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Obesity paradox

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818282/the-obesity-paradox-in-patients-with-severe-soft-tissue-infections
#1
Arturo J Rios-Diaz, Elissa Lin, Katherine Williams, Wei Jiang, Vihas Patel, Naomi Shimizu, David Metcalfe, Olubode A Olufajo, Zara Cooper, Joaquim Havens, Ali Salim, Reza Askari
BACKGROUND: The "obesity paradox" has been demonstrated in chronic diseases but not in acute surgery. We sought to determine whether obesity is associated with improved outcomes in patients with severe soft tissue infections (SSTIs). METHODS: The 2006 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify adult patients with SSTIs. Patients were categorized into nonobese and obese (nonmorbid [body mass index 30 to 39.9] and morbid [body mass index ≥ 40]). Logistic regression provided risk-adjusted association between obesity categories and inhospital mortality...
September 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797586/obesity-as-defined-by-waist-circumference-but-not-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-higher-renal-mass-complexity
#2
Laura A Bertrand, Lewis J Thomas, Peng Li, Claire M Buchta, Shannon K Boi, Rachael M Orlandella, James A Brown, Kenneth G Nepple, Lyse A Norian
OBJECTIVES: Obesity, typically defined as a body mass index (BMI)≥30kg/m(2), is an established risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but is paradoxically linked to less advanced disease at diagnosis and improved outcomes. However, BMI has inherent flaws, and alternate obesity-defining metrics that emphasize abdominal fat are available. We investigated 3 obesity-defining metrics, to better examine the associations of abdominal fat vs. generalized obesity with renal tumor stage, grade, or R...
August 7, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757418/obesity-paradox-in-lung-cancer-prognosis-evolving-biological-insights-and-clinical-implications
#3
REVIEW
Xueli Zhang, Yamin Liu, Hua Shao, Xiao Zheng
The survival rate of lung cancer remains low despite the progress of surgery and chemotherapy. With the increasing comorbidity of obesity in lung cancer patients, new challenges emerge in the management of this patient population. A key issue of interest is the prognostic effect of obesity on surgical and chemotherapeutical outcomes in lung cancer patients, which is fueled by the growing observation of survival benefits in overweight or obese patients. This unexpected inverse relation between obesity and lung cancer mortality, called 'obesity paradox', remains poorly understood...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749482/-the-obesity-paradox-a-reconsideration-of-obesity-and-the-risk-of-preterm-birth
#4
A Tsur, J A Mayo, R J Wong, G M Shaw, D K Stevenson, J B Gould
OBJECTIVE: The association between obesity and spontaneous preterm births (sPTBs) has been shown to be influenced by obesity-attendant comorbidities. Our objective was to better understand the complex relationship of obesity and its attendant comorbidities with sPTBs. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis utilizing maternally linked hospital and birth certificate records of 2 049 196 singleton California deliveries from 2007 to 2011. Adjusted relative risks (aRRs) for sPTBs were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression modeling...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748957/management-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-patients-with-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena, Martin A Alpert, Richard V Milani, Hector O Ventura
The management of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with obesity presents numerous challenges. Obesity has a negative effect on almost all of the major CVD risk factors, and adversely influences cardiovascular structure and function. Patients who are overweight or obese have a higher incidence of almost all CVDs compared with patients who are of normal weight. However, those who are overweight or obese seem to have a better short-term and medium-term prognosis after major CVD events and interventional procedures or cardiac surgeries than leaner patients, a phenomenon termed the 'obesity paradox'...
July 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748811/the-obesity-paradox-what-does-it-mean-for-lung-cancer-surgery
#6
EDITORIAL
Emily Stone, Christopher G Slatore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743556/increased-sensitivity-of-thyroid-hormone-mediated-signaling-despite-prolonged-fasting
#7
Bridget Martinez, Michael Scheibner, José G Soñanez-Organis, John T Jaques, Daniel E Crocker, Rudy M Ortiz
Thyroid hormones (TH) can increase cellular metabolism. Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid gland responsiveness, in an effort to suppress cellular metabolism and abate starvation. However, in prolonged-fasted, elephant seal pups, cellular TH-mediated proteins are up-regulated and TH levels are maintained with fasting duration. The function and contribution of the thyroid gland to this apparent paradox is unknown and physiologically perplexing. Here we show that the thyroid gland remains responsive during prolonged food deprivation, and that its function and production of TH increase with fasting duration in elephant seals...
July 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733375/addressing-reverse-causation-bias-in-the-obesity-paradox-is-not-one-size-fits-all
#8
Deirdre K Tobias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731931/renal-function-and-its-association-with-blood-pressure-in-middle-eastern-immigrants-and-native-swedes
#9
Christopher Nilsson, Anders Christensson, Peter M Nilsson, Louise Bennet
BACKGROUND: Iraqi-born immigrants residing in Sweden are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia compared with native Swedes. Paradoxically, hypertension is less prevalent in this immigrant population. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in renal function and further if differences in blood pressure (BP) levels were associated with differences across ethnicities in renal function as a possible explanation to the paradox. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study of men and women, born in Iraq or Sweden, aged 30-75 years was conducted in Malmö, Sweden, from 2010 to 2012...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724007/-mal-nutrition-and-the-new-epidemiological-trend-in-a-context-of-development-and-inequalities
#10
Nathália Paula de Souza, Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira, Annick Fontbonne, Fernanda Cristina de Lima Pinto, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse
The current context of intense social, economic and political transformations has contributed to changes in the health profile of the population and generated discussions about the impact of these changes on the reorganization of society. At the present moment, the increase in non-communicable illnesses and diseases raises major concerns about the paradox of malnutrition and obesity. Based on an in-depth reading and interpretation of texts, documents and databases, this article discusses issues related to nutrition, considering the dimensions of shortages and excesses, the evolution of nutrition over time, and the connection with the new epidemiological trend...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723568/loss-of-hepatic-mitochondrial-long-chain-fatty-acid-oxidation-confers-resistance-to-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance
#11
Jieun Lee, Joseph Choi, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Liang Zhao, Thomas Hartung, Susanna Scafidi, Ryan C Riddle, Michael J Wolfgang
The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2(L-/-) mice). Paradoxically, Cpt2(L-/-) mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721709/-paradoxal-decrease-and-metabolic-effects-of-bnp-in-obese-patient
#12
Rémy C Martin-Du-Pan, Alain Golay
Natriuretic peptides (NP), ANP and BNP, are produced by cardiomyocytes when there is stretching of the ventricular and auricular walls in heart failure (HF). Their vasodilatator and natriuretic effect oppose to volume and pressure overload occurring in HF. Several studies have observed decreased levels of NP in obese and diabetic people and in patients with insulin resistance. This decrease could contribute to hypertension, frequently observed in obesity. NP have also a lipolytic action. Low levels of NP could promote obesity...
March 22, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718431/racial-differences-in-cancer-susceptibility-and-survival-more-than-the-color-of-the-skin
#13
REVIEW
Berna C Özdemir, Gian-Paolo Dotto
Epidemiological studies point to race as a determining factor in cancer susceptibility. In US registries recording cancer incidence and survival by race (distinguishing 'black versus white'), individuals of African ancestry have a globally increased risk of malignancies compared with Caucasians and Asian Americans. Differences in socioeconomic status and health-care access play a key role. However, the lesser disease susceptibility of Hispanic populations with comparable lifestyles and socioeconomic status as African Americans (Hispanic paradox) points to the concomitant importance of genetic determinants...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708690/obesity-survival-paradox-in-the-critically-ill
#14
Dominique J Pepper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707161/a-weight-independent-association-between-atypical-antipsychotic-medications-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#15
Habibolah Khazaie, Amir Sharafkhaneh, Sepideh Khazaie, Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami
BACKGROUND: With increasing use of atypical antipsychotic (AAP) agents, the concern has been raised about the association between AAP agents and medical complications. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common breathing disorder that adversely affects health and quality of life. Because the major risk factors for OSA are weight gain and obesity by altering the upper airway anatomy, an association between AAP and development of OSA is predictable. However, we hypothesized that AAP may promote OSA not only by weight gain but also because of its potential effects on upper airway muscle function...
July 13, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691147/gastric-bypass-simultaneously-improves-adipose-tissue-function-and-insulin-dependent-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Adrian T Billeter, Spiros Vittas, Barbara Israel, Katharina M Scheurlen, Asa Hidmark, Thomas H Fleming, Stefan Kopf, Markus W Büchler, Beat P Müller-Stich
OBJECTIVE: The underlying causes of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue dysfunction with high leptin, inflammation, and increased oxidative stress may play a pivotal role in T2DM development in obese patients. Little is known about the changes in the adipose tissue after Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in non-severely obese patients (BMI < 35 kg/m(2)) and since these patients have more T2DM-associated complications than obese patients ("obesity paradox"), we investigated changes in adipose tissue function in a cohort of BMI <35 kg/m(2) with insulin-dependent T2DM after RYGB surgery which resolves T2DM...
July 9, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683934/obesity-paradox-in-contemporary%C3%A2-cardiology-practice
#17
EDITORIAL
Debabrata Mukherjee, Chandra Ojha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683933/the-relationship-of-body-mass-index-to-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-outcomes-does-the-obesity-paradox-exist-in-contemporary-percutaneous%C3%A2-coronary-intervention-cohorts-insights-from-the%C3%A2-british-cardiovascular-intervention-society-registry
#18
Eric W Holroyd, Alex Sirker, Chun Shing Kwok, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Peter F Ludman, Mark A De Belder, Robert Butler, James Cotton, Azfar Zaman, Mamas A Mamas
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine the relevance of different clinical presentations requiring PCI to this relationship. BACKGROUND: Obesity is a growing problem, and studies have reported a protective effect from obesity compared with normal BMI for adverse outcomes after PCI. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2013, 345,192 participants were included...
July 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679496/obesity-paradox-and-stroke-and-other-stories
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668555/the-obesity-paradox-an-analysis-of-pre-procedure-weight-trajectory-on-survival-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#20
Rodney De Palma, John Ivarsson, Kari Feldt, Nawzad Saleh, Andreas Ruck, Rikard Linder, Magnus Settergren
INTRODUCTION: Increased mortality has been observed in those with cardiovascular diseases who are of normal body mass index (BMI) compared to the overweight and the obese. A similar association has been demonstrated in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve (TAVI) implantation. However, it still remains unclear whether low or normal BMI itself is unfavourable or whether this is merely a reflection of cardiac cachexia due to severe aortic stenosis. The hypothesis for the study was that weight change prior to TAVI may be associated with increased mortality following the procedure...
June 28, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
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