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Obesity paradox

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724007/-mal-nutrition-and-the-new-epidemiological-trend-in-a-context-of-development-and-inequalities
#1
Nathália Paula de Souza, Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira, Annick Fontbonne, Fernanda Cristina de Lima Pinto, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse
The current context of intense social, economic and political transformations has contributed to changes in the health profile of the population and generated discussions about the impact of these changes on the reorganization of society. At the present moment, the increase in non-communicable illnesses and diseases raises major concerns about the paradox of malnutrition and obesity. Based on an in-depth reading and interpretation of texts, documents and databases, this article discusses issues related to nutrition, considering the dimensions of shortages and excesses, the evolution of nutrition over time, and the connection with the new epidemiological trend...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723568/loss-of-hepatic-mitochondrial-long-chain-fatty-acid-oxidation-confers-resistance-to-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance
#2
Jieun Lee, Joseph Choi, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Liang Zhao, Thomas Hartung, Susanna Scafidi, Ryan C Riddle, Michael J Wolfgang
The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2(L-/-) mice). Paradoxically, Cpt2(L-/-) mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721709/-paradoxal-decrease-and-metabolic-effects-of-bnp-in-obese-patient
#3
Rémy C Martin-Du-Pan, Alain Golay
Natriuretic peptides (NP), ANP and BNP, are produced by cardiomyocytes when there is stretching of the ventricular and auricular walls in heart failure (HF). Their vasodilatator and natriuretic effect oppose to volume and pressure overload occurring in HF. Several studies have observed decreased levels of NP in obese and diabetic people and in patients with insulin resistance. This decrease could contribute to hypertension, frequently observed in obesity. NP have also a lipolytic action. Low levels of NP could promote obesity...
March 22, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718431/racial-differences-in-cancer-susceptibility-and-survival-more-than-the-color-of-the-skin
#4
REVIEW
Berna C Özdemir, Gian-Paolo Dotto
Epidemiological studies point to race as a determining factor in cancer susceptibility. In US registries recording cancer incidence and survival by race (distinguishing 'black versus white'), individuals of African ancestry have a globally increased risk of malignancies compared with Caucasians and Asian Americans. Differences in socioeconomic status and health-care access play a key role. However, the lesser disease susceptibility of Hispanic populations with comparable lifestyles and socioeconomic status as African Americans (Hispanic paradox) points to the concomitant importance of genetic determinants...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708690/obesity-survival-paradox-in-the-critically-ill
#5
Dominique J Pepper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707161/a-weight-independent-association-between-atypical-antipsychotic-medications-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#6
Habibolah Khazaie, Amir Sharafkhaneh, Sepideh Khazaie, Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami
BACKGROUND: With increasing use of atypical antipsychotic (AAP) agents, the concern has been raised about the association between AAP agents and medical complications. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common breathing disorder that adversely affects health and quality of life. Because the major risk factors for OSA are weight gain and obesity by altering the upper airway anatomy, an association between AAP and development of OSA is predictable. However, we hypothesized that AAP may promote OSA not only by weight gain but also because of its potential effects on upper airway muscle function...
July 13, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691147/gastric-bypass-simultaneously-improves-adipose-tissue-function-and-insulin-dependent-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Adrian T Billeter, Spiros Vittas, Barbara Israel, Katharina M Scheurlen, Asa Hidmark, Thomas H Fleming, Stefan Kopf, Markus W Büchler, Beat P Müller-Stich
OBJECTIVE: The underlying causes of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue dysfunction with high leptin, inflammation, and increased oxidative stress may play a pivotal role in T2DM development in obese patients. Little is known about the changes in the adipose tissue after Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in non-severely obese patients (BMI < 35 kg/m(2)) and since these patients have more T2DM-associated complications than obese patients ("obesity paradox"), we investigated changes in adipose tissue function in a cohort of BMI <35 kg/m(2) with insulin-dependent T2DM after RYGB surgery which resolves T2DM...
July 9, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683934/obesity-paradox-in-contemporary%C3%A2-cardiology-practice
#8
EDITORIAL
Debabrata Mukherjee, Chandra Ojha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683933/the-relationship-of-body-mass-index-to-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-outcomes-does-the-obesity-paradox-exist-in-contemporary-percutaneous%C3%A2-coronary-intervention-cohorts-insights-from-the%C3%A2-british-cardiovascular-intervention-society-registry
#9
Eric W Holroyd, Alex Sirker, Chun Shing Kwok, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Peter F Ludman, Mark A De Belder, Robert Butler, James Cotton, Azfar Zaman, Mamas A Mamas
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine the relevance of different clinical presentations requiring PCI to this relationship. BACKGROUND: Obesity is a growing problem, and studies have reported a protective effect from obesity compared with normal BMI for adverse outcomes after PCI. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2013, 345,192 participants were included...
July 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679496/obesity-paradox-and-stroke-and-other-stories
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668555/the-obesity-paradox-an-analysis-of-pre-procedure-weight-trajectory-on-survival-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#11
Rodney De Palma, John Ivarsson, Kari Feldt, Nawzad Saleh, Andreas Ruck, Rikard Linder, Magnus Settergren
INTRODUCTION: Increased mortality has been observed in those with cardiovascular diseases who are of normal body mass index (BMI) compared to the overweight and the obese. A similar association has been demonstrated in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve (TAVI) implantation. However, it still remains unclear whether low or normal BMI itself is unfavourable or whether this is merely a reflection of cardiac cachexia due to severe aortic stenosis. The hypothesis for the study was that weight change prior to TAVI may be associated with increased mortality following the procedure...
June 28, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663372/muscle-hypertrophy-in-pre-diabetic-men-after-sixteen-weeks-of-resistance-training
#12
Charles A Stuart, Michelle L Lee, Mark A South, Mary E A Howell, Michael H Stone
Resistance training of healthy young men typically results in muscle hypertrophy and a shift in vastus lateralis composition away from type IIx fibers to an increase in IIa fiber content. Our previous studies of eight weeks of resistance training found many metabolic syndrome men and women paradoxically increased IIx fibers with a decrease in IIa fibers. To confirm the hypothesis that obese subjects might have muscle remodeling after resistance training very different from healthy lean subjects, we subjected a group of nine obese men volunteers to progressive resistance training for a total of sixteen weeks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660008/paradoxical-effect-of-nonalcoholic-red-wine-polyphenol-extract-provinols%C3%A2-in-the-regulation-of-cyclooxygenases-in-vessels-from-zucker-fatty-rats-fa-fa
#13
Abdelali Agouni, Hadj Ahmed Mostefai, Anne-Hélène Lagrue, Martina Sladkova, Philippe Rouet, Franck Desmoulin, Olga Pechanova, Maria Carmen Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
The aim of this work was to study the vascular effects of dietary supplementation of a nonalcoholic red wine polyphenol extract, Provinols, in Zucker fatty (ZF) obese rats. ZF or lean rats received diet supplemented or not with Provinols for 8 weeks. Vasoconstriction in response to phenylephrine (Phe) was then assessed in small mesenteric arteries (SMA) and the aorta with emphasis on the contribution of cyclooxygenases (COX). Although no difference in vasoconstriction was observed between ZF and lean rats both in SMA and the aorta, Provinols affected the contribution of COX-derived vasoconstrictor agents...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657464/body-mass-index-and-mortality-after-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Pablo M Lamelas, Khan Maheer, Jon-David Schwalm
OBJECTIVE: The association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality after acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is controversial. The objective of this analysis is to summarize the available evidence of this association and perform meta-analysis using adjusted estimates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systematic review from MEDLINE and EMBASE through May 2015 was performed. Studies were considered eligible if they described the association between BMI and all-cause mortality after ACS, and those reporting adjusted estimates were included in the meta-analysis...
June 28, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657427/expression-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-women-with-severe-obesity
#15
James L Hopkins, Paul N Hopkins, Eliot A Brinton, Ted D Adams, Lance E Davidson, M Nazeem Nanjee, Steven C Hunt
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) generally rises with increasing adiposity, but tends to plateau at the highest levels of body mass index (BMI) with some individuals, even with severe obesity, expressing few or no components of MetS. We examined factors associated with the expression of MetS in severely obese women participating in a large observational study. METHODS: Anthropometrics, including Heath equation-adjusted bioimpedance-determined fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), lipids and related laboratory measurements, resting energy expenditure (REE), and respiratory quotient (RQ), were studied in 949 women with severe obesity...
June 28, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651594/the-cd4-t-cell-regulatory-network-mediates-inflammatory-responses-during-acute-hyperinsulinemia-a-simulation-study
#16
Mariana E Martinez-Sanchez, Marcia Hiriart, Elena R Alvarez-Buylla
BACKGROUND: Obesity is frequently linked to insulin resistance, high insulin levels, chronic inflammation, and alterations in the behaviour of CD4+ T cells. Despite the biomedical importance of this condition, the system-level mechanisms that alter CD4+ T cell differentiation and plasticity are not well understood. RESULTS: We model how hyperinsulinemia alters the dynamics of the CD4+ T regulatory network, and this, in turn, modulates cell differentiation and plasticity...
June 26, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649143/sugar-price-supports-and-taxation-a-public-health-policy-paradox
#17
Abby Dilk, Dennis A Savaiano
Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity...
May 2017: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610685/the-overweight-paradox-in-the-prognosis-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-for-patients-with-heart-failure-a-truth-for-all-a-10-year-follow-up-study
#18
Matina Kouvari, Christina Chrysohoou, Eleptherios Tsiamis, Hara Kosyfa, Lemonia Kalogirou, Androniki Filippou, Stelios Iosifidis, Panagiotis Aggelopoulos, Christos Pitsavos, Dimitris Tousoulis
OBJECTIVES: In established acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with major complications (i.e. heart failure), overweight/obese patients usually have a survival advantage. To what extent this is irrespective of other characteristics remains inconclusive. The role of body mass index (BMI) in ACS prognosis (fatal/recurrent non-fatal cardiac episodes) and background potential interactions were evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: In 2006-2009, 1000 consecutive patients, hospitalized at First Cardiology Clinic of Athens with a diagnosis of ACS were enrolled in the study...
August 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601194/relation-between-obesity-and-survival-in-patients-hospitalized-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-from-a-nationwide-inpatient-sample-database-2003-to-2011
#19
Manyoo Agarwal, Sahil Agrawal, Lohit Garg, Carl J Lavie
There have been numerous studies reporting lower mortality rates in obese patients with various cardiovascular disorders than in nonobese patients, a phenomenon known as the "obesity paradox." Limited data exist regarding the effect of obesity on prognosis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We used the National Inpatient Sample database for years 2003 to 2011 to identify all patient hospitalizations aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of PAH. Patients with a diagnosis of obesity were identified using Elixhauser co-morbidity measure provided in Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes and the diagnosis-related groups...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595816/impact-of-body-mass-index-on-the-short-term-outcomes-of-resected-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#20
Zachary E Stiles, Tyler M Rist, Paxton V Dickson, Evan S Glazer, Martin D Fleming, David Shibata, Jeremiah L Deneve
BACKGROUND: Potentially curative treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) involves resection with selective utilization of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A potential association between obesity and GIST has been postulated as GIST is among the most common incidental findings during gastric resection for bariatric procedures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship and impact of obesity on the pathologic and short-term outcomes in patients with GIST. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with resected GIST...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
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