase (CK)-MB levels in subjects with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100429/right-ventricular-function-measured-by-tapse-in-obese-subjects-at-the-time-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-2year-outcomes
#2
Yaser S Alhamshari, Talal Alnabelsi, Ramzi Mulki, Beatriz Cepeda-Valery, Vincent M Figueredo, Abel Romero-Corral
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with significantly better outcome after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a phenomenon known as 'obesity paradox'. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) is an echocardiographic measurement of right ventricular (RV) function and has prognostic implications at the time of AMI. METHODS: We examined the difference in RV function among patients admitted with AMI according to obesity status. In a single center cohort analysis of 105 patients admitted between 2010 and 2011 with the diagnosis of AMI...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100227/prenatal-and-postnatal-mothering-by-diesel-exhaust-pm2-5-exposed-dams-differentially-program-mouse-energy-metabolism
#3
Minjie Chen, Shuai Liang, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Xiaobo Qin, Ziying Hu, Xiaoke Wang, Lianglin Qiu, Wanjun Wang, Yuhao Zhang, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the leading threats to global public health. It is consequent to abnormal energy metabolism. Currently, it has been well established that maternal exposure to environmental stressors that cause inappropriate fetal development may have long-term adverse effects on offspring energy metabolism in an exposure timing-dependent manner, known as developmental programming of health and diseases paradigm. Rapidly increasing evidence has indicated that maternal exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2...
January 18, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094538/the-obesity-paradox-in-colorectal-cancer-surgery-an-analysis-of-korean-healthcare-big-data-2012-2013
#4
Sanghun Lee
Although it is well known that obesity increases the risk of colorectal cancer, several studies have recently suggested that those who are overweight or class-one obese have better outcomes after surgery. However, the impact of obesity on the success of colorectal cancer surgery remains controversial. The medical records of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer who were treated surgically from 2012 through 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Data from a total of 36,740 patients were provided by the Healthcare Big Data Hub of the Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092289/the-impact-of-obesity-on-heart-failure
#5
Alexander B Zhai, Haissam Haddad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity, a growing global health problem, contributes to the development of heart failure. However, increased BMI seems protective for those with established disease, a phenomenon known as the 'obesity paradox'. In this review, we outline the mechanism through which obesity can contribute to the development of heart failure, explore the concept of obesity paradox, and highlight the challenges that obesity presents for advanced heart failure therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the mechanism underlying the obesity paradox is complex, meta-analysis shows that intentional weight loss through bariatric surgery can indeed improve cardiac structure and function...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089155/prognostic-value-of-body-mass-index-in-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-a-j-shaped-curve
#6
Rocío González-Ferreiro, Antonio J Muñoz-García, Diego López-Otero, Pablo Avanzas, Isaac Pascual, Juan H Alonso-Briales, Ramiro Trillo-Nouche, Federico Pun, Manuel F Jiménez-Navarro, José M Hernández-García, César Morís, José R González Juanatey
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether body mass index (BMI) is a prognostic indicator for long-term, all-cause mortality in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). BACKGROUND: Obesity in patients with established cardiovascular disease has previously been identified as an indicator of good prognosis, a phenomenon known as the "obesity paradox". The prognostic significance of BMI in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AoS) undergoing TAVI is a matter of current debate, as published studies are scarce and their results conflicting...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077227/impact-of-nutritional-assessment-and-body-mass-index-on-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#7
Ayako Kunimura, Hideki Ishii, Tadayuki Uetani, Toshijirou Aoki, Kazuhiro Harada, Kenshi Hirayama, Yosuke Negishi, Yohei Shibata, Takuya Sumi, Kazuhiro Kawashima, Yosuke Tatami, Toshiki Kawamiya, Dai Yamamoto, Susumu Suzuki, Tetsuya Amano, Toyoaki Murohara
BACKGROUND: An inverse association between obesity, as defined by body mass index (BMI) and prognosis has been reported in patients with cardiovascular disease ("obesity paradox"). The aim of this study was to investigate whether adding nutritional information to BMI provides better risk assessment in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHOD: This study comprised 1004 patients undergoing elective PCI. We calculated each patient's controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score for nutritional screening at baseline...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076839/chemotherapy-can-induce-weight-normalization-of-morbidly-obese-mice-despite-undiminished-ingestion-of-high-fat-diet
#8
Cheryl E Myers, Dominique B Hoelzinger, Tiffany N Truong, Lindsey A Chew, Arpita Myles, Leena Chaudhuri, Jan B Egan, Jun Liu, Sandra J Gendler, Peter A Cohen
Morbidly obese patients who accomplish substantial weight loss often display a long-term decline in their resting metabolism, causing even relatively restrained caloric intake to trigger a relapse to the obese state. Paradoxically, we observed that morbidly obese mice receiving chemotherapy for cancer experienced spontaneous weight reduction despite unabated ingestion of their high fat diet (HFD). This response to chemotherapy could also be achieved in morbidly obese mice without cancer. Optimally dosed methotrexate (MTX) or cyclophosphamide (CY) enabled the mice to completely and safely normalize their body weight despite continued consumption of obesogenic quantities of HFD...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074616/is-hemodialysis-patient-survival-dependent-upon-small-solute-clearance-kt-v-if-so-how-can-kt-v-be-adjusted-to-prevent-under-dialysis-in-vulnerable-groups
#9
Andrew Davenport
Small solute clearance achieved during a single hemodialysis session has been traditionally evaluated by urea clearance, normalized for total body water (Kt/Vurea) for more than 30 years. By consensus, the target sessional KtVurea for thrice weekly treatments has been increased from 0.9 to 1.2 over the years. Although this is supported by observational studies, there is a fundamental lack of prospective studies to support this threshold target. In clinical practice achieving sessional Kt/Vurea targets are most closely followed in the US...
January 11, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069728/the-obesity-paradox-in-survival-after-cancer-diagnosis-tools-for-evaluation-of-potential-bias
#10
EDITORIAL
Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, M Maria Glymour
The effects of overweight or obesity on survival after cancer diagnosis are difficult to discern based on observational data because these associations reflect the net impact of both causal and spurious phenomena. We describe two sources of bias that might lead to underestimation of the effect of increased body weight on survival after cancer diagnosis: collider stratification bias and heterogeneity in disease bias. Given the mixed evidence on weight status, weight change, and postdiagnosis survival for cancer patients, systematic evaluation of alternative explanations is critical...
January 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069727/the-obesity-paradox-in-cancer-moving-beyond-bmi
#11
EDITORIAL
Shlomit Strulov Shachar, Grant R Williams
Body mass index (BMI) and simple counts of weight are easy and available tools in the clinic and in research. Recent studies have shown that cancer patients with a low normal BMI (or those with weight loss) have worse outcomes than obese patients. These results suggest that obesity has a protective effect and has been termed the "obesity paradox." In this commentary, we discuss hypothetical explanations and take a step beyond BMI or simple weights alone to present other useful and more specific body composition metrics, such as muscle tissue mass, visceral fat mass, and subcutaneous fat mass...
January 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069726/next-steps-in-understanding-the-obesity-paradox-in-cancer
#12
EDITORIAL
Bette J Caan, Candyce H Kroenke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046128/body-mass-index-related-mortality-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-heterogeneity-in-obesity-paradox-studies-a-dose-response-meta-analysis
#13
Yeongkeun Kwon, Hyun Jung Kim, Sungsoo Park, Yong-Gyu Park, Kyung-Hwan Cho
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to quantify the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We included studies assessing the impact of BMI on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were combined using a random-effects dose-response model. RESULTS: Sixteen cohort studies on all-cause mortality (n = 445,125) and two studies on cardiovascular mortality (n = 92,841) were evaluated in the meta-analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040677/systematic-review-of-prognostic-roles-of-body-mass-index-for-patients-undergoing-lung-cancer-surgery-does-the-obesity-paradox-really-exist
#14
REVIEW
Shuangjiang Li, Zhiqiang Wang, Jian Huang, Jun Fan, Heng Du, Lunxu Liu, Guowei Che
The paradoxical benefit of obesity, the 'obesity paradox', has been recently identified in surgical populations. Our goal was to evaluate by a systematic review with meta-analysis the prognostic role of body mass index (BMI) and to identify whether the 'obesity paradox' exists in lung cancer surgery. Comprehensive literature retrieval was conducted in PubMed to identify the eligible articles. The odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to synthesize in-hospital and long-term survival outcomes, respectively...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035653/non-classical-monocytes-levels-increased-by-subcutaneous-fat-secretome-are-associated-with-less-rehospitalization-after-heart-failure-admission
#15
Sonia Eiras, Alfonso Varela-Román, Mariléia Cháves Andrade, Ana Castro, Rocío González-Ferreiro, Juan E Viñuela, Ángel Fernández-Trasancos, Marcos C Carreira, Ezequiel Álvarez, Felipe F Casanueva, José R González-Juanatey
Differential monocyte subsets are increased in obesity and heart failure (HF). We studied their role as predictors of rehospitalization for HF and their regulation by adipose tissue. Monocyte subsets and body fat composition were determined from 136 patients at the discharge after HF admission. Regulation of monocytes by SAT secretomes from obese/non-obese patients with HF was studied in a cell culture method. Proteomic analysis of secretome SAT was performed by LC-MALDI TOF/TOF. High CD14(-)CD16(+) monocyte levels indicated less rehospitalization for HF (p = 0...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034901/body-mass-index-and-mortality-among-adults-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-a-nationwide-study-with-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Giovanni Mariscalco, Marcin J Woźniak, Alan G Dawson, Giuseppe F Serraino, Richard Porter, Mintu Nath, Catherine Klersy, Tracy Kumar, Gavin J Murphy
BACKGROUND: -In an apparent paradox morbidity and mortality are lower in obese patients undergoing cardiac surgery, although the nature of this association is unclear. We sought to determine whether the obesity paradox observed in cardiac surgery is attributable to reverse epidemiology, bias, or confounding. METHODS: -Data from the National Adult Cardiac Surgery registry for all cardiac surgical procedures performed between April 2002 and March 2013 were extracted...
December 28, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034378/obesity-and-survival-with-heart-failure-still-a-paradox
#17
EDITORIAL
Christopher R deFilippi, Stephen L Seliger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025059/microrna-206-prevents-hepatosteatosis-and-hyperglycemia-by-facilitating-insulin-signaling-and-impairing-lipogenesis
#18
Heng Wu, Tianpeng Zhang, Fei Pan, Clifford J Steer, Zhuoyu Li, Xin Chen, Guisheng Song
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The paradox of selective hepatic insulin resistance, wherein the insulin-resistant liver fails to suppress glucose production but continues to produce lipids, has been central to the pathophysiology of hepatosteatosis and hyperglycemia. Our study was designed to investigate the mechanism(s) by which microRNA-206 alleviates the pathogenesis of hepatosteatosis and hyperglycemia. METHODS: Dietary obese mice induced by a high fat diet were used to study the role of microRNA-206 in the pathogenesis of hepatosteatosis and hyperglycemia...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017350/myocardial-injury-obesity-and-the-obesity-paradox-the-aric-study
#19
Yashashwi Pokharel, Wensheng Sun, Salim S Virani, Vijay Nambi, Ron C Hoogeveen, Patricia P Chang, Chiadi E Ndumele, Scott D Solomon, Biykem Bozkurt, Elizabeth Selvin, Christie M Ballantyne, Anita Deswal
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether pre-heart failure (HF) myocardial injury explains the differential mortality after HF across weight categories. BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for HF, but pre-HF obesity is associated with lower mortality after incident HF. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is a sensitive marker of myocardial injury, and predicts incident HF and mortality. METHODS: Stratifying 1,279 individuals with incident HF hospitalizations by their pre-HF hs-cTnT levels (< and ≥ 14 ng/l), we examined the association of pre-HF body mass index (BMI) with mortality after incident HF hospitalization in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study...
November 30, 2016: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998881/cholesterol-paradox-a-correlate-does-not-a-surrogate-make
#20
Robert DuBroff
The global campaign to lower cholesterol by diet and drugs has failed to thwart the developing pandemic of coronary heart disease around the world. Some experts believe this failure is due to the explosive rise in obesity and diabetes, but it is equally plausible that the cholesterol hypothesis, which posits that lowering cholesterol prevents cardiovascular disease, is incorrect. The recently presented ACCELERATE trial dumbfounded many experts by failing to demonstrate any cardiovascular benefit of evacetrapib despite dramatically lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-risk patients with coronary disease...
December 20, 2016: Evidence-based Medicine
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