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Obesity paradox

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228212/impact-of-body-mass-index-on-outcomes-following-mitral-surgery-does-an-obesity-paradox-exist
#1
Filippo Rapetto, Vito D Bruno, Matthew King, Umberto Benedetto, Massimo Caputo, Gianni D Angelini, Raimondo Ascione, Franco Ciulli, Hunaid A Vohra
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between body mass index and mitral valve (MV) surgery and to determine whether an 'obesity paradox' exists in the context of surgery for degenerative MV disease. METHODS: In this retrospective single-centre study, we analysed data from 715 patients who underwent mitral surgery for degenerative disease from 2000 to 2015. Patients were classified according to body mass index: underweight (<20 kg/m 2 ), normal weight (20-24...
December 8, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225439/exploring-the-obesity-paradox-as-a-correlate-of-cognitive-and-physical-function-in-community-dwelling-black-and-white-older-adults
#2
Jeannine S Skinner, Willie Mae Abel, Katryna McCoy, Consuelo H Wilkins
Objective: The obesity paradox has been documented in aged populations, yet it remains unclear if this paradox persists for physical and cognitive outcomes in community-dwelling older adult populations. Our study examines associations between body mass index (BMI) classification, cognitive function, and physical function. We also investigate whether these associations are modified by race or age. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Senior residential sites and community centers in Saint Louis, Missouri...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219759/does-the-obesity-paradox-predict-functional-outcome-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#3
Neha S Dangayach, Harpreet Singh Grewal, Gian Marco De Marchis, Roberta K Sefcik, Rachel Bruce, Aarti Chhatlani, E Sander Connolly, M Cristina Falo, Sachin Agarwal, Jan Claassen, J Michael Schmidt, Stephan A Mayer
OBJECTIVE Being overweight or mildly obese has been associated with a decreased risk of death or hospitalization in patients with cardiovascular disease. Similarly, overweight patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) have improved survival up to 1 year after admission. These counterintuitive observations are examples of the "obesity paradox." Does the obesity paradox exist in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)? In this study the authors examined whether there was an association between obesity and functional outcome in patients with ICH...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216243/the-obesity-paradox-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-a-population-based-study
#4
Virginia W Chang, Kenneth M Langa, David Weir, Theodore J Iwashyna
BACKGROUND: Prior work suggests that obesity may confer a survival advantage among persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD). This obesity "paradox" is frequently studied in the context of prevalent disease, a stage in the disease process when confounding from illness-related weight loss and selective survival are especially problematic. Our objective was to examine the association of obesity with mortality among persons with incident CVD, where biases are potentially reduced, and to compare these findings with those based on prevalent disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214777/is-there-a-sex-related-difference-in-the-obesity-paradox-in-systolic-heart-failure-sex-related-difference-in-the-obesity-paradox
#5
Soonchang Hong, Ji Hyun Lee, Kyung Min Kim, Jun Won Lee, Young Jin Youn, Min Soo Ahn, Sung Gyun Ahn, Seung Hwan Lee, Junghan Yoon, Kyung Hoon Choe, Byung Su Yoo
PURPOSE: Obesity is often associated with better clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF). This so-called obesity paradox remains controversial. The aim of present study was to investigate the prognostic value of obesity in patients hospitalized for systolic HF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of data from two multicenter, observational HF studies. Patients hospitalized for systolic HF were eligible for the present study. We divided the subjects into two groups, a normal body mass index (BMI) group and a high BMI group...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206987/neighborhood-physical-environment-and-changes-in-body-mass-index-results-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#6
Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez, Kari A B Moore, Amy H Auchincloss, Mahasin S Mujahid, Carmella August, Brisa N Sanchez, Ana V Diez Roux
Longitudinal associations between neighborhood characteristics and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) were assessed from 2000 to 2011 among 5,919 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The perceived availability of healthy food and walking environment were assessed via surveys, and 1-mile (1.6-km) densities of supermarkets, fruit-and-vegetable stores, and recreational facilities were obtained through a commercial database. Econometric fixed-effects models were used to estimate the association between within-person changes in neighborhood characteristics and within-person change in BMI...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203860/adipose-tissue-mitochondrial-capacity-associates-with-long-term-weight-loss-success
#7
R Jokinen, R Rinnankoski-Tuikka, S Kaye, L Saarinen, S Heinonen, M Myöhänen, E Rappou, S Jukarainen, A Rissanen, A Pessia, V Velagapudi, K A Virtanen, E Pirinen, K H Pietiläinen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether (1) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) mitochondrial capacity predicts weight loss success and (2) weight loss ameliorates obesity-related SAT mitochondrial abnormalities. METHODS: SAT biopsies were obtained from 19 clinically healthy obese subjects (BMI 34.6±2.7 kg/m2) during a weight-loss intervention (0, 5, and 12 months) and from 19 lean reference subjects (BMI 22.7±1.1 kg/m2) at baseline. Based on one-year weight loss outcome, the subjects were divided into two groups: continuous weight losers (WL, n=6) and weight regainers (WR, n=13)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201891/morbidity-mortality-and-obesity-paradox
#8
Michael Spartalis, Eleni Tzatzaki, Demetrios Moris, Antonios Athanasiou, Eleftherios Spartalis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200883/obesity-and-brain-illness-from-cognitive-and-psychological-evidences-to-obesity-paradox
#9
REVIEW
Vincenzo Monda, Marco La Marra, Raffaella Perrella, Giorgio Caviglia, Alessandro Iavarone, Sergio Chieffi, Giovanni Messina, Marco Carotenuto, Marcellino Monda, Antonietta Messina
Recent findings showed that obesity represents an additional risk factor to developing brain illness such as cognitive impairments and psychopathological disorders. However, some benefits of overweight in the elderly have been identified and an "obesity paradox" has been shown. Currently, it is still unknown how obesity and brain functioning could be linked, and the process by which body fat independently injures cognitive abilities and psychological well-being remains unclear. To establish the independent role of obesity on cognitive abilities and mental health, clarifying the role played by several factors and understanding their interaction is essential...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200863/endothelial-dysfunction-assessment-by-flow-mediated-dilation-in-a-high-altitude-population
#10
Walter S Calderón-Gerstein, Antonio López-Peña, Raúl Macha-Ramírez, Astrid Bruno-Huamán, Roxana Espejo-Ramos, Stephany Vílchez-Bravo, María Ramírez-Breña, Milagros Damián-Mucha, Adriana Matos-Mucha
Introduction: Endothelial function at high altitude has been measured only in populations that are genetically adapted to chronic hypoxia. The objective of this study was to evaluate endothelial dysfunction (ED) in a nongenetically adapted high-altitude population of the Andes mountains, in Huancayo, Peru (3,250 meters above sea level). Methods: Participants included 61 patients: 28 cases and 33 controls. The cases were subjects with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, or a history of stroke or coronary artery disease...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195108/novel-combined-index-of-cardiometabolic-risk-related-to-periarterial-fat-improves-the-clinical-prediction-for-coronary-artery-disease-complexity
#11
Maciej Haberka, Michał Lelek, Tomasz Bochenek, Adam Kowalówka, Rafał Młynarski, Katarzyna Mizia-Stec, Zbigniew Gąsior
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment based on conventional risk factors has a limited performance in the prediction of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, our aim was to provide a complete assessment on the associations between single or combined cardiovascular ultrasound indexes and the complexity of CAD in high and very-high risk patients. METHODS: Two hundred fifteen patients scheduled for elective coronary angiography were enrolled in the study (F/M: 80/135 pts; age: 61...
September 15, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193837/weight-change-in-the-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-period-and-risk-for-subsequent-mortality-among-women-with-ra-and-matched-comparators
#12
Jeffrey A Sparks, Shun-Chiao Chang, Uyen-Sa Nguyen, Medha Barbhaiya, Sara K Tedeschi, Bing Lu, David J Kreps, Karen H Costenbader, Yuqing Zhang, Hyon K Choi, Elizabeth W Karlson
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether weight change during the early RA period was associated with subsequent mortality and evaluated for an RA-specific effect. METHODS: We identified incident RA during the Nurses' Health Study (1976-2016) and created a comparison cohort, matching each RA case with up to 10 non-RA comparators by age and year of RA diagnosis (index date). To capture weight change around the early RA period ("peri-RA/index"), we used weight measures 2-4 years before and after index date...
November 30, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188871/impact-of-age-on-the-association-between-body-mass-index-and-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#13
S Wu, Y M Yang, J Zhu, H B Wan, J Wang, H Zhang, X H Shao
OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of age on the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: A total of 1991 patients with AF (69 ± 13 years, 54.9% female) were divided into three age groups: < 65 years, 65-75 years, and > 75 years, and followed for one year. The primary outcome was defined as all-cause mortality, with secondary outcomes including thromboembolism and major bleeding. Cox regression models were utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174236/paradoxical-distraction-with-upright-position-after-halo-fixation-in-two-patients-with-atlanto-occipital-dislocation
#14
William Clifton, Austin Feindt, David Skarupa, Laura Mclauchlin, Daryoush Tavanaiepour, Gazanfar Rahmathulla
Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is the most uncommon form of traumatic cervical spine injury.1 The majority of patients die before reaching higher-level care, and only a small percentage of patients with AOD survive the initial injury after receiving tertiary care.2 As such, there is a paucity of evidence-based management guidelines for treating this condition. Halo vest fixation has been a proposed method for interim stability while these patients undergo medical optimization for surgical intervention...
November 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158358/obesity-paradox-in-hypertension-is-this-because-sympathetic-activation-in-obesity-hypertension-takes-a-benign-form
#15
REVIEW
Murray Esler, Gavin Lambert, Markus Schlaich, John Dixon, Carolina Ika Sari, Elisabeth Lambert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144594/on-the-origin-of-obesity-identifying-the-biological-environmental-and-cultural-drivers-of-genetic-risk-among-human-populations
#16
REVIEW
A Qasim, M Turcotte, R J de Souza, M C Samaan, D Champredon, J Dushoff, J R Speakman, D Meyre
Genetic predisposition to obesity presents a paradox: how do genetic variants with a detrimental impact on human health persist through evolutionary time? Numerous hypotheses, such as the thrifty genotype hypothesis, attempt to explain this phenomenon yet fail to provide a justification for the modern obesity epidemic. In this critical review, we appraise existing theories explaining the evolutionary origins of obesity and explore novel biological and sociocultural agents of evolutionary change to help explain the modern-day distribution of obesity-predisposing variants...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140418/perioperative-management-of-the-obese-surgical-patient
#17
L H Lang, K Parekh, B Y K Tsui, M Maze
Introduction: The escalation in the prevalence of obesity throughout the world has led to an upsurge in the number of obese surgical patients to whom perioperative care needs to be delivered. Sources of data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Areas of agreement: There were no controversies regarding preoperative management and the intraoperative care of the obese surgical patient...
November 13, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135700/safety-outcomes-following-spine-and-cranial-neurosurgery-evidence-from-the-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program
#18
Andrew K Rock, Charles F Opalak, Kathryn G Workman, William C Broaddus
BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) was used to establish predictors for 30-day postoperative complications following spine and cranial neurosurgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ACS-NSQIP participant use files were queried for neurosurgical cases between 2005 and 2015. Prevalence of postoperative complications following neurosurgery was determined. Nested multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify demographic, comorbidity, and perioperative characteristics associated with any complication and mortality for spine and cranial surgery...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127578/comparative-outcomes-of-bariatric-surgery-in-patients-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#19
Gautam Sharma, Andrew T Strong, Mena Boules, Chao Tu, Samuel Szomstein, Raul Rosenthal, John Rodriguez, Alan J Taege, Matthew Kroh
BACKGROUND: Paradoxically, advances in anti-retroviral therapy that has increased survival for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have resulted in greater numbers of HIV+ patients developing other chronic diseases, including obesity. Little comparative literature exists detailing perioperative or metabolic outcomes of bariatric surgery in the HIV+ population compared to HIV negative (HIV-) controls. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study with both HIV+ (case) and HIV- control patients...
November 10, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122277/influence-of-body-mass-index-on-long-term-survival-after-cardiac-catheterization
#20
Barak Zafrir, Ronen Jaffe, Ronen Rubinshtein, Basheer Karkabi, Moshe Y Flugelman, David A Halon
We examined 18,654 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization in a single center to clarify the association between catheterization indication, body mass index (BMI), and long-term survival over a mean follow-up of 81 months. Patients were grouped by indication for catheterization: (a) acute coronary syndromes (ACS), 7,426 patients; (b) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation in stable clinical presentation, 6,911 patients; and (c) primarily non-CAD cardiac evaluations, 4,317 patients. Compared with normal weight, overweight and obesity (but not morbid obesity) was associated with lower risk of long-term mortality...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
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